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Psychology Ppt

Nov 30, 2014

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  • 1. Psychology
    Psychology comes from a Greek word Psyche which means mind, consciousness, or awareness.
    It refers to the soul which is the core, essence of a person.
    It also derive character which is attributed to man.
    Science of behavior and mental processes.

2. Psychology as a Science
It has scientific processes
It accepted theories as product of research:
> Statement of the problem
> Hypotheses
> Research Design
> Collection of Data and Analysis
> Replication
> Conclusion
Its contribution: PAP, APA (authorities in Tests/Research)
3. Psychology in the context of Behavior
Social Relationship
Emotional Responses
Mental Functioning
> Overt actions observable like, walking, kissing
> Social relationship interacting with people
> Emotional Responses feelings such as anger, lust, happiness and depression
> Physiological Reactions heart rate, excitement, biochemical reactions
4. The Beginnings of Psychology: Philosophy and Physiology
Its earliest history can be traced back to the time of the early Greeks with Socrates, Plato and Aristotle.
During the 17th-century, the French philosopher Rene Descartes introduced the idea of dualism, which asserted that the mind and body were two separate entities that interact to form the human experience.
Its concern with Nature vs. nurture.
5. Wilhelm Wundt founded Psychology as acad. discipline in 1879. established the 1st psych lab at the Uni. of Leipzig Germany. Concern with senseslike vision, attention, emotion, memory.
G. Stanley Hall studied with Wundt and est. the 1st psych lab in the US in 1883 at John Hopkins University.
J. MckeenCattell student of Wundt. Called as the 1st professor in Psychology in 1888. He was known for designing a personality test, the 16 PF.
Sir Francis Galton individual differences in 1869 in Germany.
Titchener Wundt trained psychologist introduced Structuralism in latter part of 19th century. Focused on mental structure and consciousness. Introspection as major method.
6. William James psychologist from Harvard, opposed structuralism and advocated functionalism, how conscious function.
Sigmund Freud 20th century physician from Vienese introduced the psychoanalytic theory where human behavior is governed by the unconscious.
John Watson founded behaviorism in 1920.
Ivan Pavlov founded the behaviorism which focused on classical conditioning.
Max Wertheimer founded the Gestalt psychology in Germany. Gestalt means Form or Configuration.
7. Perspective in Psychology
The Biological Perspective
The study of physiology played a major role in the development of psychology as a separate science. Today, this perspective is known as biological psychology. Sometimes referred to as biopsychology or physiological psychology, this perspective emphasizes the physical and biological bases of behavior.
8. The Behavioral Perspective
Behavioral psychology is a perspective that focuses on learned behaviors.
Behavioral principles are often applied in mental health settings, where therapists and counselors use these techniques to explain and treat a variety of illnesses.
9. The Cognitive Perspective
During the 1960s, a new perspective known as cognitive psychology began to take hold. It focuses on mental processes. This area of psychology is concern with memory, thinking, problem solving, language and decision-making.
Influenced by psychologists such as Jean Piaget and Albert Bandura, this perspective has grown tremendously in recent decades.
10. The Cross-Cultural Perspective
Cross-cultural psychology is a fairly new perspective that has grown significantly in recent years. These psychologists and researchers look at human behavior across different cultures.
11. The Evolutionary Perspective
Evolutionary psychology is focused on the study of how evolution explains physiological processes. Psychologists and researchers take the basic principles of evolution, including natural selection, and apply them to psychological phenomena. This perspective suggests that these mental processes exist because they serve an evolutionary purpose they aid in survival and reproduction.
12. The Humanistic Perspective
During the 1950s, a school of thought known as humanistic psychology emerged. Influenced greatly by the work of prominent humanists such as Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow, this perspective emphasizes the role of motivation on thought and behavior. Concepts such as self-actualization are an essential part of this perspective.
13. The Psychodynamic Perspective
