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1 Working Group English Caribbean Land of pretty women and Athletes Rogério Cerqueira Rui Martins Inês Carito

Trabalho Ingles Concluido

Apr 02, 2015



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Working Group English


Rogério Cerqueira Rui Martins Inês Carito Afonso Correia Ricardo Pessoa

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Introduction 3Language 4The Climate on the Caribbean Islands 5The Caribbean 6Antigua and Barbuda 7Netherlands Antilles 7Bahamas 8Barbados 8Bermuda 9Cuba 10Dominica 11Dominican Republic 12Haiti 12Jamaica 13Martinique 13Puerto Rico 14St. Lucia 15S. Vicent and Grenadines 16Trindad and Tobago 16Favorite or national dishes 17Caribbean people smashed on the Olympic Games 18Fifty years of history 18Youth athletic development in Jamaica 27Jamaicans in America 27Coaching in Jamaica 27Jamaican-born athletes who have competed for other countries


Athletes who have Jamaican parentage 28How do they do it? 29Caribbean Olympic Games 29Bobsleigh 30Conclusion 33References 34

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Just ahead of the Gulf of Mexico there are a few Islands on the Caribbean Sea.Some of those Islands were British colonies where they implant a new way of life, and the strength they use to get the things done.This study was made to evaluate if the way they are involved into sports was the result of the British influence or not. The Caribbean great opponent of all times is The United States and the method they applied was basically left by the British and improved by locals.The bet was well played because at this moment the Caribbean’s athletes are among the best of the world. To talk about sports that we will be able to practice in the Caribbean , takes us, to talk about the wonders of the climate of this zone and region, about the tepid waters and, finally, about the possibility of practicing open air sports, and especially the aquatic ones.To spend his holidays in the Sea of the Caribbean ones is a synonym of being able to enjoy numerous activities in the open air, numerous means, so much in the sea, where most of the sports unfold, as in land, where also we can find a spacious and varied athletic offer.To talk about sports in the Sea of the Caribbean ones leads to us to speak them about sports like the kitesurf, or the windsurf, the bodyboard or the surf, at places like Cabarete or the Island Margarita what there are authentic destinies of world-wide renown for these sports; we talk equally about immersion, with authentic treasures into Riviera Maia where it can do I plunge skin-diving or to practice snorkel, at places like Belize, Cozumel, Jamaica, Costa Rica and a hill of other means of sieges. The Coast Caribbean is the principal world-wide spotlight for the practice of snorkel, since in his crystal clear and hot waters, as well as his reefs, they favor it enough. Other aquatic sports are the swimming, the candle, the athletic fishing in high sea, renting the services of a charter boat, the aquatic ski, etc....In land, the athletic offer of the Caribbean ones is not less interesting, it will be able to enjoy activities like the golf in some islands and zones like Riviera Maya, the walks, especially in the Central America, in countries like Honduras, Panama, Nicaragua, Mexico, in Costa Rica, or in islands with impressive interiors full of life, like the Island of the Women, Cozumel, Trinidad and Tobago or Haiti. Besides the walks or golf, horse racing, the walks on horseback between the coconut palms, healthy other sports that will be able to be practiced in this region, during his holidays in the Caribbean ones.To practice sport in the open air in the Caribbean ones is a very interesting options, do not waste it during his holidays in the Caribbean ones!!!

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The languages of the Caribbean reflect the region's diverse history and culture.Although English may not be the official language of each of the islands, it is the most commonly spoken language on all of the islands due to British colonial background or the high rate of American tourism. Other official languages on the islands include Dutch, French and Spanish.There are many regional dialects spoken solely by island natives in the Caribbean. The most common is Patois, a melding of English, African words, and the language existing when the island was first colonized (typically French). Another location-specific language is Papiamento, a combination of African, Dutch, English, French, Portuguese and Spanish. Other natives may speak English with a heavy West Indian or French Creole accent. If you have trouble understanding a native language, don't be shy about asking for clarification.

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The Climate on the Caribbean Islands

The Caribbean climate is tropical, moderated to a certain extent by the prevailing northeast trade winds. Individual climatic conditions are strongly dependent on elevation. At sea level there is little variation in temperature, regardless of the time of the day or the season of the year. Temperatures range between 24°C and 32°C. In Kingston, Jamaica, the mean temperature is 26°C, whereas Mandeville, at a little over 600 meters high in the Carpenters Mountains of Manchester Parish, has recorded temperatures as low as 10°C. Daylight hours tend to be shorter during summer and slightly longer during winter than in the higher latitudes. The conventional division, rather than the four seasons, is between the long rainy season from May through October and the dry season, corresponding to winter in the northern hemisphere. Even during the rainy period, however, the precipitation range fluctuates greatly. Windward sides of islands with mountains receive much rain, whereas leeward sides can have very dry conditions. Flat islands receive slightly less rainfall, but its pattern is more consistent. For example, the Blue Mountains of eastern Jamaica record around 558 centimeters of rainfall per year, whereas Kingston, on the southeastern coast, receives only 399 centimeters. Bridgetown, the capital of Barbados, has an average annual rainfall of 127 centimeters, while Bathsheba on the central east coast receives 254 centimeters--despite the fact that Bathsheba is only about 27 kilometers away by road. Recording stations in the Northern Range in Trinidad measure some 302 centimeters of rainfall per year, while at Piarco Airport on the Caroni Plains the measurement is only 140 centimeters. Most of the rainfall occurs during short heavy outbursts during daylight hours. In Jamaica, about 80 percent of the rainfall occurs during the day. The period of heaviest rainfall usually occurs after the sun has passed directly overhead, which in the Caribbean islands would be sometime around the middle of May and again in early August. The rainy season also coincides with the disastrous summer hurricane season, although Barbados, too Far East, and Trinidad and Tobago, too far south, seldom experience hurricanes. Hurricanes are a constant feature of most of the Caribbean, with a "season" of their own lasting from June to November. Hurricanes develop over the ocean (usually in the eastern Caribbean) during the summer months when the sea surface temperature is high (over 27°C) and the air pressure falls below 950 thousand libbers. These conditions create an "eye" about 20 kilometers wide, around which a steep pressure gradient forms that generates wind speeds of 110 to 280 kilometers per hour. The diameter of hurricanes can extend as far as 500 to 800 kilometers and produce extremely heavy rainfalls as well as considerable destruction of property. The recent history of the Caribbean echoes with the names of destructive hurricanes: Janet (1955), Donna (1960), Hattie (1961), Flora (1963), Beulah (1967), Celia and Dorothy (1970), Eloise (1975), David (1979), and Allen (1980).

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CaribbeanThe Caribbean consists on the Caribbean Sea and its islands and archipelagos, such as the West Indies and the Caribbean Islands. The Caribbean is a popular destination for holidays, not only for holidaymakers and tourists to the pursuit of health benefits, but some of the Islands, became also a favourite destination for adventurers and Backpack campers. For example, the dream vacation on Tobago.The numerous islands in the Caribbean can be divided into two groups. The Greater Antilles includes Cuba, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic and Haiti. And the Minor Antilles, which are almost all of them, have volcanic origin. Among the Smaller Antilles found the Antigua & Barbuda, Barbados, British Virgin Islands, St. Vincent & the Grenadines and Trinidad & Tobago. The largest of the Antilles islands, Curacao, is a very popular holiday destination.The Caribbean name comes from "Caribi" people who lived in the West Indies Minors when they were discovered. The history of the Islands has a much earlier date. In the 1st century BC the Arawak Indians settled on the Islands, and have not been expelled from there until around 1500. At this time, Christopher Columbus began his trip to India, and the Spanish explorers landed on the enchanting beaches of the Caribbean Islands. In the course of the following century the Islands were colonized by Spanish, French, Dutch, English and Portuguese and for a while there were many struggles for mastery of the Islands. Only in the twentieth century is that most of the Islands won their independence. The pirates, whose adventures and crimes are reminded today, were at their best and most cruel, around the 16th century. Their hiding places and fortresses were mostly small islands such as Port Royal in Jamaica.In the Caribbean live approximately 35 thousand million people from various origins. Most are original from Europe and Africa, but the Indians, Chinese and Creoles are common. The number of indigenous inhabitants is, however, very low. Due to the mix of people, Spanish and English are the languages most spoken in the Caribbean. However the French and Dutch are also spoken, as well as other Creole dialects.Out of season of hurricanes, which affects the weather since the end of the summer until early autumn, the Caribbean Islands enjoy the sunshine and a warm climate and wonderful. In villages and towns where are many restaurants, shops, attractions and historic sites, sunny days are especially good for a relaxed vacation. Willemstad, the capital of Curaçao, belongs to the UNESCO World Heritage site and is recognized for its excellent liquor.The larger cities in the Caribbean includes Caracas, in Venezuela, Santo Domingo, in the Dominican Republic and Havana in Cuba. Here, there are many opportunities to discover the culture and history of the Caribbean. A visit to a typical café in Havana Streets, where you can enjoy a cocktail and smoking with pleasure, one of the famous Cuban cigars, amidst the hectic city, will give you a vacation truly enjoyable.Caribbean culture includes introspection and an ear for music, which has a very important place in the local lifestyle. “Merengue” is from Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic, and “Salsa” is very popular in Colombia and Cuba. The "Cumbia" in Venezuela, and “Reggae” in Jamaica, are all equally wonderful songs accompanied by dances. Jamaica is also known for its cuisine, particularly spicy, and tasty drinks. Enjoy and delight your palate with a refined beer or an aromatic coffee.The Dominican Republic, Aruba and Margarita are havens for water sports such as windsurfing and kitesurfing. Divers will enjoy the underwater world on Bonaire and Belize and the unforgettable experience of diving to view shipwrecks from Grenada or even swim with sharks in the Bahamas. River Rafting, hiking and mountain biking are all exciting experiences we can have in Dominican Republic or on the islands of Martinique and Guadeloupe.

