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psychology theories

Nov 07, 2014

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brief intro on theories in psychology

Psychology TheoriesB y K e n d r a C h e r r y, A b o u t . c o m G u i d e PREPARED BY: NIKKA S. ATIENZA AB-PSYCHOLOGY

http://psychology.about.com/od/psychology101/u/psychology-theories.htm

Psychology TheoriesMuch of what we know about human thought and behavior has emerged thanks to various psychology theories. For example, behavioral theories demonstrated how conditioning can be used to learn new information and behaviors. Psychology students typically spend a great deal of time studying these different theories. Some theories have fallen out of favor, while others remain widely accepted, but all have contributed tremendously to our understanding of human thought and behavior. By learning more about these theories, you can gain a deeper and richer understanding of psychology's past, present and future.

Behavioral Theories

Cognitive Theories

Developmental Theories

Humanist Theories

Personality Theories Social Psychology Theories Learning Theories

Cognitive Theories

Developmental Theories

Humanist Theories

Personality Theories Social Psychology Theories Learning Theories

Behavioral psychology, also known as behaviorism, is a theory of learning based upon the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning. Advocated by famous psychologists such as John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner, behavioral theories dominated psychology during the early half of the twentieth century. Today, behavioral techniques are still widely used in therapeutic settings to help clients learn new skills and behaviors.

What is Behaviorism?

Classical Conditioning

What is Behaviorism?

The term behaviorism refers to the school of psychology founded by John B. Watson based on the belief that behaviors can be measured, trained, and changed. Behaviorism was established with the publication of Watson's classic paper Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It (1913). Behaviorism, also known as behavioral psychology, is a theory of learning based upon the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning. Conditioning occurs through interaction with the environment. Behaviorists believe that our responses to environmental stimuli shapes our behaviors.

Classical Conditioning

What is Behaviorism?

Classical Conditioning

Classical Conditioning in the Real World In reality, people do not respond exactly likePavlov's dogs. There are, however, numerous real-world applications for classical conditioning. For example, many dog trainers use classical conditioning techniques to help people train their pets. These techniques are also useful in the treatment of phobias or anxiety problems. Teachers are able to apply classical conditioning in the class by creating a positive classroom environment to help students overcome anxiety or fear. Pairing an anxiety-provoking situation, such as performing in front of a group, with pleasant surroundings helps the student learn new associations. Instead of feeling anxious and tense in these situations, the child will learn to stay relaxed and calm.

Behavioral Theories

Developmental Theories

Humanist Theories

Personality Theories Social Psychology Theories Learning Theories

Cognitive theories of psychology are focused on internal states, such as motivation, problem solving, decisionmaking, thinking, and attention.

What is Cognitive Psychology? Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development

Cognitive psychology is the branch of psychology that studies mental processes including how people think, perceive, remember and learn. As part of the larger field of cognitive science, this branch of psychology is related to other disciplines including neuroscience, philosophy and linguistics. The core focus of cognitive psychology is on how people acquire, process and store information. There are numerous practical applications for cognitive research, such as improving memory, increasing decision-making accuracy and structuring educational curricula to enhance learning.

Jean Piaget's Background Jean Piaget was born in Switzerland in 1896. After receiving his doctoral degree at age 22, Piaget formally began a career that would have a profound impact on both psychology and education. After working with Alfred Binet, Piaget developed an interest in the intellectual development of children. Based upon his observations, he concluded that children were not less intelligent than adults, they simply think differently. Albert Einstein called Piaget's discovery "so simple only a genius could have thought of it." Piaget's stage theory describes the cognitive development of children. Cognitive development involves changes in cognitive process and abilities. In Piaget's view, early cognitive development involves processes based upon actions and later progresses into changes in mental operations.

Behavioral Theories

Cognitive Theories

Humanist Theories

Personality Theories Social Psychology Theories Learning Theories

Theories of development provide a framework for thinking about human growth, development, and learning. If you have ever wondered about what motivates human thought and behavior, understanding these theories can provide useful insight into individuals and society.

Freud's Theory of Psychosexual Development Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development

What is Psychosexual Development?According to Sigmund Freud, personality is mostly established by the age of five. Early experiences play a large role in personality development and continue to influence behavior later in life. Freud's theory of psychosexual development is one of the best known, but also one of the most controversial. Freud believed that develops through a series of childhood stages during Moral development is a major topic of interest in both psychologypersonality and education. which the pleasure-seeking energies of the id become focused on One of the best known theories was developed by psychologist Lawrence certain areas. This psychosexual energy, or libido, was Kohlberg who modified and expanded upon Jean Piaget's work to form aerogenous theory described as the driving force behind behavior. that explained the development of moral reasoning. If these psychosexual stages are completed successfully, the result is Piaget described a two-stage process of moral development, while Kohlberg's a healthy personality. If certain issues are not resolved at the theory of moral development outlined six stages within three different levels. appropriate Kohlberg extended Piaget's theory, proposing that moral development is a stage, fixation can occur. A fixation is a persistent focus on an earlier psychosexual stage. Until this conflict is resolved, the continual process that occurs throughout the lifespan. individual will remain "stuck" in this stage. For example, a person who "The Heinz Dilemma" is fixated at the oral stage may be over-dependent on others and may Kohlberg based his theory upon research and interviews with groups of young seek oraland stimulation through smoking, drinking, or eating. children. A series of moral dilemmas were presented to these participants they were also interviewed to determine the reasoning behind their judgments of What is Psychosocial Development? each scenario. Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development is one of the best-known The following is one example of the dilemmas Kohlberg presented" theories of personality in psychology. Much like Sigmund Freud, Erikson believed that personality develops in a series of stages. Unlike Freud's theory of psychosexual stages, Erikson's theory describes the impact of social experience across the whole lifespan. Jean Piaget's Background One of the main elements of Erikson's psychosocial stage theory is the Jean Piaget was born in Switzerland in 1896. After receiving his development of ego identity.1 Ego identity is the conscious sense of self doctoral degree at age 22, Piaget formally began a career that would that we develop through social interaction. According to Erikson, our ego have a profound impact on both psychology and education. After identity is constantly changing due to new experiences and information we working with Alfred Binet, Piaget developed an interest in the acquire in our daily interactions with others. In addition to ego identity, intellectual development of children. Based upon his observations, he Erikson also believed that a sense of competence motivates behaviors and concluded that children were not less intelligent than adults, they actions. Each stage in Erikson's theory is concerned with becoming simply think differently. Albert Einstein called Piaget's discovery "so competent in an area of life. If the stage is handled well, the person will feel simple only a genius could have thought of it." a sense of mastery, which is sometimes referred to as ego strength or ego Piaget's stage theory describes the cognitive development of children. quality.2 If the stage is managed poorly, the person will emerge with a sense Cognitive development involves changes in cognitive process and of inadequacy. abilities. In Piaget's view, early cognitive development involves In each stage, Erikson believed people experience a conflict that serves as processes based upon actions and later progresses into changes in a turning point in development. In Erikson's view, these conflicts are mental operations. centered on either developing a psychological quality or failing to develop that quality. During these times, the potential for personal growth is high, but so is the potential for failure.

Behavioral Theories

Cognitive Theories

Developmental Theories

Personality Theories Social Psychology Theories