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Smelting The different types of smelting are: (i) reduction smelting; (ii) matte smelting; and (iii) flash smelting

Dec 27, 2015

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  • Slide 1
  • Smelting The different types of smelting are: (i) reduction smelting; (ii) matte smelting; and (iii) flash smelting
  • Slide 2
  • The reduction smelting process involves the reduction of oxidic sources of metals with carbon in the presence of a flux mineral + reducing agent + flux = metal + slag + gases Example : blast furnace smelting of iron
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  • The matte smelting process involves the fusion of sulfidic sources of metals with a flux without the use of any reducing agent sulfidic source concentrate + flux = matte + slag + gases Example : smelting of Cu or Ni ores speiss : a mixture of molten arsenides and antimonides of heavy metals
  • Slide 4
  • The flash smelting process combines into one the flash roasting and the smelting operations The sulfide concentrate fines react with oxygen at high temperatures. The oxidation process itself generates sufficient heat for the smelting process to occur simultaneously.
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  • Furnaces used in smelting process: reverberatory, direct electric arc, circular blast, flash smelter, rectangular, etc. Reverberatory furnace
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  • Furnaces used in smelting process: reverberatory, direct electric arc, circular blast, flash smelter, rectangular, etc. Flash smelter furnace (Inco technology)
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  • Furnaces used in smelting process: reverberatory, direct electric arc, circular blast, flash smelter, rectangular, etc. Fluid furnace (Outokumpu technology)
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  • Notes: 1. In smelting choice of slag composition to give the optimum balance of basicity and fluidity is important : maximum removal of impurities. 2.Matte smelting can be conducted at lower melting point than metal oxide smelting. 3. Matte smelting is normally carried out in a reverbatory furnace; electric arc furnace for higher temp. (1500C); flash smelting: modern, improved, incorporating flash roasting with smelting
  • Slide 9
  • Example: Matte smelting of Cu 2 S - FeS 1. stage (removal of FeS) 1350 o C 2 FeS + 3 O 2 2 FeO + 2 SO 2 3 FeS + 5 O 2 Fe 3 O 4 + 3 SO 2 2 Cu 2 S 2 Cu2S + O2 Cu2O + SO2 2 FeO + SiO 2 2 FeO. SiO 2 fayallite Cu 2 O + FeS Cu 2 S + FeO 3 Fe 3 O 4 + FeS 10 FeO + SO 2 Cu 2 O + Cu 2 S Cu + SO 2 2. stage (removal of S) raw Cu (blistr): Ag, Au, Pt-kovy, Se, Te, Pb, Zn, Ni, As, Sb, Ni,Co, O 2 1150 o C 2 Cu 2 S + O 2 Cu 2 O + SO 2 Cu2O + Cu2S Cu + SO2
  • Slide 10
  • Reduction 1.MeO(s) + C(s) Me(s) + CO(g) 2.MeO(s) + CO(g) Me(s) + CO 2 (g)
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  • Slide 12
  • O 2 grid CO 2 /CO grid Rising slope
  • Slide 13
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