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Antigua and Barbuda

OFFICIAL NAME: Antigua and BarbudaDATE OF FORMATION: 1981SURFACE: 442 km2CAPITAL: St. John’s POPULATION: 82,800LANGUAGES: English*, English patoisRELIGIONS: Anglican 45%, other Protestant 42%,Roman Catholic 10%,other 2%, Rastafarian 1%ETHNIC MIX: Black African 95%, other 5%GOVERNMENT: Parliamentary systemCURRENCY: E. Caribbean $ = 100 cents This state consists of three islands: Antigua, Barbuda and Redonda, this last uninhabited. The name Antigua was given by Columbus in 1493. The first Europeans who settled on the Islands were Spaniards, in 1520. In the year 1629 arrive the French and the English in 1632.The British began the African slave trade, which replaced as manpower, the few Arawak Indians and Caribi survivors. Most of the country's current population descends from Slaves, one of the poorest in the world.In November 1981 the territory proclaimed independence. GEOGRAPHYMainly low-lying limestone and coral islands with some higher volcanic areas. Antigua’s coast is indented with bays and harbors.CLIMATETropical, moderated by trade winds and sea breezes. Humidity and rainfall are low for the region.

Netherlands Antilles

Status: Autonomous part of the NetherlandsClaimed: 1816Surface: 961 km2Capital: WillemstadPopulation: 270 thousand inhabitantsReligion: most catholic The territory is formed by two groups of islands far more than 800 kilometers: Curaçao and Bonaire, on one side, and Saint Eustatius, Saba and the southern part of Saint Martin, of the other.With the arrival of Spanish Afonso de Ojeda, in 1499, the Islanders were enslaved and deported to Haiti and Dominican Republic. Here are three centuries in which

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Spain, France, England and Holland covet the territory, leaving victorious Holland in 1630, which made Curaçao the center of the slave trade. After the abolition of slavery in 1863, was developed in the country the oil industry.


OFFICIAL NAME: Commonwealth of the BahamasDATE OF FORMATION: 1973SURFACE: 13.940 km2CAPITAL: NassauPOPULATION: 341,700LANGUAGES: English*, English Creole,French CreoleRELIGIONS: Baptist 32%, other 29%,Anglican 20%, Roman Catholic 19%ETHNIC MIX: Black African 85%, other 15%GOVERNMENT: Parliamentary systemCURRENCY: E. Caribbean $ = 100 cents The territory is formed by more than 700 islands, only 30 of these are inhabited, and by 2300 islets. The island Andros is most attractive because of the huge underground galleries and the reef barrier.The reduced number of rivers makes it difficult to farm. Most foods are imported. The source of resources is tourism.It was on the island of Guanahani that Christopher Columbus stepped first American territory in 1492. From the first Spaniard contact with Arawak Indians followed 20 years of slavery and deportation, to Santo Domingo and other islands, to work in the mines. However, the real colonists of the Bahamas were the British, who dominated the territory for 300 years until its independence in 1973.GEOGRAPHYLong, mainly flat coral formations with a few low hills. Some islands have pine forests, lagoons, and mangrove swamps.CLIMATESubtropical. Hot summers and mild winters. Heavy rainfall, especially in summer. Hurricanes can strike in July–December.


OFFICIAL NAME: BarbadosDATE OF FORMATION: 1966SURFACE: 430 km2CAPITAL: BridgetownPOPULATION: 255,900LANGUAGES: Bajan (Barbadian English),English*

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RELIGIONS: Anglican 40%, other 24%, nonreligious 17%, Pentecostal 8%, Methodist7%, Roman Catholic 4%ETHNIC MIX: Black African 92%, other 8%GOVERNMENT: Parliamentary systemCURRENCY: Barbados dollar = 100 cents The island was fortuitously sighted by Portuguese navigators; the Spaniards took possession of it, but abandoned it shortly after. With the particularity of the Spaniards took to Spain few Arawak Indians, in order to satisfy the curiosity of its countrymen. It was occupied by the English only in the 16th century, who entered in the cultivation of sugar cane, a major cause of why on the island there are no Woods or forests. In the 18th century, Barbados had 745 large plantations and around 80 thousand black slaves. Thanks to the extension of political rights to the entire population, in 1966, Barbados achieved independence. This island enjoyed centuries of prosperityGEOGRAPHYVolcanic Island encircled by coral reefs. Fertile and predominantly flat, with a few gentle hills to the north.CLIMATEModerate tropical climate. Sunnier and drier than its more mountainous neighbors.


STATUS: Crown colonyCLAIMED: 1612CAPITAL: HamiltonPOPULATION: 67,800SURFACE: 54 km2RELIGION: Protestants, 84 %, catholic, 16 % 

The Bermuda archipelago consists of 300 small islands, of which only 20 are inhabited. Its name is due to the Spanish navigator Juan Bermudez and became famous thanks to colorful shorts, that came up to the knee, and the mystery of the famed Bermuda triangle, the zone of the Atlantic Ocean where many boats and planes have disappeared.It was the first colony of the British Empire in the Caribbean. Currently, is the most densely populated territories in the world, one thousand inhabitants per square kilometer. Its economy sustains with tourism.This archipelago can be proud of being the seat of the first American Parliament and the oldest school in the Western world, the Warwick Academy, founded in 1626.

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OFFICIAL NAME: Republic of CubaDATE OF FORMATION: 1902CAPITAL: HavanaPOPULATION: 11.2 millionTOTAL AREA: 110,860 km2LANGUAGES: SpanishRELIGIONS: Nonreligious 49%, RomanCatholic 40%, atheist 6%, other 4%,Protestant 1% ETHNIC MIX: White 66%,European–African 22%, Black 12%GOVERNMENT: One-party stateCURRENCY: Cuban peso = 100 centavosECONOMY: Its main products are sugar cane, tobacco and coffee. It has a reserve of the world's largest nickel and between minerals include also the cronite and cobalt.GDP «per capita»: 958 dollars.SOCIAL DATA: Life expectancy at birth, 68 years. 6% illiteracy.

The major agricultural resources, sugar, tobacco and coffee, and the mining of nickel, cobalt and cronite, were the support to deploy an economy based on socialism. The revolution led by Fidel Castro abolishes privately owned and made an equal distribution of goods: work, home, education and health. The subsequent entry in the economic community of Countries of Eastern Europe (Comecon) allowed a degree of economic stability, which, however, would weaken after the political changes that occurred in the former Soviet Union. The first half of the 1980s was characterized by the citizen discontent. The monthly wages were not exceeding 200 pesos (about 20 Euros). Currently, the economic situation is unprecedented severity, which also helps the embargo imposed by the United States of America. The Government of Fidel Castro had to impose a series of austerity measures to control inflation. Nearly forty years after the revolution, the country experiences a war economy: food rationing, lines to buy food or household, lack of housing and many other shortcomings.

The Health SystemGuaranteed free medical care to the entire Cuban population became from the first moments of triumph of the revolution in one of the fundamental social paradigms. This corresponds with the humanist essence and social justice that characterizes the revolutionary process. Since the revolutionary triumph itself

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began working for the creation of the national health system that took the action of worker health to places more needed. The system created began to carry out major reforms since the 1960s, as a fundamental part of the transformations of the revolutionary period and in response to the absolute respect of one of the most fundamental human rights of every citizen. Right before the revolution, health care and hospital was characterized by the predominance of private services. This modality in health services blocks the access to the people of lower income, who relied as only option the SOS Houses, satisfying mainly in cases of emergency. Facilities and medical personnel were fundamentally in the capital of the country, where concentrated 65% of doctors and 62% of existing bedding. The rural areas had no care and had a single rural hospital. The actions undertaken in network development have enabled the rapid healthcare transformation of the existing situation. Today, Cuba has 381 healthcares with complete coverage with the program of the fathousandy doctor, which exceed the figure of 28.000 physicians, distributed all over the country. More than 99.1% of the Cuban population is covered with a fathousandy physician and nurse and is expected to reach 100% in the coming years.GEOGRAPHYMostly fertile plains and basins. Three mountainous areas. Forests of pine and mahogany cover one-quarter of the country.CLIMATESubtropical. Hot all year round, and very hot in summer. Heaviest rainfall in the mountains. Hurricanes can strike in the fall.


OFFICIAL NAME: Commonwealth of the DominicaDATE OF FORMATION: 1978SURFACE: 754 km2CAPITAL: RoseauPOPULATION: 341,700LANGUAGES: English*, French Creole RELIGIONS: Roman Catholic 77%,Protestant 15%, other 8%ETHNIC MIX: Black 87%, Mixed race 9%,Carib 3%, other 1%GOVERNMENT: Parliamentary systemCURRENCY: E. Caribbean $ = 100 cents Is the wildest, the least contaminated, but also the poorest in the region. Its attraction is the highest peak in the Caribbean, the Morne Diablotin, 1447 meters tall. From this mountains run over 365 rivers and torrents, forming waterfalls and lakes surrounded by jungle.Sighted by Colombo, years later the Spaniards came back to the Island heavily armed and decimated the Caribi Indians.

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In the 17th century the French replaced the Spanish colonization on the island and introduced the cultivation of coffee and cotton. Then, two centuries later, the British take this territory. In 1805, Dominica becomes a British colony and the black population becomes thirty times higher than the white population. Achieved independence in 1978.GEOGRAPHYMountainous and densely forested. Volcanic activity has given the land very fertile soils, hot springs, geysers, and black sand beaches.CLIMATETropical, cooled by constant trade winds. Heavy annual rainfall. Tropical depressions and hurricanes are likely June–November.

