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psychomotor retardation

Dec 26, 2014


Health & Medicine

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Psychomotor Retardation

Presented by: Yasrin Berangi M.D.

Guilan University of

Medical Sciences

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• The diagnosis of psychomotor retardation diferential (developmental delay) is quite different from that of psychomotor regression.

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• Slow progress in the attainment of developmental milestones may be caused by either static or progressive encephalopathy.

• But psychomotor regression indicate a progressive disease of nervouse system.

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Developmental delay

• Two important questions must be asked:

• 1) Is delay restricted to spescific areas of development or is it global?

• 2) Is there only developmental delay, or is there also developmental regression?

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The Denver Developmental Screening Test(DDST)

• Efficient, reliable

• Assesses: Personal-social Fine motor adoptive language gross motor

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Language Delay

• Vocalization of vowels: first month• Laughing & squealing: 5 mo.• Articulating consonants: 6 mo.• Specific use of “mama” & “dady” : 1

years• To combine at least 2 words: 2years• Understanding more than 250 words &

follow many simple verbal directions:2 years

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Hearing impairment

• The major cause of delay of speech development

• May occure with global developmental retardation:

rubella emberyopathy CMV disease neonatal meningitis kern icterous genetic disorders

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Hearing loss should be suspected

• Global retardation• Retarded childeren fail to

imitate sounds• Excessive gesturing &

staring at the lips of people who are talking

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Infantile autism

• Caused by: Abnormal brain developmental • Clinical features: Failure of language developmental

impairment of interpersonal relationships

• Restricted activities• Onset before 3 years

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Clinical features

• Major criteria: Failure of language developmental impairment of interpersonal relationships

• Restricted activities• Onset before 3 years• Others:IQ<70• Stereotyped behavior

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• Clinical• Can not be comfirmed by lab. Tests

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• Failure of language development is most likely to bring medical attention & correlates best with outcome

• Failure to develop language before age 5 have the worth outcome

• Naltrexone• Behavior modification techniques

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Delayed motor development

• Infants with delayed gross motor development but Nl. Language & social skills are Often hypotonic & may have a Neurovascular disease.

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•Isolated delay in motor function is also caused by ataxia, mild hemiplagia, mild paraplagia & mild cerebral palsy

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Global developmental delay

• Static encephalopathy : antenatal/perinatal disturbance

• Underlying genetic disease

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Findings in progressive disease

• Affected family member• Parental consanguinity• Organomegaly• Absent DTR

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Screening test

• MRI: detect malformations• Evidence of perinatal disease• Provides diagnosis that ends


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Mental retardation

• Chromosomal abnormality• Cerebral malformations• Intrauterine infections• Perinatal disorder

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• Chromosal structure or number : most comon cause of severe

mental retardation

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Clinical indication for chromosome analysis

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• ambiguous genitalia• polycystic kidney

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Head & neck

• High nasal bridge• Hyper/hypo telorism• Microphtalmia• Mongoloid slant• Occipital skull defect• Small mandible• Small or fish mouth(hard to open)• Small or low set ears• Upward slant of eyes• Web neck

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• Abnormal dermathoglyphic• Low set thumb• Overlapping fingers• Polydactily• Radial hypoplasia• Rocker bottom feet

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Fragile X Synd.

• The most common cause of severe mental retardation

• The name drives from a site at the Xq 27.3

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Typical synd.

• Moderate retardation(IQ:40_55)• Behaivor problems: autism or

attention disorders• Somatic abnormalities:long

face,enlarged ears,macro_orchidism

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• Chromosome analysis

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• High dose folic acid• No improvement of IQ but

behavioral improvment

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Cerebral malformation

• 3% of all childeren have at least 1 major malformation but the responsible etiologic factors can be identified in only 20% of cases

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• Exposure of emberyo to infectious or toxic agants during first week

• Alcohol• Lead• Prescription drugs• cocaine

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• Cerebral malformation should be susspected in any retarded child with: dysmorphic, malrotation of organs, abnormality of head size & shape

• CT is satisfactory to show but MRI is the better method

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Intrauterine infection

• The most common: HIV CMV

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Congenital syphilis

• Cases of congenital syphilis have increased scince 1988

• 2/3 infected newborns of asymptomatic

• More common features: condylomata lata,periostitis,osteochondritis,persistent rhinorrhea, maculopapular rash

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• Onset of neurologic disturbances: after 2 years

• Including: nerve deafness & mental retardation

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Hutchinson triad

• nerve deafness

• interstitial keratitis

• peg shaped upper insisors

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• Non treponemal Ab tests (VDRL,RPR):screening

• FTA-ABS: confirmation• AIDS should be suspected in every

child with congenital syphilis

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• Intravenous crystalline penicilline G,100,000_150,000 U/kg/day in 6 devided dose every 8_12 h, for 10_14 d.

• Intramascularly procaine penicilline G 50,000 U/kg/daily _10-14 d

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• Transmitted sexually• Pregnancy may cause reactivation

of maternal infection• 1-2% culture + :0.05 % symptoms +

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Clinical features

• Skin rash• Hepatosplenomegaly• Juandice• Chorioretinitis• microcephaly

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• Analysis of urine & CSF analysis

• Serologic tests

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• Gancylovir• No treatment can reverse the


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Clinical Features• A multisystem disease characterized by:• Intrauterine growth retardation• Cataract• Chorioretinitis• Congenital heart disease• Sensorineuoral deafness• Thrombocytopenia• Rash• Neurologic


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• Diagnosis: Clinical

• Treatment: No treatment

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• Transmission:• by primary maternal infection

during pregnancy• Highest risk: last trimester• The most serious sequelae: first


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Clinical features

• Multisystem involvement at birth: Fever,rash, hepathosplenomegaly,juandice,thrombocytopenia

• Neurologic dysfunction:seizure,altered state of consciousness,ICP

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Congenital toxo.

• Hallmark:• Hydrocephalus• Chorioretinitis• Intracranial calcification

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• Sabin-feldman dye test: standard for dignosis

• ELISA: IgM-specific Ab to Toxo. In amblical cord blood: show passive infection

• IgG specific Ab show active infection

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• Pregnant: Spiramycine• Fetal documented infection: pyrimethamine &

sulfadoxine/sulfadiazine• Newborn:pyrimethamine(0.5mg/kg/dose)BID/for

1y.• Sulfadizine(0.25mg/kg/dose) BID/for 1y.• Newborns with high prt. In CSF / chorioretinitis:• Prednisone(1_2 mg/kg/day)

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Thanks for your attention

Special thanks to NargessTavakoli


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