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Spanish mathematicians

Jun 21, 2015



Trabajo realizado sobre los matemáticos y pensadores andalusíes para un proyecto eTwinning.

  • 1. Spanish mathematicians in Al- Andalus Performed by students of 2nd ESO IES Odra-Pisuerga for proyecto eTwinning "Sharing Geometry"

2. In Europe, mathematics has no origin as old as in many countries in the Far and Middle East, reaching only notable successes in the medieval era and especially developed in the Renaissance. In the Middle Ages can be seen certain cultural obscurantism, no doubt because of war and social events of the time. Only some religious monasteries some manuscripts, evidence of a cultural awakening first were written. Mathematics comes to Europe from contact with the Arabs. Until that time, the geometry of the Greeks to which he had not been added almost nothing was known. It was the Arabs who introduced the decimal system, and zero positional Hindus and generalized by the Arabs, Algebra and Trigonometry in the countries they conquered numbering. The numbers were natural, rational, irrational, all positive. The negatives were false solutions. After reading the book "The Lord Zero" have made this little research on the role of the Arabs in Spain in the development of mathematics during the Middle Ages. 3. - Expansion in the time of Muhammad years 622 632 - Expansion during the Orthodox Caliphate years 632-661 - Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate years 661-750 Fuente: Wikipedia Map of the Arab expansion from Muhammad to reach the Al-Andalus 4. The birth of Arab figures In the ninth century to the unity of the Arab-Muslim empire have disintegrated and North Africa and Muslim Spain no longer belonged to the Caliphate of Baghdad, but due to pilgrimages to Mecca, were frequent commercial exchanges. When East Arab met Hindu arithmetic, quickly spread throughout the Maghreb and Spain. Until then, Western calculators used archaic methods, but from the mid-ninth century Hindu figures also used as their eastern brethren, and, like them, the writing in the sand. At first, the script was very similar, but has evolved over time, and it is these Western Arabic numerals, also called "ghobar figures" which, from Spain, becoming the Christian peoples of medieval Europe. 5. Around the year 967, a French monk named Gerbert d'Aurillac, traveled to the court of the Count of Barcelona, Borrell II, where he remained three years in the monastery of Santa Maria de Ripoll, Gerona, where possibly traveled to Cordoba and Sevilla, which allowed him to make contact with Arabic numerals and started the study of mathematics and astronomy. Then he taught at Reims where he taught and spread the Arabic numerals. He later became Pope with the name of Sylvester II. By Celia Ruiz Garca In addition to spreading the Arabic numerals, popularized the use of the astrolabe is an astronomical unit. He also produced a new version of the monochord, a consistent musical instrument in a soundboard on which a variable-length string with which the sound vibrations were measured and tense musical intervals Gerberto dAurillac, the mathematician Pope 6. The Toledo School of Translators In the cultural environment of the mid-twelfth century born a phenomenon known as the School of Translators of Toledo, which was not a school but a group of Christian, Jewish and Arab scholars who worked together in research and translation of all Arab culture works of antiquity. It was a way to make them known to the rest of Europe. By Diego Merino Martnez This was during the first period with Archbishop Raimundo. During a second period with Alfonso X the Wise, specially treated for Astronomy, Physics and Mathematics translated. Thanks to this great boost Monarch Azarquiel treaties, Ptolemy and Abu Ali al-Haitam, but also works as recreational chess books, craps tables and collections of short stories as fruitful for Western literatures as Kalila and Dimna resulted and Sendebar. In this second phase translations are no longer done in Latin but in Castilian. Original works as the astronomical tables of Alfonso was also composed. 7. Abu-l-Qasim Maslama called al Mayrity Abu Al-Qasim Maslama born in Madrid in the mid- tenth century and died in Crdoba in 1007. Was very young I traveled to Crdoba where he was a pupil of important mathematicians as' Muhammad ibn Abd al Gafir and astronomer Abu Bakr ibn Abi Isa. He was an important scientific school in Cordoba where they studied and important mathematical astronomers as Ibn al Samh, Ibn al-Jayyt, Ibn al- Saffar, al-Zahrawi , Ibn-Khaldun and Kirmani. He wrote several works of commercial arithmetic, but more important is a Commentary on Ptolemy's Planisphere. He also wrote a short treatise on the astrolabe where its technical construction and instructions on their use is described. Both his works as his disciples enjoyed great fame and popularity throughout the Arab world and Latin of his day, and also had a decisive importance as a basis for the construction of the spherical