Dominican Republic

OFFICIAL NAME: Dominican RepublicDATE OF FORMATION: 1865CAPITAL: Santo DomingoPOPULATION: 10.1 millionTOTAL AREA: 48,380 km2LANGUAGES: Spanish*, French CreoleRELIGIONS: Roman Catholic 92%, otherand nonreligious 8%ETHNIC MIX: Mixed race 75%, White 15%,Black 10%GOVERNMENT: Presidential systemCURRENCY: Dominican Republic peso = 100 centavos

The Dominican Republic occupies the eastern twothirds of the island of Hispaniola in the Caribbean. Spanishspeaking, it seeks closer ties to the anglophone West Indies. GEOGRAPHYHighlands and rainforested mountains – including the highest peak in the Caribbean, Pico Duarte – interspersed with fertile valleys. Extensive coastal plain in the east.CLIMATEHot and humid close to sea level, cooler at altitude. Heavy rainfall, especially in the northeast.

HaitiOFFICIAL NAME: Republic of HaitiDATE OF FORMATION: 1804CAPITAL: Port-au-PrincePOPULATION: 10 millionTOTAL AREA: 27,750 km2 LANGUAGES: French Creole*, French

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RELIGIONS: Roman Catholic 80%,Protestant 16%, other 3%, nonreligious 1%;Voodoo is widely practicedETHNIC MIX: Black African 95%, Mixed raceand European 5%GOVERNMENT: Presidential systemCURRENCY: Gourde = 100 centimes

Formerly a French colony, Haiti shares the Caribbean island of Hispaniola with the Dominican Republic. At independence in 1804, it became the world’s first black republic.GEOGRAPHYPredominantly mountainous, with forests and fertile plains.CLIMATETropical, with rain throughout the year. Humid in coastal areas, much cooler in the mountains.


OFFICIAL NAME: JamaicaDATE OF FORMATION: 1962CAPITAL: KingstonPOPULATION: 2.72 millionTOTAL AREA: 10,990 km2LANGUAGES: English Creole, English*RELIGIONS: Protestant 55%, other and nonreligious 45%ETHNIC MIX: Black African 92%,Mulatto 6%, European and Chinese 1%,East Indian 1%GOVERNMENT: Parliamentary systemCURRENCY: Jamaican dollar = 100 cents

In Jamaica, agriculture is the main economic activity, focusing on cultivation of sugar. In addition to agriculture, fisheries, mining and tourism are other important activities. Mining and tourism are financed by foreign capital. Among the mineral resources, the most exploited is bauxite. In industry, there’s the production of rum, sugar, fertilizers and fabrics. The country is a major importer of wood, oil, chemicals, food and machinery. Besides sugar and bauxite, exports aluminum, textiles and refined petroleum products inside country. By owning important flora and fauna, as well as their cultural lines, Jamaica attracts millions of tourists who stay in good hotels and coastal resorts. The main economic partners in Jamaica are USA, United Kingdom, Venezuela and Canada. The country offers investors the possibility of repatriation of capital, the creation of taxes with tax extense deadlines and no tribution. Founded in 1960, the Bank of Jamaica administers the Jamaican dollar circulation, the country's official currency. The Bank of Jamaica also grants credits and stimulates economic development. The entire country's banking network is private and depends on the investment of financial institutions from Canada, England and USA.

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GEOGRAPHYMainly mountainous, with lush tropical vegetation. Inaccessible limestone area in the northwest. Low, irregular coastal plains are broken by hills and plateaus.CLIMATETropical. Hot and humid at sea level, with temperate mountain areas. Hurricanes are likely June–November.


Surface: 1102 km2Capital: Fort-de-FrancePopulation: 300 thousand inhabitantsReligion: Most catholic  The island was occupied by the French in 1674, and marked the first breach in the Spanish Empire. It was a mandatory port for “negreiros” slave ships that crossed the Atlantic and refuge of pirates. In this Island was born Joséphine, wife of Napoleon Bonaparte.In 1800, the capital, Saint-Pierre, was a center of culture and art. A century later, in the Montagne Pelée eruption reduced the city to ashes and killed 30 thousand people. Then was built the new capital: Fort-de-France. Currently, the majority of the population of the island is “mulatto”, result of marriages between Blacks, Whites and Asians.

Puerto Rico

STATUS: Commonwealth territoryCLAIMED: 1898CAPITAL: San Juan

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POPULATION: 4 million

AREA: 9.104 km2

According to the census carried out in the year 2000 with the population of Puerto Rico, the State had 3,808,610 inhabitants, being 51.9% of women (1,975 .033) and 48,1% men (1,833,577).The Census classified according to ethnicity and religion. The percentage for religions looked like this:• Catholic 66% (2.612.272)• Protestant 28.5% (1.108.236)• No religion 2% (791,597)• Spiritist 0.7% (277,059)• No membership/other 2% (791,597)

Puerto Rico has one of the most dynamic and diversified economies of Latin America. In the mid-20th century, the Puerto Rican economy was dominated by agriculture, especially the cultivation of sugar cane. However, large investments in infrastructure and extensive incentive programs have succeeded in transforming it considerably. Since the 1960s, have settled on the island numerous multinationals pharmaceutical industries, electronics, textile, petrochemical, and, more recently, biotechnology. The island's leaders tried to develop it through the consumer goods industry, which had good availability of manpower, but reduced consumer market. This attempt failed, with the European industrial recovery after World War II. The Government in the 1960’s, seeing how Puerto Rico approached from an economic and political bankruptcy, attempted to rescue the economy through investment in petrochemical industry. However, with rising oil prices held by OPEC in 1973 (1st Oil Shock), there was a worsening crisis, leading to the revision of economic model developed until then. The rulers have launched a third alternative that was the extent of contributions from private corporations through section 936 internal code rents. In 2005, the deadline given to the Companies by the Internal Revenue Code of the United States, section 936, expires. However, some groups argue that the existing crisis in Puerto Rico can only be solved through an integral development of the

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economy, involving agricultural self-sufficiency, along with the development of high tech industries, but they contribute through taxes. Currently the manufacturing and services sector (including tourism), has replaced agriculture as the main source of foreign exchange. Also, the bovine livestock and dairy thousand productions took the place of the sugar industry as the main sector of agriculture. The economy slowed between 2001 and 2003, due to the recession of the American economy. In 2004, began to recover. The Government of Acevedo Vilá introduced changes to tax systems to normalize the load and distributes it more equal among all sectors of the economy. Example is the recent establishment of a sales tax and use (IVU or "Sales Tax"), which has fluctuated between 5 and 7% on purchases and services during the first months of their establishment, but finally in 2007, was unified in 7% throughout the territory. The IVU was established in order to try to alleviate the serious tax problems affecting the island while avoiding deterioration in the scale of valuation of securities of Puerto Rico, which makes only more expensive the financing of public projects. This tax is balanced with the elimination rate of 6.6% which is levied at the point of importation. This is because such a tax system was not at all confident and was public knowledge that not perceived quantities should be entered purse, mostly due to lack of staff to carry out cargo inspections and the time required for these inspections. Another reason why settled the new tax on sale is the aim of reducing dramatically the much referenced "underground economy", whose amount was estimated by the Government and Development Bank, in numbers, equivalent to the legal economy.

St. Lucia

OFFICIAL NAME: Saint LuciaDATE OF FORMATION: 1979CAPITAL: CastriesPOPULATION: 172,200 TOTAL AREA: 620 kmDENSITY: 730 people per sq. mileLANGUAGES: English*, French CreoleRELIGIONS: Roman Catholic 90%, other 10%ETHNIC MIX: Black 83%, Mixed race 13%, Asian 3%, White 1%GOVERNMENT: Parliamentary systemCURRENCY: East Caribbean dollar =100 cents

In Saint Lucia, Mount Gimie, at 950 metres high, has two extinct volcanoes: Gros and Petit Piton that are the symbol of the country.The first conquerors were caribi, which won the island from the arawak natives. The Spaniards arrived in 1502. The British made a foray into territory in 1639, but were decimated by the Caribi. 1660 to 1803, French and English fight for the territory. The flag moved 14 times, eventually getting to English. As in other islands, the French left as trademarks the Catholic religion and the dialect “patois”, spoken between the “mulattos”. The British have increased plantings of sugar and populated the island with African slaves. In 1834 is abolished slavery

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on the island and in 1979 St Lucia gets independence. Currently, almost half the population has less than twenty years.GEOGRAPHYVolcanic and mountainous, with some broad fertile valleys. The Pitons, ancient lava cones, rise from the sea on the forested west coast.CLIMATETropical, moderated by trade winds. May–October wet season brings daily warm showers. Rainfall is highest in the mountains.

S. Vicent and Grenadines

OFFICIAL NAME: Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesDATE OF FORMATION: 1979CAPITAL: KingstownPOPULATION: 109,200TOTAL AREA: 389 km2LANGUAGES: English*, English CreoleRELIGIONS: Anglican 47%, Methodist 28%,Roman Catholic 13%, other 12%ETHNIC MIX: Black 77%, Mixed race 16%, other 3%, Carib 3%, Asian 1%GOVERNMENT: Parliamentary systemCURRENCY: East Caribbean dollar = 100 cents

The island of S. Vicente has a mountainous and is covered by a thick forest. The Grenadines are a chain of Islands with splendid white sand beaches and crystal clear waters.In 1498, when Christopher Columbus arrived to the island, the territory was inhabited by Indians Caribi, which had dominated the Aruachi. Years later, the Union between the Caribi and black slaves appeared the Black Caribi who resisted the European occupation until 1797. In this year, the British win the resistance, by the massacre of Indians and their deportation to the coast of Honduras. Since 1979, St. Vincent and the Grenadines is an independent State within the Commonwealth. Its population is very young. The country's economy depends on agriculture.GEOGRAPHYSt. Vincent is mountainous and forested, with one of two active volcanoes in the Caribbean, La Soufrière. The Grenadines are 32 islands and cays, fringed by beachesCLIMATETropical, with constant trade winds. Hurricanes are likely during July– November wet season.

