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Tuberosis presentation1

Jul 16, 2015



Slide 1

K.G.MALLIKARJAN, VICE PRINCIPAL, JNV, ANANTHAPUR(A.P.)Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. TB can affect the lungs and other parts of the body. In some people, it can lead to serious complications and even death, especially if the body is weakened by other health problems.The disease is rare in the UK due to a large-scale vaccination programme. People who get it are usually cured, provided they get treatment. However, it is still a common cause of death in other parts of the world.

MYCOBACTERIUMTuberculosis worldwideThe World Health Organisation estimates that a third of the world's population (1.5 billion people) is infected with TB. Of these cases, 95% are in low and middle-income countries - particularly in Africa and Asia. TB kills three million people every year, most of these deaths are in poorer countries.In the UK, just over 6,000 cases of TB are reported each year, and this number is rising slowly. Every year, in the UK, about 500 people die from the disease.

How is tuberculosis caught?TB is caught by breathing in droplets containing the bacteria, for example, when an infected person coughs or sneezes. Anyone can get TB, but it's more likely if you already have another disease, don't eat well, or live in overcrowded or sub-standard housing.People have a greater risk of catching TB if they:already have a weakened immune system (eg people with HIV) have an alcohol or drug misuse problem have diabetes or some other long-term condition are taking medicines that suppress the immune system travel to places where TB is common live within a large immigrant population from a country where TB is common regularly come into contact with people who have TB lung infection (eg healthcare workers)

What happens when you get TB?In many people who become infected with TB, the immune system (the body's defence mechanism) not successfully fights off the infection. When this happens, the bacteria become encapsulated in tiny tubercles (round lesions) usually in the lungs which may be seen on a chest X-ray. The bacteria are still in the body, but there are no symptoms and it cannot be passed on. This is called latent or primary tuberculosis. Depending on how quickly the immune system fights the infection, there may be:no symptoms at all minor symptoms for a few weeks, which then go some symptoms a few days or months later People whose immune systems have fought the infection will then be immune to TB.

SymptomsSymptoms of active primary TB include:a persistent cough - there may also be lots of phlegm, sometimes bloodstained ,swollen glands, especially in the neck ,tiredness, loss of appetite ,weight loss ,sweating at night ,chest pain on breathing in, caused by inflammation of the membranes lining the lungs (pleurisy) The initial TB infection normally affects the lungs. This is called pulmonary TB. Active pulmonary TB is contagious because droplets exhaled during sneezing or coughing contain bacteria.TB often spreads to lymph nodes. It can also affect bones, joints and kidneys, and cause a type of meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord).

KIDNEY LYMPH NODESBLOODSTAINEDTests for TBThe most common test for TB is the tuberculin test. The test detects latent TB and is also used with vaccination programmes.There are two ways to do the test.The most common one is called the Heaf test. A small device with six small needles is pressed onto the skin of the forearm. The needles carry tiny amounts of tuberculin protein, which is derived from the bacteria. One week later, a doctor or nurse will examine the skin at the site of the test to see if there has been a reaction.

An alternative, the Mantoux test involves injecting the tuberculin protein into your skin. The results can be reviewed just 48 hours later.In either case, the doctor or nurse is looking for a raised red reaction on your skin. This is a positive result, meaning you have been exposed to the TB bacteria. The reaction is then graded.

TreatmentPeople with either active or latent TB are treated with a combination of antibiotic tablets to kill the bacteria. Treating latent TB prevents the infection becoming active. Many people can be treated at home but some may need to go to hospital for the first week or so, especially if they are very ill or thought to be very infectious. The antibiotics are usually taken for six months. A longer course of treatment may be needed if the bacteria are resistant to one or more of the antibiotics. It is very important to take the full six-month course of antibiotics, and take the antibiotics regularly, otherwise resistance to the antibiotics can develop. Treatment with antibiotics nearly always works, provided that the full course of medication is taken as prescribed.

Some people may get side-effects from the antibiotics. These can include:visual disturbances reaction,dizziness,nausea ,skin flushes ,fever , jaundice (yellow skin or eyes), pins and needles ,Anyone who notices any of these symptoms should not stop taking the medication, but should take to a doctor as soon as possible. An alternative treatment may be needed.

ImmunisationThe best way to control TB in poor countries is to improve living conditions and nutrition. But many countries, including the UK, also run a large-scale immunisation programme. This is the most effective way to prevent the disease spreading in the population. In the UK, immunisation is given as the BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Gurin) vaccination. This protects between 70 and 80% people who have it. Children are usually immunized around the age of 13 years, although they may be immunized at birth if they are at high risk. Vaccination is not usually recommended for people over 45 unless they are in a high-risk group. Immunisation lasts for at least 15 years. Re-immunisation is not recommended. Before giving the vaccination, the doctor or nurse must first check whether you are already immune.

BIBLOGRAPHYwww.sciencedaily.comwww.stoptb.comwww.bharttimes.comwww.who.orgMicrosoft EncartaBritannica 2001