astrolabe conducted later astronomers court of King Alfonso X the Wise. By J. Manuel Martn Garca 8. Summary table of the main disciples of Abu al-Qasim Maslama Abulhasar Ali Abensuleiman al-Zaharwi Born in Medina al-Zahra, near Cordoba city. He was wise in arithmetic and geometry. He practiced medicine with a big fame. He wrote about commercial contracts. He lived in Seville where he prospered as a wise illustrious. Abulcasim Asbag Abenmohmed el Garnati ibn al-Samh Born in Granada about 980 and died in the same city in 1035. Mathematical genius, knew of Arithmetic, Geometry and Astronomy. He also delved into grammar and Medicine. Alfonso X studied astronomy books and is believed to have written the manuscript could Arithmetic deposited in El Escorial, short treatise on arithmetic and computer to teach the simplest figures and calculations. Abuabdallah Muhammed Ibn Saffar al Cortobi Born in Crdoba of a noble family with scientific tradition. He became a scholar in Literature and Calculus. Became blind and paralyzed but this did not prevent him from devoting himself to teaching. He made a brief treatise on the astrolabe. After traveling in Morocco, Fez, Tunis and Baghdad, he returned to Spain where he died 9. Abubequer Ibn al Jayyat. Born in 980 got great command of mathematics and astronomy, especially in Geometry and Arithmetic. He was court astrologer of Cordoba, Toledo and Zaragoza. Abumoslem Omar Banahmed Ibn Jaldun al Jadram Born into a distinguished family in Seville, was educated in Crdoba. He died in Seville in 1057 after having achieved fame as a philosopher, mathematician, astronomer and physician. The remarkable influence of Maslama also evident through the huge number of his works which were translated into other languages such as that performed in the twelfth century Johannes Hispalensis of the work to that entitled al-Muamalat o Liber Mahameleth. This book has a theoretical part where is the theory of proportions and arithmetic operations and procedures which give good approximations for square roots inaccurate. References on solving equations of first and second degree are also given. They end up leaving Crdoba and leave to other cities where each was creating school so that several generations of mathematicians succeeded fairly competent around Al- Andalus. 10. Abu l-Hakam Amr ibn Abd al-Rahman ibn Ahmad ibn Ali al-Kirmani Born in Crdoba, where he was a pupil of Maslama, and died in Zaragoza in 1066. He was a mathematician, philosopher and physician who transmitted important knowledge of Eastern culture in Al-Andalus after traveling to major cities in the Arab East to study mathematics, medicine and astronomy. Throughout these trips not only acquired these traditional scientific knowledge, but also philosophical and literary, being the introducer of The Encyclopedia of the Brothers of Purity, Neoplatonic movement. A little later he moved to Zaragoza serving three kings of Taifa of Zaragoza in the second half of the eleventh century, Al-Muqtadir, Al-Mutaman and Al- Musta'in II, which was the grand vizier. Thus arose several scientific foci, in which mathematics was just a science practiced by scholars versed in multiple disciplines. By Jorge Prez Nogales 11. Ibn Mu'adh al-Jayyani By Andrea Ortega We know he was born in Jan, although the exact date is unknown. Member of a prominent family jienense Muslim jurists . Some of his ancestors were Kadis of Jan, Crdoba and Seville . He himself was qadi of Jan and Sevilla vizier . He traveled to Egypt during his trip to Mecca , where he came into contact with mathematicians of the time in the East. His fundamental contributions to mathematical knowledge were making mathematics understandable ratio of incommensurable magnitudes contained in the fifth book of Euclid's Elements as a rational reason ; make the first work or treatise known spherical trigonometry, largely thanks to the contributions of Egyptian mathematicians , which resolved several theorems and all problems arising in the spherical triangles when four of its elements are known and also , collected in a systematic way the mathematical knowledge of the time . Abd'Allah Muhammad Ibrahim al-Yayyani was a mathematician Al-Andalus, which particularly noted for his research and contributions in trigonometry, which was first dissociated studies astronomyi. 12. Al-Mutamn, the geometer King Yusuf Al- Mutamn was king of the Taifa of Zaragoza between 1081 and 1085 . He was a scholar king, protector of science and mathematics scholar The masterpiece in the intellectual field of Al- Mu'tamn was his Book of perfection and optical appearances Kitab al- Istikmal besides being a compendium of Greek mathematics of Euclid and Archimedes among others, and transmit Thabit ibn Qurraa teachings, the Banu Musa and Ibn al- Haytha enter original theorems. His work was transmitted through Maimonides to Egypt, and from there spread throughout central Asia, documenting even in Baghdad in the fourteenth century, but its influence did not reach the West. It studies the irrational numbers ,