Trindad and Tobago

OFFICIAL NAME: Republic of Trinidad and TobagoDATE OF FORMATION: 1962CAPITAL: Port-of-Spain

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POPULATION: 1.34 millionTOTAL AREA: 5128 km2LANGUAGES: English Creole, English*, Hindi,French, SpanishRELIGIONS: Catholic 32%, Hindu 24%,Protestant 28%, other 9%, Muslim 7% ETHNIC MIX: East Indian 40%, Black 40%,Mixed race 18%, White, Chinese 1%, other 1%GOVERNMENT: Parliamentary systemCURRENCY: Trin. & Tob. dollar = 100 cents The island of Trinidad was exploited by Columbus in 1498 and belonged to the Spanish Crown until 1802, then became an English colony.Tobago, which passed unnoticed to the Genoese Navigator, was inhabited by Indians caribi. In 1632 the Dutch occupy the territory. In subsequent years, this tiny island will be coveted by English, Spanish, French, pirates and by the Dutch, who dominate in rotation. Change his flag over thirty times. In 1814, the island was ceded by the French to English and then join the Trinity in 1889 in the formation of a single administrative unit. The territory became independent in 1962.The country's economy is based mainly on the exploitation of oil. The territory has two natural reserves: the importance of natural gas and natural asphalt, considered the largest in the world.GEOGRAPHYBoth islands are hilly and wooded. Trinidad has a rugged mountain range in the north, and swamps on its east and west coasts.CLIMATETropical, with July–December wet season. Escapes the region’s hurricanes, which pass to the north.

Favorite or national dishes

Anguilla - Rice and Peas and Fish Antigua and Barbuda - Fungee & Pepperpot Bahamas - Crack Conch with Peas and Rice[48]

Barbados - Cou-Cou and Flying fish British Virgin Islands - Fish and fungee Cayman Islands - Turtle Stew Colombian Caribbean - Rice with Coconut Milk, arroz con pollo, Sancocho,

Arab cuisine due to large Arab immigration Cuba - Platillo Moros y Cristianos, Ropa Vieja, Yuca, Maduros, Ajiaco Dominica - Mountain chicken Dominican Republic - arroz con pollo topped with stewed red kidney beans,

pan fried or braised beef, and side dish of green salad or ensalada de coditos, shrimp, empanadas and/or tostones, or the ever popular Dominican dish known as Mangú which is mashed plantains. The ensemble is usually

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called bandera nacional, which means "national flag", a term equivalent to the Venezuelan pabellón criollo.

Grenada - Oil-Down Guyana - pepperpot, coookup rice, Roti and curry, methem Haiti - Griot (Fried pork) served with Du riz a pois or Diri ak Pwa (Rice and

beans) Jamaica - ackee and saltfish, callaloo Montserrat - Goat Water Puerto Rico - Arroz con gandules with roasted pork shoulder, arroz con

pollo, Mofongo, and Many Fried Food, Commonly made In the Beaches and Coast like, Alcapurrias, bacalaito, piononos.

Saint Kitts and Nevis - Coconut dumplings, Spicy plantain, saltfish, breadfruit

Saint Lucia - Green Bananas & Dried and salted cod Saint Vincent and the Grenadines - Roasted Breadfruit & Fried Jackfish Trinidad and Tobago - Doubles, Roti and Curry, Crab and dumpling, Pelau United States Virgin Islands - Stewed goat, oxtail or beef, seafood, callaloo,


Caribbean people smashed on the Olympic Games:

Caribbean athletes smashed the last Olympic Games in Beijing. Usain Bolt’s triumph announces a new era in velocity runners and leave Americans in a poor position after this global defeat.The American runners were the most defeated at this Olympic Games. In the feminine hundred meters, Jamaica over welled the competition wining all the three medals. On the two hundred meters Veronica Campbell renovated the Olympic title beating Allyson Felix. Even on the four hundred meters another girl born in Jamaica, Melanie Walker beat the other competitors winning the gold medal.This was the last event, were Caribbean athletes have shown how the last fifty years of history has made the difference on building top athletes.

Fifty years of history:Chronology1930’s

In 1930, Jamaica entered its first-ever athletics team into an international competition. It was the 1930 Central American and Caribbean Games. Joseph Mackenzie won a silver medal in the high jump with a jump of 1.75 m. In 1934 Jamaica entered their first ever team into the British Empire Games (now known as the Commonwealth Games) the team won a silver in swimming and Bernard Leopold Prendergast won a bronze in the discus throw with a throw of 40.23 m. This was their first major athletics medal.

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1940’sThe Beginning of a Sprinting Tradition: Arthur Wint winning the 400 m ahead of team-mate Herb Mckenley at the 1948 London Olympics.The first part of the forties was interrupted by the Second World War. 3 years after the war in 1948, Jamaica made their first ever Olympic appearance at the London Olympics

and surprised the world by winning 1 gold and two silvers. These medals were won by Arthur Wint and Herbert Mckenley and started a great sprinting tradition. These two men are regarded as the pioneers of Jamaican athletics. In the 400 m final Mckenley ran out of steam in the last 100 m and Wint passed him to become Jamaica’s first Olympic Gold Medalist. Wint narrowly missed out on the Gold in the 800 m but still went home a hero.

1950’sIn the 1952 Helsinki Olympics, Jamaican heroes Arthur Wint and Herb Mckenley were back along with George Rhoden and Leslie Laing. Together these four made up the gold medal winning 4x400 m relay team becoming the only team other than the Americans to hold a 4x400 m world record by running 3:03.9 in the final. George Rhoden led a Jamaican one-two with Herb Mckenley in the (individual) 400 m and Mckenley won his second silver in the closest 100 m in Olympic history. Wint won another silver in the 800 m. Jamaica finished a remarkable 13th in the medal table ahead of the likes of Japan, Great Britain and Canada.At the 1954 British Empire and Commonwealth Games, Jamaica won one gold courtesy of Keith Gardner in the 120 yard hurdles. Jamaica sent one sole competitor to the 1956 Olympics in Melbourne. It was Keith Gardner but he failed to get through the first round leaving Jamaica with no medals.At the 1958 British Empire and Commonwealth Games, Jamaica won a record haul of 4 gold’s, 2 silvers and 1 bronze. Paul Foreman led a Jamaican one-two with Derrick Taylor in the long jump, Ernest Haisley won gold in high jump and Keith Gardner retained his 120yards hurdle title by setting a new commonwealth record of 14.0 seconds and won gold in the 100m.

1960’sFor the 1960 Olympics, Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago and Barbados entered a joint team known as the British West Indies Federation (BWI). The team won two bronzes from George Kerr in the 800 m and the men’s 4 x 400 m relay team of Kerr, James Wedderburn, Keith Gardner and Malcolm Spence. At the 1962 British Empire and Commonwealth Games Jamaica won two athletics gold’s. One in the Men’s 440 yards from George Kerr and one from the Men’s 4x440yards team of Kerr, Lawrence Khan, Malcolm Spence and Melville Spence. Kerr then followed up with silver in the 880 yards. Unfortunately at the Tokyo Olympics in 1964 Jamaica failed to win any medals. The 1966 British Empire and Commonwealth Games were the first to be held in Jamaica and the first outside the “White

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Commonwealth”. Much to the disappointment of the Kingston crowd, Jamaica didn’t win any gold medals. Carmen Smith and Una Morris became Jamaica's first major female athletics medalists by winning the silver and bronzes respectively. The Jamaican Men’s 4x110yards team of Lynnsworth Headley, Mike Fray, Pablo McNeill and Wellesley Clayton also got silver and there were another three bronzes won by the team on the track. At the 1968 Olympics Lennox Thousandler won a silver medal behind record breaking Jim Hines in the 100 m and the Jamaican 4x100 m relay team was a huge gold medal prospect as they had the 100 m silver medalist Lennox Thousandler, they smashed the world record in the heats but Errol Stewart, Mike Fray, Clifton Forbes and Lennox Thousandler could only manage fourth place in the final and looked on as the Americans broke the world record they had set only a day before. Jamaica left Mexico with a sole silver medal.

1970’sIn 1970, Jamaica equaled its 1958 record haul in the 1970 British Commonwealth Games of 4 gold’s 2 silvers and a bronze. Marilyn Neufville won gold for Jamaica in the 400 m after switching to Jamaica from her adopted nation, Great Britain. A nineteen year old Donald Quarrie won two gold’s by winning the sprint double and led a one-two with Lennox Thousandler in the 100 m. The men’s 4x100 m team of Carl Lawson, Don Quarrie, Erroll Stewart and Lennox Thousandler also won gold.At the 1972 Olympic Games in Munich, it was once again Lennox Thousandler that won the sole medal this time it was bronze. The 1974 British Commonwealth Games were held in Christchurch, New Zealand. Quarrie retained his Commonwealth Gold Medals. In 1976 Donald Quarrie managed to become Jamaica’s first Olympic champion in 24 years when he won the 200 m at the Montreal Olympics. Quarrie also finished second in the 100 m, which earned him a silver medal. In 1978 Donald Quarrie won the 100 m Commonwealth Gold for the third time in a row. The Men’s 4x400 m relay team of Bertland Cameron, Clive Barriffe, Colin Bradford and Floyd Brown won silver. Colin Bradford won bronze in the 200 m and another bronze with the Men’s 4x100 m team of Errol Quarrie, Floyd Brown and Oliver Heywood.