The psychodynamic perspective originated with the work of Sigmund Freud. This perspective emphasizes the role of the unconscious mind, early childhood experiences, and interpersonal relationships to explain human behavior and to treat people suffering from mental illnesses.
14. Different Fields in Psychology
Abnormal Psychology
Psychology of Addiction
Psychology of Advertising
Psychology of Altruism
Psychology of Ambition
Animal Psychology
Art Psychology
Psychology of Atheism
Psychology of Attraction
Psychology of Beauty
15. Psychology of Behavior
Psychology of Belief
Biological Psychology
Neuropsychology
Child Psychology
Cognitive Psychology
Color Psychology
Comparative Psychology
Counseling Psychology
Clinical Psychology
16. Psychology of Communication
Criminal Psychology
Developmental Psychology
Psychology of Dreams
Educational Psychology
Forensic Psychology
Health Psychology
Human Factors Psychology
Industrial Psychology
Personality Psychology
17. Quantitative Psychology
School Psychology
Social Psychology
Sports Psychology
18. 19. ORGANIZATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
20. Objectives
discuss the development of the nervous system
enumerate the parts of the neuron and their functions in the neural impulsetransfer
identify the different divisions of the nervous system, their functions and relevance to human behavior
discuss the possible disorders with any part of the nervous system
21. DEVELOPMENT OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
Cephalization
Cephalization is the localization of the function and parts of the brain
cephales = brain
22. FORMATION OF THE GERM LAYERS
The embryo forms into three germ layers which give rise to different organs and tissues
* mesoderm skeletal system, muscle system, skin and lymphatic system (spleen, gonads and corresponding ducts)
* endoderm lining of the respiratory tract, tympanic membrane and Eustachian tube, part of the bladder and urethra, thyroids, parathyroids, thymus, liver and pancreas, and gastro-intestinal tract
* ectoderm central and peripheral nervous systems, the epithelium of the sensory organs, hypophysis, enamel of the teeth, and epithelial lining of the organs
23. Primitive streak thickened line formed at about 14 days after fertilization ectoderm cells that migrated to the center of the embryonic disk
The formation of the primitive streak establishes the embryo, marking the beginning of the embryonic period
A cordlike structure called the notochord is formed by these cells as they move down the primitive streak. The notochord marks the central axis of the developing embryo.
24. NEURAL TUBE AND NEURAL CREST FORMATION
At about 18 days after fertilization, the ectoderm overlying the notochord thickens to form the neural plate. The lateral edges of the plate begin to rise like two ocean waves coming together. These edges are called neural crests, and a neural groove lies between them. The neural crests begin to meet in the midline and fuse into neural tube which is completely closed by 26 days. The cells of the neural tube are called neuroectoderm.
The neuroectoderm becomes the brain, the spinal cord, and parts of the peripheral nervous system. If the neural tube fails to close, major defects of the central nervous system can result.
25. As the neural crests come together and fuse, a population of cells breaks away from neuroectoderm all along the margins of the crests.
Most of these neural crest cells become part of the peripheral nervous system or become melanocytes of the skin.
In the head, neural crest cells
contribute to the skull, the
dentin of teeth, blood vessels,
and general connective tissue.
26. Nerve Cells
This photomicrograph shows a number of multipolar nerve cells. The central cell body is clearly visible in each of the cells, as are the dendrites, which are short extensions of the nerve cell body that function in the reception of stimuli.
27. Cells of the Nervous System
Neurons are specialized to respond rapidly to signals and send signals of their own.
Glial cells hold neurons together, guide their growth, secrete and absorb chemicals to maintain a stable chemical environment, and send a limited number of signals between neurons.
28. Common Features of Cells
An outer membrane selectively allows only some substances to pass in and out.
The cell body contains the nucleus
Specialized Features
An axon is a cell fiber that carries signals away from the cell body. Most neurons have just one axon
A dendrite is a cell fiber that receives signals from other neurons and carries information toward the neuron's cell body. Most neurons have many dendrites
29. Synapse
Electron Micrograph of a Synapse
This electron micrograph shows a synapse in the human brain. The synapse is a specialized junction t