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Stress and Anxiety

Stress and anxiety 2014

Jul 15, 2015



Stress and Anxiety

Stress and Anxiety

Learning OutcomesState the different types of anxiety (at least 4 types)Define types of stress and anxietyState ways in which anxiety is measured and analyse the pros and cons of different measuresExplain the relationship between eustress, distress, hypo and hyper stressExplain the relationship between anxiety and stressEffects of arousal and anxietyArousal is measured in the Reticular activating system in the brain stemResponsible for Organising behaviourArousal effects behaviourEffects of arousal not always negative

Negative v positiveNegative effectsDistress (or commonly stress)Cognitive effectsSomatic effectsConfusionLack of concentrationIrrational thoughtIncreased heart rateIncreased blood pressuresweatingPositiveEustressHypostressHyperstressStress or feelings experienced when one has exceeded the limit of ones adaptability

Or when a person has taken on more than they can handleWhen someone has not enough stress in their life. They are bored, physically immobile or unchallenged.

May have feelings of restlessness or lack of inspirationEustressDistressHypostressHyperstressDefinitions of StressUsed to describe negative feelings a person experiences in a potentially threatening situation.

Seyle (1956) The non-specific response of the body to any demand made on it.

If we are placed in a situation in which we feel pressurised, unable to meet the task or worried about the consequences, we may experience stress.Examples of stressors

Stress can be initiated by stressors (perceived demands), a stressor could be any demands placed on the performer that initiate stress:

Threatens our self-esteem

e.g. audienceCauses us personal harm

e.g. fear of injuryDevelops fear of the unknowne.g. performance of the oppositionCauses frustration

e.g. mistakes being madeIncreases pressuree.g. pressure from parents, crowd and/or coachStressorStress responseStress experienceFrustration, Foul, conflictCompetition DemandsClimate, Fatigue, Playing badly, Injury worryAlarm, Resist, exhaust. Cognitive or somaticEustress or distress!

McGrath (1970) suggest that when placed in a stressful situation, a performer would respond by progressing through four stages:Environment DemandsPerception of the environmental demandsStress response (physical & psychological)Actual behaviourAthlete perception is so important!Eustress or DistressEnhanced or impaired performanceSituationThreat or challengeThe Effects of Stress on PerformanceAnxietyAnxiety is a negative aspect of stress and includes irrational thoughts and fear of failure

Anxiety When an athletes performance suffers in an important event, it is often because of too much worry about the outcomebeing solely concerned with winning causes an increase in anxiety.T. Orlick, Psyching for SportMental training for athletes, 1986Causes = expectations, audience teammates evaluation (evaluation apprehension)

Two components of AnxietyCognitive anxiety = Thoughts PsychologicalThoughts, nervousness, apprehension or worry that a performer has about their lack of ability to complete a task.

Somatic Anxiety = physiologicalPhysiological responses to a situation where the performer feels they may not cope increased hr, sweaty palms, muscle tension.Cognitive responses to anxietySomatic responses to anxiety Loss of concentration Feelings on apprehension inability to cope Attentional narrowing Fear of failure

These are PYSCHOLOGICAL responses

Sweating Increased muscle tensionFeelings of nausea Increased heart rate Increased breathing rate

These are PHYSIOLOGICAL responses

Symptoms of AnxietyCognitive State Anxiety = worry, negativity, nervousnessSomatic State Anxiety = perception of physiological changesThree further typesResearchers have distinguished

State Anxiety (A-state) = anxiety felt in a particular situation.A temporary emotional reaction of someone in a situation that they experience as threatening. E.G.A basketball players level of state anxiety would change during the match.

Prior to tip off elevated level (nerves)During match lower levelFinal seconds faced with 3 free throws extremely high level.

Trait anxiety (A-trait) = an enduring personality trait, giving a tendency to view all situations as threatening. Anxiety as a personality trait is a tendency to react to situations in an anxious way.E.G.

Two rugby players with equal skill are put under pressure to kick a last minute goal.

They have different state anxiety reactions to the situation because of their personalities their level of trait anxiety.

Laid back (low trait anxiety), doesnt perceive kick as overally threatening, doesnt experience any more state anxiety than expected.