1980’sAt the 1980 Moscow Olympics, Jamaica won a bronze medal in cycling and won two more bronze medals in athletics. Those medals came thanks to Donald Quarrie in the 200 m and 20 year old Marlene Ottey who became the first female athlete from an English speaking Caribbean island to win an Olympic medal after winning bronze in the 200 m. The 1982 Commonwealth Games was where Ottey won her first gold medal, in the 200 m by setting a new commonwealth record of 22.19 seconds. She also won silver in the 100 m and helped the Jamaican women’s 4x100 m team of Cathy Rattray-Williams, Grace Jackson and Leileth Hodges to bronze. Bertland “Bert” Cameron became 400 m Commonwealth champion winning him Jamaica Sportsman of the year.In 1983, the first ever World Championships in Athletics were held. This gave Jamaican athletes more opportunities to win major medals. Bert Cameron became the first ever 400 m World Champion. Marlene Ottey

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also got silver in the 200 m. The women's 4x100 m team (Leileth Hodges, Jacqueline Pusey, Juliet Cuthbert, and Marlene Ottey) also won a bronze medal.At the Los Angeles Olympics in 1984, Marlene Ottey-Page won two bronzes (in the 100 and 200 m). The Men’s 4x100 m team of Albert Lawrence, Gregory Meghoo, Donald Quarrie and Raymond Stewart won Olympic silver as well. Jamaica boycotted the 1986 Commonwealth Games over Margaret Thatcher's stance on apartheid era South Africa. They were however at the 1987 World Athletics Championships. There were no gold medalists but Raymond Stewart won silver in the 100 m and Marlene Ottey won two more bronzes (again in the 100 m and 200 m) to put in her medal cabinet. The Men’s 4x100 m team of John Mair, Andrew Smith, Clive Wright and Raymond Stewart won another bronze to add to the medal tally. At the 1988 Olympics in Seoul Grace Jackson won one silver in the 200 m and so did the men’s 4x400 m relay team of Howard Davis, Devon Morris, Winthrop Graham and Bert Cameron. Surprisingly Marlene Ottey didn’t win any medals at these games.

1990’sMarlene Ottey former 200 m World Champion.The early nineties was a successful time for Jamaican athletics with Marlene Ottey on top form. The decade started with the Commonwealth Games in Auckland. Ottey won the sprint double just like Quarrie had done 26 years before her. Both men’s relay teams won bronzes. The 4x100 m team featured Clive Wright, John Mair, Raymond Stewart and Wayne Watson. The 4x400 m team

featured Wright, Devon Morris, Howard Burnett and Mair. Next up was the 1991 World Championships in Japan the only gold was the women’s 4x100 m team of Dahlia Duhaney, Juliet Cuthbert, Beverly McDonald and Marlene Ottey. Winthrop Graham managed silver in the 400 m hurdles and Marlene Ottey once again won two bronzes in the 100 m and 200 m, and the men's 4x400 m team of Patrick O'Connor, Devon Morris, Winthrop Graham and Seymour Fagan also won bronze giving Jamaica a record World championship medal tally of 1 gold 1 silver and 3 bronzes.The next Olympics were in 1992 in Barcelona and Jamaica had many athletes capable of winning the Olympic Gold medal but none rose to the occasion. Juliet Cuthbert came close but could only manage two silvers (in the 100 m and 200 m) and Winthrop Graham won silver in the 400 m hurdles behind record breaking Kevin Young. Marlene Ottey won two more Olympic Bronzes (that was in the 100 m and 200 m behind younger team mate Juliet Cuthbert) and many were starting to say she should retire.A year later at the 1993 World Championships, Ottey proved the critics wrong by becoming World 200 m Champion at the age of 33. She then won silver in the 100 m. She would return to earn a bronze medal on the women's 4x100 m team (Michelle Freeman, Juliet Campbell, Nikole Mitchell, and Marlene Ottey). Also Winthrop Graham in the 400 m hurdles and Sandie Richards in the women's 400 m, won bronze medals.At the 1994 Commonwealth Games two young athletes were the only gold medalists 25 year old Michelle Freeman won gold in the sprint hurdles and

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22 year old Inez Turner won gold in the 800 m. Marlene Ottey retained her 200 m crown at the 1995 world championships in Gothenburg. Once again she won 100 m silver. At this championships Jamaica achieved another record haul of 1 gold 4 silvers and 2 bronzes. This included silvers for James Beckford in the Long Jump, the men's 4x400 m team (Michael McDonald, Davian Clarke, Danny McFarlane, and Greg Haughton), and the women's 4x100 m team (Dahlia Duhaney, Juliet Cuthbert, Beverly McDonald, and Marlene Ottey), as well as, bronzes for Greg Haughton in the men's 400 m and Deon Hemmings in the women's 400 m hurdles.Many believed the 1996 Olympics in Atlanta would be Ottey’s last as she was then 36. Ottey won silver in the closest women's Olympic 100 m in history as her and Gail Devers were given the same time of 10.94 but the judges gave it to Devers on the photo finish. Like Herb Mckenley 44 years before her this was the closest Ottey ever was to an individual Olympic Gold medal. She also won the silver in the 200 and showed no signs of stopping. At this Olympics Ottey’s achievements were overshadowed by Jamaica’s first Olympic champion since Donald Quarrie and first female Olympic champion. Her name was Deon Hemmings and she won the 400 m hurdles in a new Olympic record of 52.82. James Beckford also managed a long jump silver medal. The women's 4x100 m team (Michelle Freeman, Juliet Cuthbert, Nikole Mitchell, Marlene Ottey, Gillian Russell, and Andrea Lloyd) and the men's 4x400 m team (Michael McDonald, Greg Haughton, Roxbert Martin, Davian Clarke, Dennis Blake, and Garth Robinson) both won bronze medals as well, so that Jamaica ended with 1 gold, 3 silver and 2 bronze.The next year at the 1997 world championships, Jamaica won no gold’s but managed 3 silvers and 4 bronzes. Alexandra "Sandie" Richards won silver in the 400 m. Olympic champion Deon Hemmings won silver in the 400 m hurdles and the women’s 4x100 m team of Beverly McDonald, Marlene Frazer, Juliet Cuthbert and Beverly Grant won silver. The ageless wonder Marlene Ottey won bronze in the 200 m, Michelle Freeman also won bronze in the 100 m hurdles, while both 4x400 m men's (Michael McDonald, Greg Haughton, Danny McFarlane, and Davian Clarke) and women's (Inez Turner, Lorraine Fenton, Deon Hemmings, and Sandie Richards) teams won bronze medals however after USA's gold was stripped because it included drug cheat Antonio Pettigrew. Jamaica were promoted to silver medal position making their revised total 4 silvers and 3 bronzes.In Kuala Lumpur for the 1998 Commonwealth Games Jamaica managed 4 gold’s Gillian Russell set a new commonwealth record of 12.7 seconds in the 100 m hurdles. Sandie Richards won gold in the 400 m with a new commonwealth record of 50.17. Dinsdale Morgan won gold in the 400 m Hurdles and the men’s 4x400 m team of Davian Clarke, Gregory Haughton, Michael McDonald and Roxbert Martin won gold in a new Commonwealth record to cap off a successful games.The 1999 World Championships were the last championships before the new millennium. Jamaica won no gold’s but Beverly McDonald won silver in the 200 m. The rest of the team won 5 bronzes including Deon Hemmings in the 400 m hurdles, Lorraine Fenton in the 400 m, Marlene Frazer in the 200 m, the women's 4x100 m team (Aleen Bailey, Marlene

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Frazer, Beverly McDonald, and Peta-Gaye Dowdie), and the men's 4x400 m team (Michael McDonald, Greg Haughton, Danny McFarlane, and Davian Clarke). The bronze awarded to the Jamaican men's 4x400 m team was later upgraded to a silver medal after the US team that originally won the event, admitted to using performance enhancing drugs.

Early 2000’sThere was a lot of controversy before the Millennium Olympics in Sydney which almost resulted in Jamaica being thrown out of the competition. The reason was that there were protests in the Olympic village because they believed Marlene Ottey had bullied herself into the team as she had finished fourth in the trials but made the team ahead of Peta-Gaye Dowdie who finished ahead of her in the trials. Jamaica won no gold medals at the 2000 Olympics but Lorraine Fenton in the 400 m, defending Olympic champion Deon Hemmings in the 400 m hurdles, the women’s 4x400 m relay team with Sandie Richards, Catherine Scott, Deon Hemmings, and Lorraine Fenton, and the women’s 4x100 m team featuring Tanya Lawrence, Veronica Campbell, Beverly McDonald and 40 year old Marlene Ottey, all won silvers. This made Ottey the oldest ever athletics medalist. Greg Haughton and Tanya Lawrence won bronzes in the 400 m and 100 m respectively while the men’s 4x400 m team (Michael Blackwood, Greg Haughton, Christopher Williams, Danny McFarlane, Sanjay Ayre, and Michael McDonald) also copped a bronze medal. Jamaica ended those games with a tally of 4 silver and 3 bronzes. A year later Ottey started competing for Slovenia because of the 2000 controversy. The controversy continued after them. 2000 Olympics after it was revealed that America's Marion Jones had taken performance enhancing drugs. All her medals were stripped. This gained Tanya Lawrence a 100 m silver medal, Marlene Ottey a 100 m bronze and 200 m bronze for Beverly McDonald. This made Jamaica's revised medal total 5 silvers and 4 bronzes.The 2001 World Championships was next and Jamaica won gold thanks to the women’s 4x400 m team of Sandie Richards, Catherine Scott, Debbie-Ann Parris, and Lorraine Fenton's world leading run. Christopher Williams and Lorraine Fenton both got well earned silvers in the 200 m and 400 m respectively, while Greg Haughton in the men's 400 m, the men's 4x400 m team (Brandon Simpson, Christopher Williams, Greg Haughton, and Danny McFarlane), and the women's 4x100 m team (Juliet Campbell, Marlene Frazer, Beverly McDonald, and Astia Walker) won bronzes. Here Jamaica finished with a totally of 1 gold, 2 silver and 3 bronze.Veronica Campbell-Brown, two-time 200 m Olympic Champion and 100 m World Champion.

