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THE SHADOW OF WAR International Affairs 1921-1941 A26q 7.3.20
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THE SHADOW OF WAR - sslaughterhouse.com · (June 1941) Soviet Aggression ... Japanese Aggression 1931-1941 . Japanese Aggression through 1941 . FROM ISOLATIONISM TO WAR DISPUTES WITH

Jul 20, 2018

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  • THE SHADOW

    OF WAR

    International Affairs

    1921-1941

    A26q 7.3.20

  • GUIDING QUESTION

    How and for what reasons did

    U.S. foreign policy change

    between 1920 and 1941?

    (To what extent did the United States

    adopt an isolationist policy in the 1920s

    and 1930s?)

  • U.S. Foreign Policy to WWI

    isolationism

    nationalism

    internationalism

  • DIPLOMACY IN THE 1920S:

    ENGAGEMENT WITHOUT ENTANGLEMENTS

    Peace with Germany, 1921

    League of Nations - unofficial observers

    Washington Conference (1922) Five-Power Naval Treaty of 1922

    Four-Power Treaty

    Nine-Power Treaty Open Door in China

    Significance: battleships and aircraft carriers only; no enforcement mechanism

    Kellogg-Briand Pact (Pact of Paris) (1928) Problems: defensive wars, no enforcement mechanism

    Fordney-McCumber Tariff (1922)

    Dawes Plan (1924)

  • DIPLOMACY IN THE 1930s:

    FROM ENGAGEMENT TO ISOLATIONISM

    Manchuria (1931) - Stimson Doctrine (1932) Non-recognition of acquisition of territory by force (against the

    League of Nations)

    Hoover troops out of Haiti (1932), Nicaragua (1933)

    Good Neighbor Policy 1933 US renounced intervention (Roosevelt Corollary)

    1934 - Marines pulled out of Haiti

    1934 Cuba released from terms of Platt Amendment

    1938 Mexico nationalized oil cos.; money settlement instead

    armed intervention

    U.S. recognized the Soviet Union (1933)

    World Economic (London) Conference (1933)

  • FROM ISOLATIONISM TO WAR

    Nye Committee (1934)

    Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936 and 1937

    German aggression 1935 compulsory

    military service; air force and armored divisions

    Rhineland, 1936

    Austria, 1938

    Munich Conference (Sept 1938)

    appeasement

    March 1939 Germany took remainder of Czechoslovakia

  • FROM ISOLATIONISM TO WAR

    Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact (August 1939)

    Invasion of Poland (Sept 1, 1939)

    blitzkrieg Denmark

    Norway

    France

    Dunkirk

    Battle of Britain (Aug. 1940 June 1941)

    Invasion of Soviet Union (June 1941)

    Soviet Aggression Eastern Poland (Sept 1939)

    Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania (1940)

    moral embargo against USSR

  • FROM ISOLATIONISM TO WAR

    FDRs Quarantine speech (1937, after Japanese invasion of China) of all AGGRESSOR NATIONS

    Preparedness Change in US Policy

    Most alarmed by German conquests, but wanted no part in war

    FDR: Britain essential to US defense; began chipping away at neutrality legislation any way he could to assist GB

    cash-and-carry policy (1939)

    Selective Service Act (Sept 1940)

    Destroyers for Bases Deal (Sept 1940)

    Election of 1940 Wendall Willkie

    Anti-Third Term Buttons, 1940

  • Gallup Polls: European War and World War 19381940

  • FROM ISOLATIONISM TO WAR

    Arsenal of Democracy

    Lend-Lease Act (March 1941)

    America First Committee

    shoot on sight (July 1941)

    Atlantic Charter (Aug 1941)

    America First bumper sticker: "Keep Our Boys at Home" (Herbert Hoover Presidential Library)

    Roosevelt and Churchill at Atlantic Charter

    Meeting, 1941 (Franklin D. Roosevelt Library)

  • Japanese Aggression 1931-1941

  • Japanese Aggression through 1941

  • FROM ISOLATIONISM TO WAR

    DISPUTES WITH JAPAN

    economic pressure on Japan (steel, oil)

    Pearl Harbor (Dec 7 1941) 2400 killed (over 1100 on Arizona), 1200 wounded;

    20 warships sunk or severely damaged; 150 planes destroyed

    The U.S.S. West Virginia, Pearl Harbor (U.S. Army)

    FDR before

    Congress asking

    for a Declaration

    of War against

    Japan, Dec. 8,

    1941

  • Japanese

    Expansion and

    Early Battles in

    the Pacific