2) High trait anxiety, finds all situations threatening. Competitive AnxietyForm of anxiety is specific to sportThreats include:Not playing wellLetting team downMeeting training demands before the eventPersonal relationshipsInjuryMartens the tendency to see competitive situations as threatening

There is a direct relationship between a persons level of trait and state anxiety.Those who score high on measures of trait anxiety experience more state anxiety in highly competitive and evaluative situations.Through experience, an athlete with high trait anxiety can learn to cope with a particular situation and lower their state anxiety.Knowledge of a persons level of trait anxiety will enable a prediction to be made about how they will react to competitions, being assessed and in threatening conditions. Measuring AnxietyMEASUREMENT OF STRESS & AnxietyQUESTIONNAIRESMartens Sport Competitive Anxiety Test (SCAT - 1977)measures emotional and physiological responses to stress in the competitive situationSpeilbergers State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI - 1970)measures emotional and physiological responses to stress in general and specific situationsCompetitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI 1990)

Pros and ConsQuick EasyCheapLots of info Socially acceptable answersMisunderstanding questionMore measuresBEHAVIOURAL MEASURESthe performance of sports players is observeda subjective method

PHYSIOLOGICAL MEASURESrequire laboratory testing equipment, objective methodsexamples :galvanic skin responseElectrocardiogram (ECG)Electroencephalogram (EEG)

ProblemsObservations involves looking for symptoms of anxietyCan take place in artificial environments which lead to extra anxietyPhysiological methods put performers in artificial circumstances Wired upCan increase anxietyWhat did you learn today?So.Learning OutcomesState the different types of anxiety (at least 4 types)Define types of stress and anxietyState ways in which anxiety is measured and analyse the pros and cons of different measuresExplain the relationship between eustress, distress, hypo and hyper stressExplain the relationship between anxiety and stressLearning OutcomesDescribe and demonstrate Anxiety control techniquesExplain how different techniques are used to control anxiety Apply knowledge to exam questions

Controlling StressThe coach and performer can control stress through approaching the problem in two ways: 1) Controlling & redirecting the performers thoughts & attention - reducing cognitive anxiety. 2) Reducing & controlling the physiological components of anxiety reducing somatic anxiety.

Cognitive techniques for controlling anxiety and stressImagery by method of relaxing by creating mental images to escape the immediate effects of stress. The principle is to recreate an environment that is very relaxing.

Visualisation/Mental Practice or rehearsal the process of creating a mental image of what you want to happen or feel, locking into the perfect performance. This diverts attention away from the cause of anxiety.Internal/externalAttention control maintaining concentration on appropriate cues. This aims to improve the performers ability to focus on appropriate cues then the number of errors caused by other distractions is reduced. Being in the zone!

Self-talk developing positive thoughts about ones actions. Is vital that self talk remains positive and focus on self-instructing motivational content. Can be planned.Thought Stopping stopping a negative thought and replacing it with a positive one!

Cognitive relabeling Athletes can 'label' their arousal/stress in different ways.An athlete who labels arousal before a game as apprehension (negative anxiety) can 're-label' it as excitement, which may cause a change in emotion and have a positive effect on performance.

Goal SettingA technique used to control anxiety by directing attention away from stress and towards an achievable target.

Outcome goals achievement of a particular result e.g. qualifying for the next round. Achievement will increase motivation but the performer cannot control the factors influencing the outcome e.g. officials, opposition and weather. Can lead to increase in anxiety if result is not achieved.Performance goals the performers attempts are judged against others or even with themselves. E.G. achieving a certain time in a competition. Motivation will be maintained if not increased.

Process goal concentrate on the performers techniques and tactics, process goals often influence performance goals. E.g. to perform a slower backswing during a bunker shot may well improve efficiency of the stroke. Somatic techniques for controlling anxiety and stressBiofeedback information about the changes in physiological variables; the performer watches a monitor displaying changes in readings. The use of physiological measuring equipment to help teach an athlete how to control physiological responses E.G. heart rate, using a pulsometer or heart rate monitor -slowing down heartbeat. Finger thermometers (as high arousal/stress leads to less blood being pumped to extremities) Electromyograms (to give athlete information about levels of muscle tension).Breathing control using diaphragmatic breathing (breathing deeply) as a means of focusing on relaxation. Encourages full oxygen exchange, reduces the heart rate and lowers/stabilises blood pressure.

Centering using deep breathing as a way of refocusing your concentration. Requires the performer to focus particularly on the rate of breathing and maintaining a slow, steady pace.

Progressive muscular relaxation (PMR) learning to be aware of the tension present in muscles and removing it by relaxing. This is done by alternating extreme tension that is held for a few seconds the releasing the tension to relax.

And meditationExam question

The mark scheme..

Learning OutcomesDescribe and demonstrate Anxiety control techniquesExplain how different techniques are used to control anxiety Apply knowledge to exam questions

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