2002 was a record breaking year for Jamaica as they won a record haul of medals at the Commonwealth Games . In total they won 4 gold medals 6 silvers and 7 bronzes. Claston Bernard won the Decathlon gold. Elva Goldbourne leaped to long jump gold. Michael Blackwood sped to 400 m gold and Lacena Golding-Clarke glided to 100 m hurdles gold.

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2003 was disappointing for Jamaican athletics; they won no gold’s at the world championships but James Beckford in the long jump, Lorraine Fenton in the 400 m, Brigitte Foster-Hylton in the 100 m hurdles and the men’s 4x400 m team (Brandon Simpson, Danny McFarlane, Davian Clarke and Michael Blackwood) all won silver. Michael Blackwood's bronze in the men's 400 m and the 4x400 m women's team (Allison Beckford, Lorraine Fenton, Ronetta Smith, and Sandie Richards) also won bronze to round out the medal haul of 4 silver and 2 bronze.The 2004 Olympics in Athens was lit up by Jamaican golden girl Veronica Campbell, first she won bronze in the 100 m, next she won gold in the 200 m to become the first Caribbean woman to win an individual sprint event at the Olympics, then she anchored the 4x100 m team that included Tanya Lawrence, Aleen Bailey and Sherone Simpson to a famous victory. Danny McFarlane then won a surprise silver medal in the 400 m hurdles, and the 4x400 m women's team (Novlene Williams, Michelle Burgher, Nadia Davy, Sandie Richards, and Ronetta Smith) got bronze, for a total of 5 medals - 2 gold, 1 silver, and 2 bronze to Jamaica.

Asafa Powell, former 100 m World Record Holder.In 2005 at the world championships, Jamaica received a record haul of medals they won 1 gold medal 5 silvers and 2 bronzes. Trecia Smith won

the gold in the triple jump. Veronica Campbell in the women's 100 m, Michael Frater in the men's 100 m, Delloreen Ennis-London in the 100 m hurdles, and the women's 4x100 m (Daniele Browning, Sherone Simpson, Aleen Bailey, and Veronica Campbell) and 4x400 m (Shericka Williams, Novlene Williams, Ronetta Smith, and Lorraine Fenton) teams, all won silver medals. Brigitte Foster-Hylton finished behind Ennis-London for bronze in the 100 m hurdles, and the men's 4x400 m team (Sanjay Ayre, Brandon

Simpson, Lansford Spence, and Davian Clarke) also finished with bronze. With an overall tally of 8 medals, Jamaica finished 5th in the medal table ahead of Great Britain and Germany.More records were broken at the 2006 Commonwealth Games as Jamaica got 10 gold’s more than double the previous record. In total they won 10 gold medals 4 silvers 8 bronzes. Gold medalists were the then World 100 m record holder Asafa Powell in the men's 100 m, Sheri-Ann Brooks in the women's 100 m, Maurice Wignall in the 110 m hurdles, Trecia Smith in the triple jump, Tanto Campbell in the Men’s seated discus throw, Omar Brown in the 200 m, Brigitte Foster-Hylton in the 100 m hurdles, Men’s 4x100 m team of Ainsley Waugh, Asafa Powell, Chris Williams and Michael Frater, and the Women’s 4x100 m team of Daniele Browning, Peta Dowdie, Sheri-Ann Brooks and Sherone Simpson.2007 was yet another record breaking year for Jamaican athletics as there was another record haul at the 2007 World Championships Veronica Campbell won gold in the 100 m but had to settle for the silver in the 200 m. This championships also saw the emergence of a young Usain Bolt achieving a silver in the Men's 200 m while Asafa Powell could only

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manage a bronze medal in the Men's 100 m. Maurice Smith won silver in the Decathlon, and both the 4x100 m Men's (Marvin Anderson, Usain Bolt, Nesta Carter, and Asafa Powell) and Women's (Sheri-Ann Brooks, Kerron Stewart, Simone Facey, and Veronica Campbell) sprint relay teams finished with silvers, as well as the 4x400 m women's team (Shericka Williams, Shereefa Lloyd, Davita Prendagast, and Novlene Williams). Delloreen Ennis-London and Novlene Williams copped bronzes in the 100 m hurdles and 400 m respectively. In total the team won 1 gold medal 6 silver and 3 bronze.In 2008, 21-year old Usain Bolt proved Jamaica's dominance in the 100 m which isn't his favorite event, first running 9.76, becoming second on the all-time list and then on 1 June 2008 he ran 9.72 breaking the 100 m world record held by fellow Jamaican Asafa Powell (9.74 secs) by two hundredths of a second. This meant that the two fastest men in the world were Jamaicans and set up a thrilling contest between World 100 m and 200 m.

Beijing 2008:"Sprint Dominance"Usain Bolt, Triple Olympic Champion and World Record Holder.The first week of the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, China was quiet for Jamaica, but on Saturday 16 August, Usain Bolt won their first of many gold medals by smashing his own 100 m World Record by 0.03 seconds in the final, recording a time of 9.69 s. In the process he became the first man to go under 9.70 seconds. The feat was made more remarkable

by the fact that around 15–20 meters from the line, Bolt slowed down and started to celebrate early by lowering his hands and slapping his chest. There was no wind to either hinder or help his progress (+0.0 m/s), also it turned out that one of his shoelaces came undone during the race. Asafa Powell and Michael Frater, who were also in the race for gold, finished fifth and sixth respectively. The American Tyson Gay never made the final.The next day was the women's 100 m which was expected to be Jamaica vs United States. Jamaican Kerron Stewart had looked impressive in the earlier rounds, but in the final, Shelly-Ann Fraser finished well ahead of the field with Stewart and Sherone Simpson getting joint silver medals after recording identical times. This made Jamaica the first country to get a clean sweep of the medals in the women's 100 m at the Olympic Games.On Tuesday,19 August, Shericka Williams won silver in the women's 400 m by passing the favorite Sanya Richards (who herself is Jamaican- born), on the home straight. This medal gave Jamaica a tally of 2 gold’s, 3 silvers and no bronzes. However, there was much more to come from the Jamaicans.

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On the 20 August, Bolt was back to compete in the final of the 200 m sprint. Before the race, there was a lot of speculation over whether he could break Michael Johnson's 12 year-old World Record of 19.32 seconds. In the race, Bolt had a good start and came down the home straight with a considerable lead, continuing to pull away from the rest of the field. He passed the line in a new World Record time of 19.30 seconds. Giving Jamaica a third gold and making him the first man to complete the sprint double since Carl Lewis in 1984, and the first to do so in world record times. He also became the first Jamaican to win two gold medals at a single Olympic Games. The same day, Melanie Walker won the women's 400 m hurdles event in a new Olympic Record time of 52.64 seconds, breaking the old mark set in 1996 by Deon Hemmings.On the 21 August, Jamaica completed a clean-sweep of all the individual sprints (100 and 200 m), and confirmed the nation's dominance when Veronica Campbell-Brown successfully defended her Olympic 200 m title winning the event ahead of Allyson Felix of the United States, and Kerron Stewart who took bronze.On the 22 August, the Jamaican women's and men's 4 x 100 m relay teams took to the track. Their chances for victory were boosted when both American 4 x 100 m teams were knocked-out in the heats. The women's team of Shelly-Ann Fraser, Sherone Simpson, Kerron Stewart and Veronica Campbell-Brown were the first on the track, going reasonably well until the third changeover between Simpson and Stewart, which was poorly timed and resulted in the disqualification of the entire team. However, the men's team consisting of Nesta Carter, Michael Frater, Usain Bolt and Asafa Powell were next. Their own runs went without any problems, Powell received the baton from Bolt well ahead of the other teams, crossing the line in both the fastest electronically timed anchor run ever (8.70 seconds), and an overall World Record time of 37.10 seconds. This was a full 0.30 seconds quicker than the previous world record of 37.40 set by the Americans. Usain Bolt now had three gold medals and three World Records to his credit, and Jamaica had won 5 of the 6 available gold medals in the sprints, the only country to achieve this feat other than the American teams of 1984 and 1988. This made Jamaicans characterize this Olympic Games as the "JAlympics".Jamaica's last medal of the games came in the women's 4 x 400 m relay. The team of Shericka Williams, Shereefa Lloyd, Rosemarie Whyte and Novlene Williams claimed bronze. This finally gave Jamaica a medal tally of 6 gold’s, 3 silvers and 2 bronzes, smashing the previous national record that was set in 1952, and finishing 13th in the medal table.

