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Mar 26, 2020




  • e-Proceeding of the Social Sciences Research (ICSSR 2016)

    e-Proceeding of the Social Sciences Research ICSSR 2016 (e-ISBN 978-967-0792-09-5).

    18 - 19 July 2016, Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA. Organized by




    Rodolfo M. Talua Department of Education

    Division of Leyte [email protected]

    Josephine C. Pelingon

    Leyte Normal University Mathematics Department

    [email protected]

    Rommel L.Verecio Leyte Normal University

    IT and Computer Education Department [email protected]


    The purpose of this study is to assess the socio-demographic profile, attitude toward ICT, computer self-efficacy, and level of ICT competency of elementary grades teachers of Leyte Division, Philippines. These variables were examined to find its relationship with respondents’ level of ICT competency. A total of 644 elementary grades teachers participated in this study. Descriptive correlational method using surveys, open-ended questions, and one-on-one interviews with selected teachers and ICT coordinators was employed. Purposive sampling was utilized to identify the sample schools from the list of DepEd Computerization Program (DCP) recipient schools.

    Findings revealed that age, teaching experience, and ICT training in computer schools are socio- demographic variables consistent to have significant relationship with attitude toward ICT, computer self-efficacy and level of ICT competency. Correspondingly, other findings showed that teachers have favorable attitude toward ICT and possess high level of computer self-efficacy. On the other hand, teachers are at the basic level of ICT competency based on the National ICT Competency Standard for Teachers (NICS-Teachers).

    In sum, ICT receives wider acceptance among elementary teachers in Leyte. It is recommended that ICT related trainings be designed to address the incompetency of teachers to help them acquire relevant ICT skills in teaching and move to the next higher ICT competency level.

    Keywords: Socio-demographics, Attitude toward ICT, Computer Self-Efficacy, ICT Competency, Elementary Teachers, Teacher Professional Development ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    mailto:[email protected] mailto:[email protected]

  • e-Proceeding of the Social Sciences Research (ICSSR 2016)

    e-Proceeding of the Social Sciences Research ICSSR 2016 (e-ISBN 978-967-0792-09-5).

    18 - 19 July 2016, Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA. Organized by


    1. Introduction

    Over the past years, the development of new technologies has been unstoppable as people continue to discover new technologies, advancing and improving through research and development. Together with technological explosion, knowledge explosion has increased exponentially from the time the World Wide Web was created. The internet made communication, collaboration and learning even faster, cheaper and convenient. While, younger people are the top consumers of these technologies, the potential of using ICT for educational purposes was viewed as a great opportunity by educators. Falk and Carlson (1992) agree that such technologies are not a threat, but rather, they present a good opportunity for teaching and learning. In the Philippines, the Department of Education (DepEd) believes to the premise that technology is a powerful tool for learning. The pedagogical benefits of technology in schools was well documented in the study of UP Statistical Research Center as reflected in students’ scores during National Achievement Test especially in Science. Other benefits of technology use in schools include the decrease of drop-out rate and increase in enrolment and completion rates.

    To sustain these pedagogical benefits of technology, the department implements the DepEd Computerization Program (DCP). This million peso investment envisions to address the ICT infrastructure backlog of both elementary and secondary schools throughout the country and improve teachers’ competencies to teach effectively. However, many challenges and setbacks are faced by the department along with the implementation of the program. Soriano (2009) exposes that the current situation of ICT in the country remains a large task. Some areas that need more focus by the department is student-computer and teacher-computer ratio, the lack of infrastructure, connectivity and access to technologies, computer literacy is not a requirement for teacher certification or licensure, and in-service training are generally limited to basic computer literacy. Soriano (2009) explains there is a need for more training on integrating ICT into the curriculum. While these challenges mentioned are being addressed by the DepEd Computerization Program (DCP), a feedback mechanism needs to be created to evaluate the impact of the program to education.

    Thus, this study serves as training needs assessment and ongoing feedback mechanism research to inform decision and policy makers whether the DepEd computerization Program (DCP) is indeed contributing to the department’s mission of providing equitable access to quality education for all Filipinos. Thus it is worth to know what interventions and programs can be done to improve the DepEd Computerization Program through the output of this research.

    2. Theoretical Rationale

    The theoretical underpinning of this study was anchored under the self-efficacy theory. Self-efficacy is defined by Bandura (1986) as peoples’ beliefs about their capabilities to exercise control over the events that affect their lives and their beliefs in their capabilities to mobilize the motivation, cognition resources, and courses of action needed to exercise control over task demands. Bandura listed four sources of information on which efficacy expectations are based upon; namely, performance accomplishments; vicarious (observational) experiences; verbal persuasions and emotional arousal (physiological and psychological states). Compeau and Higgins (1995) extended Banduras’ self-efficacy theory to the use of computers. They call this as computer self-efficacy theory. It was defined as “a judgment of one’s capability to use a computer” (p. 192). Situating Bandura’s self-efficacy theory (1977) and Compeau & Higgins’ (1995) computer self-efficacy theory in this study, performance accomplishments refer to the authentic ICT experiences of teachers. This

  • e-Proceeding of the Social Sciences Research (ICSSR 2016)

    e-Proceeding of the Social Sciences Research ICSSR 2016 (e-ISBN 978-967-0792-09-5).

    18 - 19 July 2016, Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA. Organized by


    includes experiences related to teaching as they utilize ICT resources. It may include experiences using the computer to prepare a lesson, monitoring and recording students’ performance, using online resources and the like. Vicarious (observational) experiences refer to observations of other teachers and peers using ICT in teaching. The demonstration of a colleague on how to use the internet to search online resources or observing a peer delivering a lesson using an interactive whiteboard and other technologies are examples of vicarious experiences. Verbal persuasions refer to the feedback a teacher receives from peers, principal, parents and students with regards to his/her use of ICT technologies in teaching. Physiological and psychological states refer to the physical (health condition) and emotional states (fear, anxiety, openness to learn ICT, and etc.) of the teacher.

    Bandura’s self-efficacy theory suggested that through the application of performance accomplishments, vicarious (observational) experiences, verbal persuasion, and physiological and psychological states, teachers’ self-efficacy can be enhanced. In effect, it can change their attitude toward ICT and eventually their teaching practices. Various researches studied self-efficacy in various fields. In these studies, self-efficacy has been an effective indicator of personal beliefs in implementing change. Leung (2004) observed that highly self-efficacious teachers have engaged in personal motivation and commitment to specific teaching practices with great willingness.

    3. Literature Review

    In a research conducted by DeLoughry (1993) on computer anxiety, computer experience is a variable most often mentioned as having the clearest relationship to computer anxiety. Prior positive experience coupled with lower anxiety may lead to more experience. While, a bad prior experience with computers may adversely affect attitude and lead to higher computer anxiety and avoidance to use computers. Elsaadani (2013) found that age is a significant factor when considering attitude toward ICT of teaching staff members in Egyptian HEIs. In the Philippines, studies conducted by The Asian Institute of Journalism and Communication to UNICEF (2003) focused on the Internet access and utilization habits and practices of Filipino children and youth. The highlights of the report show that more women are now online than men in the Philippines. While, majority of internet users in the country are young people. Schools and internet cafes remain the most popular access point especially among women. The analysis conducted by Alampay (2006) showed that age, level of education, availabilit

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