Late 2000’sBefore the 2009 World Championships in Berlin the Jamaican team was hit by two scandals, a drug scandal with five athletes failing drug tests and

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the Jamaican athletic association threatening to throw out members of Stephen Francis's MVP track club which includes Asafa Powell, Brigitte Foster-Hylton, Shericka Williams and Shelly-Ann Fraser after they refused to attend the pre-competition Jamaican training camp. However, this didn't hinder superstar Jamaican triple Olympic champion Usain Bolt in the 100 m on the 16 August winning gold by smashing his previous world record of 9.69 by 0.11 seconds and running an astonishing 9.58 seconds beating American Tyson Gay by two metres despite Gay running a national record of 9.71. Fellow Jamaican former world record holder Asafa Powell won bronze in a season's best of 9.84. Bolt broke the 100 m world record by the biggest margin ever in the modern era and became the first human to go under 9.6 seconds.The very next day on the 17 August was the final of the women's 100 m. Four Jamaicans had made the final (Aleen Bailey, Shelly-Ann Fraser, Kerron Stewart and Veronica Campbell-Brown) and although the possible 1-2-3-4 failed to materialise Shelly-Ann Fraser sprinted to World gold in 10.73 seconds breaking the great Merlene Ottey 13 year-old national record. Kerron Stewart closed quickly in final stages to get her first World Championship silver in 10.75 seconds equalling her personal best. This meant that after day 3 of the Championships Jamaica were top of the medal table.On the 18 August in the final of the women's 400 m Shericka Williams followed her Olympic silver with World silver in a personal best time of 49.32 behind Jamaican-born Sanya Richards.On day 5 of the championships Jamaicans Brigitte Foster-Hylton and Delloreen Ennis-London made the 100 m hurdles final and Brigitte Foster-Hylton finally delivered on her potential and winning her first world title in 12.51 at the age of 34 with Ennis-London getting bronze with 12.55 also at the age of 35. This brought the Jamaican medal tally to 3 gold’s 2 silvers and 2 bronzes.The next day was the night of the women's 400 m hurdles final and the men's 200 m final. First up were the women's 400 m hurdles with Olympic champion Melaine Walker despite not being favorite Walker flew to a new championship record of 52.42 to win the gold in the second fastest time in history. This took Jamaica above USA at the top of the medal table for the second time of the championships.On the same night Usain Bolt lined up for the 200 m final despite looking fatigued for the preliminary rounds in the final he ran a world record time of 19.19 seconds meaning that for everyone of his gold’s he had broken the world record and also that in Berlin he had knocked more than a tenth of a second of both his previous world records. The final was the first to have five men going under 20 seconds but despite this Bolt was two meters ahead of the field coming of the bend and just kept on running.

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On the 21 August double Olympic champion Veronica Campbell-Brown couldn't replicate Bolt's 200 m success as she won silver in the 200 m final behind American Allyson Felix in a time of 22.35.On day 8 of the Championships was the day of the sprint relays and the women's 4x100 m was without USA meaning that Jamaica were clear favorites as long as they got the baton round which is what they did as the team of Simone Facey 200 m finalist, Shelly-Ann Fraser 100 m gold medalist, Aleen Bailey 100 m finalist and Kerron Stewart 100 m silver medalist on the final leg ran 42.06 to win Jamaica's 6th gold medal. The male quartet were seemingly inspired by their female counterparts as the team of Steve Mullings 200 m finalist, Michael Frater 100 m semi-finalist, Usain Bolt Double World Champion, Triple Olympic champion and Triple world record holder and on the last leg Asafa Powell world bronze medalist as he anchored the team to a new championship record of 37.31.This also meant Jamaica had 7 championship gold’s doubling the tally of all previous championships altogether with one more event to go.Jamaica's final medal came in women's 4x400 m relay as the quartet of Rosemarie Whyte, Novlene Williams-Thousandls, Shereefa Lloyd and Shericka Williams comfortably beat the Russia team to win a silver medal meaning Jamaica finished the Championships 2nd on the medal table with 7 gold’s, 4 silvers and 2 bronzes.

2010’sMany of Jamaica's superstars didn't attend the 2010 Commonwealth Games in Delhi mainly because of it being held outside of the traditional athletics season. The weakened Jamaica team came back from Delhi with the 2 gold’s, 4 silver and 1 bronze. The gold’s came from Lerone Clarke in the men's 100m winning despite being only the 8th ranked Jamaican in the world that year and Trecia Smith retained her women's triple jump title from Melbourne with a jump of 14.19m. The four silvers came from Dorian Scott in the men's shot put, Sheeree Francis in the women's high jump, Lansford Spence in the men's 200m and the Men's 4x100m relay team. Nickiesha Wilson won bronze in the women's 400m hurdles.

Youth athletic development in Jamaica

Most Jamaican schools have an athletics program in the curriculum, so Jamaican children are into athletics at a young age. Budding young athletes have to impress at primary school level as this can get them recognized by good athletics schools like Kingston College and Veer Technical High. The most important athletics event in Jamaica is the VMBS Boys and Girls Athletics Championships (colloquially known simply as 'Champs')[1] which begun in 1910 at Sabina Park and were won by Woolmer’s High School, these championships are a chance for athletes under 19 to show off their talents to national and overseas coaches. These championships are incredibly popular in Jamaica and the athletes are normally competing to crowds of 20-25,000 people which is good preparation for

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major championships and some of the championship records are world class. The championships are the climax of a series of athletics meets for under-19s in Jamaica and this is sithousandar to the grand-prix series which is normally climaxed by a major championship in senior athletics. Dominant athletes are normally picked for the Penn Relays which is a competition where the best Jamaican schools and universities compete against the best American schools and universities. Herb McKenley entered the first Jamaican high school team in to the Penn Relays in 1964 and since then Jamaicans have won more than half the events.

Jamaicans in America

Many Jamaican athletes chose to train in the United States to use the better facilities. There are currently 21 Jamaican coaches in American universities. The American university system gives athletes the chance to continue their academic studies and train to become an international athlete at the same time. Over 200 Jamaican athletes train in America. Most of Jamaica’s successful athletes have come through the American collegial system, including Jamaican pioneers Herb Mckenley, who attended the University of Illinois, Leslie Laing, who attended University of California and George Rhoden, who attended Morgan State University. Although in Jamaicans are starting to stay in Jamaica with successful results.

Coaching in Jamaica

In recent years, Jamaican athletes have decided to stay in Jamaica to train. Stephen Francis a Jamaican coach created the MVP (Maximizing Velocity and Power) club in 2001 based in University of Technology (UTech), Kingston. He created this club because he felt Jamaican athletes were becoming "Americans" not interested in coming back to Jamaica. In 2001 Brigitte Foster-Hylton came from America and joined this club. Foster was an unknown in the first year so no one was interested in sponsoring her. Francis sold his car to keep funding the club. In late 2001 Asafa Powell an athlete with a personal best of 10.70 joined the club. In the years to come Asafa Powell smashed the 100 m world record twice. Bridgette set a new national record in the 100 m hurdles and is now Commonwealth champion. Sherone Simpson hadn’t won a race and since joining the club she is now one of the world’s top sprinters and Olympic silver medalist. Francis also coaches 100 m Olympic Champion Shelly-Ann Fraser, Olympic 400 m silver medalist Shericka Williams and 400 m hurdles Olympic Gold medalist Melaine Walker . Francis has also influenced the careers of Ainsley Waugh and Germaine Mason. Jamaica's recent successes are thanks to home based coaches like Stephen Francis and if Jamaica can continue producing coaches like Stephen Francis they will remain successful. A few years ago the Jamaican Amateur Athletic Association (JAAA) built the High Performance Training Centre in UTech to try to get athletes to stay in Jamaica since it was built there are now several high profile athletes from all over the Caribbean training there including triple Olympic

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champion Usain Bolt, under the tutelage of Jamaican Sprint Guru Glen Thousandls. Glen Thousandls has recently set up a new club in Jamaica called the Racers Track Club which has athletes such as Usain Bolt and Daniel Bailey from Antigua.

Jamaican-born athletes who have competed for other countries

Many Jamaican-born athletes have chosen to compete for other nations. Linford Christie was born in Saint Andrew, Jamaica he immigrated to Britain at the age of seven and competed for them. He won three European Championship gold’s, three Commonwealth gold’s, one World gold and an Olympic Gold medal in the 100 m. Tessa Sanderson was born in Saint Catherine, Jamaica she immigrated to Britain she won two Commonwealth gold’s and an Olympic Gold for her adopted nation. Former world record holder Donovan Bailey was born in Manchester, Jamaica but immigrated to Canada at the age of 13. He went to win 3 World Championship gold and 2 Olympic Gold’s for Canada. Sanya Richards was born in Kingston, Jamaica she moved to America at twelve years old. Despite being the daughter of a Jamaican football player Sanya chose to compete for the United States. In 2005 she won a silver medal at the World Championships and in 2008 won Olympic bronze. However in 2009 she finally fulfilled her potential by becoming world champion in the 400 m. Canadian Ben Johnson was born in Falmouth, Jamaica and immigrated to Canada at the age of 15 he has won two Olympic bronzes. Angella Taylor was born in Jamaica but competed for Canada. She won two Commonwealth gold’s it was later discovered that she was part of a doping regime with Ben Johnson. Sprinter Charmaine Crooks competed at four consecutive Olympics for Canada winning a silver medal in the 4x400 m relay but was actually born in Mandeville, Jamaica. High jumper Germaine Mason originally competed for Jamaica as he was born in Kingston but switched to Great Britain as his father was born there. He won an Olympic silver medal in 2008.

Athletes who have Jamaican parentage

There are also some star athletes with Jamaican parentage. Kelly Holmes’s father is Jamaican. Kelly won two Olympic Gold in 2004 and has won two Commonwealth Gold for Great Britain. Denise Lewis’s mother was born in Hanover, Jamaica. Denise won Olympic gold in 2000. She also won a European Championship gold and two Commonwealth gold’s for Great Britain. Both of hurdler Colin Jackson’s parents were born in Jamaica but he competed for Great Britain. Colin won two World Championship gold’s and an Olympic Silver. American sprinter Inger Thousandler is the daughter of Jamaican Olympic legend Lennox Thousandler. Inger won two World Championship gold’s. Italian long jumper Fiona May has Jamaican parentage. Fiona won two World Championship gold’s. Derrick Atkins won 100 m silver at the 2007 World Championships he is the cousin of former world record holder Asafa Powell as his parents are originally from Jamaica. Great Britain's 2009 world heptathlon champion Jessica Ennis has a

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father who was born in St Catherine, Jamaica and moved to Britain when he was 13. The mother of former Trinidad sprinter Ato Boldon is also Jamaican.As we can see, there were too many athletes being used by other countries, providing the glory for them instead of their natural country. But the big question is how do they do it?

How do they do it?

Since 1979, all islands from Caribbean got together and established a few directives which would help to get better athletes and prepared them to represent their countries, and the Caribbean community to the world.It was a simple task; the main way to accomplish it was to improve the basic education system, building better equipments which would allow them to get young athletes. But this wasn’t enough. Nobody could accomplish better results alone.So they reactivated a competitive program with fifty years of existence, but executed without consistence, between all the Caribbean Islands. Following the tradition of the Olympic flame, the organizing committee of Cartagena de India’s built a new structure of the games Central American and Caribbean countries with the following modalities

Caribbean Olympic Games

There should be games every four years. Exactly one year before the Olympic Games.The Central American and Caribbean Games (or CACGs) are a multi-sport regional championships event, held quadrennial (every 4 years), typically in the middle (even) year between Summer Olympics. The Games are for countries in Central America, the Caribbean, Mexico, Bermuda, and the South American countries of Surinam, Guyana, Colombia and Venezuela.The Games are overseen by the Central American and Caribbean Sports Organization (CASCO) (the organization also goes by the acronym "ODECABE" (pronounced "O-da-cob-be") from its full Spanish name: Organización Deportiva Centroamericana y del Caribe).[1] They are designed to provide a step between sub-CACG-region Games held the first year following a Summer Olympics (e.g. Central American Games) and the Continental Championships, the Pan American Games, held the year before the Summer Olympics.The most recent CACGs occurred in July 2010 in Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. The next edition will take place in July 2014 in Veracruz, Mexico.

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Bobsleigh or bobsled is a winter sport in which teams of two or four make timed runs down narrow, twisting, banked, iced tracks in a gravity-powered sled that are combined to calculate the final score.

The various types of sleds came several years before the first tracks were built in St. Moritz, Switzerland, where the original bobsleds were adapted upsized luge/skeleton sleds designed by the adventurously wealthy to carry passengers. All three types were adapted from boys delivery sleds and toboggans.

Competition naturally followed, and to protect the working class and rich visitors in the streets and byways of St Moritz, hotel owner Caspar Badrutt, owner of the historic Krup Hotel and the later Palace Hotel, built the first familiarly configured 'half-pipe' track circa 1870. It has hosted the sports during two Olympics and is still in use today.

International bobsleigh competitions are governed by the Fédération Internationale de Bobsleigh et de Tobogganing (FIBT). National competitions are often governed by bodies such as the United States Bobsled and Skeleton Federation and Bobsleigh Canada Skeleton.

The Jamaican four-man bobsled team debuted at the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary, Alberta. There they quickly became a fan favorite largely because of their status position as the ultimate 'underdog' story of the games. Not only was there the novelty of having a tropical country compete in a cold-weather sport, but they had very little practice going down a bobsled track before, and they borrowed spare sleds from other countries to compete. In a show of worldly brotherhood, other bobsledders were quick to give them guidance and support. They did not officially finish after losing control of the sled and crashing during one of their four runs. However, they showed significant improvement throughout the games and impressed observers with some fast starts. After crashing, they famously got out of their sled and walked with it to the finish line to great applause. This team was the inspiration for a

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major motion picture, Cool Running’s featuring John Candy as the team's coach. The characters in the film are fictional, although the original footage of the crash is used during the film. The film's depiction of the post-crash rescue was changed to show the bobsledders carrying the sled over the line on their shoulders for dramatic effect.

The team returned to the Olympics in the 1992 Winter Olympics in Albertville, France, but finished poorly. They qualified again for the 1994 Winter Olympics in Lillehammer, Norway. There, the Jamaican four sleds stunned many of their critics by finishing in 14th place, ahead of the United States, Russia, Australia, France and one sled from Italy.

In 2000, the Jamaican bobsled team won the gold medal at the World Push Championships in Monaco.

The Jamaican Bobsled Team failed to qualify for both the 2006 Winter Olympics in Torino, Italy and the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver, Canada.

Two American businessmen, George Fitch, the first President of the Jamaica Bobsleigh Federation and businessman William Maloney, who at the time both lived in Jamaica, formed the JBF. These opportunistic and enterprising young men latched on to a novel idea one night in Kingston. Having seen the local pushcart derby and noting its similarity with bobsledding, and recognizing the abundance of athletic talent in Jamaica, both gentlemen concluded what was not so obvious, that Jamaica and bobsledding was a natural fit. Supported by Mr. Michael Fennel, President of the Jamaica Olympic Association, the two gentlemen proceeded to built in place the elements of a dream that was destined to become a legend.

The first challenge was to recruit athletes for the program. Despite the appeal of the opportunity to compete in the Olympic Games, this challenge proved formidable.

At the first recruitment meeting, the story goes that George Fitch gave an introductory talk on the sport to a hall full of curious and hopeful young athletes. He then proceeded to turn off the lights to show a video clip on the sport, which had a few crashes, some of them quite frightening. When the lights came back on, George found himself standing in an almost empty hall. Desire turned to dread and men fled. The organizer’s

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determination to go on despite this early setback was to come to characterize Jamaica Bobsleigh. Running out of options, the founders approached the Jamaica Defense Force to ask for volunteers, or to have prospects ‘volunteered’ as only the army could do. Out of this came the first stalwarts of the Jamaica Bobsleigh team, Dudley Stokes, Devon Harris, and Michael White. Through various other selection activities other athletes were added, Freddie Powell and Clayton Solomon. This initial athlete selection was completed by October 1987. Caswell

Allen was to join the team later. Funded by George Fitch and the Jamaica Tourist Board, the athletes embarked on a ‘crash’ course in bobsledding. The comfort of running and weight training in Jamaica was soon replaced with the harsh realities of bobsled training in Lake Placid, New York, and Igls, Austria. Dudley Stokes by this time had been selected as the Driver for the team based on his exceptional concentration and helicopter piloting experience. Learning was difficult and painful. The team only had access to poor equipment and crashed repeatedly. Coaches were retained from the USA and gave an immediate boost to the team.

The team only had access to poor equipment and crashed repeatedly. Coaches were retained from the USA and gave an immediate boost to the team.

Things improved even more with the capable assistance of Sepp Haidacher of Austria who became and remains the team’s godfather. By this time the team began to receive attention from the North American media. The angle was predictable – Jamaica Bobsleigh - what a laugh. This attitude of the media did little to help the team in its struggle to be recognized by the Fédération International de Bobsleigh et de Tobogganing (FIBT). Where, in true Jamaican style, the team expected a warm greeting and welcome from the FIBT, instead it found cold shoulders and stony faces. Determined, the JBF succeeded in entering both a 2-man and 4-man team in the XV Olympic Winter Games that was held in Calgary, Canada in 1988. By the start of the 1988 Winter Olympic Games the popularity of the team was widespread based on grassroots support from those who favored the unusual and the underdog. Supporters around the world formed the team into their own conceptions, a popular one being that the team was made up of dread-locked, fearless, semi-athletes out to conquer Babylon. The team in the mean time was caught off guard by its popularity. A fund raising party held during the first week of the Olympics was hugely popular and T-shirts and sweatshirts were now being sold by the box-load, and the team’s song ‘Hobbin and a Bobbin’ was to be heard everywhere. The task of public relations and sales fell to Freddie Powell who adopted this role naturally. He was soft-spoken, kind, bearded and was a reggae singer, ideal for public consumption. While the public hysteria over the team

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mushroomed, the matter of the Olympic competition remained fixed in the minds of the athletes. First on the schedule was the 2-man competition. At the first recruitment meeting, the story goes that George Fitch gave an introductory talk on the sport to a hall full of curious and hopeful young athletes. He then proceeded to turn off the lights to show a video clip on the sport, which had a few crashes, some of them quite frightening. When the lights came back on, George found himself standing in an almost empty hall. Desire turned to dread and men fled. The organizer’s determination to go on despite this early setback was to come to characterize Jamaica Bobsleigh. Running out of options, the founders approached the Jamaica Defense Force to ask for volunteers, or to have prospects ‘volunteered’ as only the army could do. Out of this came the first stalwarts of the Jamaica Bobsleigh team, Dudley Stokes, Devon Harris, and Michael White. Through various other selection activities other athletes were added, Freddie Powell and Clayton Solomon. This initial athlete selection was completed by October 1987. Caswell Allen was to join the team later.

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About 40 years ago, a few Islands from the Caribbean, begun a movement to improve the sports representation. Doing that allowed them to get younger athletes trained them and get them where they are now.

A great number of Caribbean athletes are considered the best of the world, but that is not the end because they have already the next generation ready to play for the highest place of the podium.

Let’s see what the future holds for the Caribbean athletes.

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DK Editors, World Atlas 2010 Henke, Holger, and Fred Reno, eds. Modern Political Culture in the Caribbean Heuman, Gad. The Caribbean: Brief Histories Maingot, Anthony P. The United States and the Caribbean

Webgraphy http://wwwmayagez2010.com