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Practice Exam 2

Dec 13, 2014

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  • 1. Practice Exam 2

2. 1. Which of the following, if any, accurately describe what is meant bydual dipole tag ? A. A tag that is configured to have two chips, giving it more processing power B. A type of tags antenna that is designed to reflect energy on multiple planes C. A tag that has overlapping layers of copper coils D. A tag that works on dual frequencies Dual dipole tags were originally made with the orientation of the dipoles set 90 degrees apart. Today, however, multiple variations of this type of tag are available, with the dipoles arranged in many different patterns. They ensure tag reads regardless of orientation. Most of them are designed so that they even read on edge or turned so they are perpendicular to the antenna. This is critical for retail applications where many boxes are being read, and orientation cannot be assured. Answer A is not correct because the question refers to the antenna on the substrate, not the chip. Answer C is incorrect because dual dipole does not refer to induction coils. Answer D is also incorrect because tags cannot work on dual frequencies, and they are not referred to as dual dipoles. 3. 2. Which of the following, if any, are parts of the etching process? A. A mask B. Various chemical solutions C. Protection from oxidation D. All of the above In the copper etching process, a mask is used to burn an image into the photopolymer layer. The substrate, or copper film, and photo resist are subjected to a chemical solution, which removes all of the copper except where the image was burned. A different chemical solution is used to remove the burned photo resist. Then the finished copper antenna goes through additional processes to protect the copper surface from oxidation. Etching The etching process works as follows: 1.A mask is used to burn an image into the photopolymer layer. 2.The substrate, metal film, and photo resist are subjected to a chemical solution that removes all of the metal except where the image was burned. 3.A different chemical solution is used to remove the burned photo resist. 4.The finished antenna goes through additional processes to protect the metal surface from oxidation. Various methods and materials are used for antenna construction. The principle methods are Etching (using copper, aluminum, or silver) Foil stamping Screen printing 4. 3. What is dwell time? A. The time a tag is in the interrogation zone B. The time it takes one tag to go from the pallet to the warehouse floor C. The rating system used to track build processes D. None of the above Dwell time refers to the momentary time interval during which a detector is able to, or allowed to, sense incoming electromagnetic radiation within its intended instantaneous field of view or how long the tag stays in the interrogation zone. Ensuring that the antennas are oriented properly to maximize the interrogation field is very important because, if the tags are in the interrogation zone for too short of a period, they may not collect enough energy to power up fully and report to the reader. Answer B is not correct because the dwell time is not the time of palletizing and inventory. Answer C is not correct because dwell time has no bearing on a rating system. Answer D is incorrect by default. 5. 4. When referring to RFID antennas, what does the acronymERPmean? A. Enterprise Resource Planning B. Effective rate of protection C. Effective radiated power D. Unit of power input E. All of the above Effective radiated power (ERP) is the power supplied to an antenna multiplied by the antenna gain in a given direction or as the product of the power supplied to the antenna and its gain relative to a half-wave dipole in a given direction. Answer A is not a term used when referring to RFID antennas; however,Enterprise Resource Planningis a valid term in the business arena. Answer B is not correct because it is a fictitious term. ERP is not a unit of power input but a power radiated out of the antenna; therefore, answer D is incorrect. 6. 5. When implementing an RFID system in Australia, what ITU region are you in? A. Region 1 B. Region 2 C. Region 3 D. Regions 1 and 2 The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) Regions are Region 1 Includes Europe, Africa, the Middle East west of the Persian Gulf and including Iraq, and the former Soviet Union. Region 2 Includes the Americas. Region 3 Contains Asia (excluding the former Soviet Union), including Iran, Australia, and Oceania. 7. 6. What memory bank is used for User memory in EPC Class 1 Generation 2 tags? A. Bank 0 B. Bank 3 C. Bank A D. Bank B Bank 0Reserved Memory Reserved memory holds the tags passwords and can be read locked. A 32-bit Kill password allows a tag to be permanently silenced. The default Kill password value is zero. The Kill command executes only if the password has been set; that is, it is something other than zero. A 32-bit Access password allows the tag to transition to the Secured state (a tag in the Secured state can execute all Access commands, including writing to locked blocks). Bank 1EPC Memory EPC memory contains 32 bits for different protocol controls and a 96-bit EPC (Electronic Product Code) of the object the tag is attached to. Bank 2Tag Identification Memory (TID Memory)TID memory contains an 8-bit ISO allocation class identifier, a 12-bit tag maskdesigner ID, and a 12-bit tag model number. Manufacturers can include other information, if requiredfor example, a tag serial number. Bank 3User Memory User memory is an optional area of memory (usually 32-bits but can be larger) that contains user-specific data. The memory organization is user defined. 8. 7. Which of the following is/are characteristics of an active tag? A. An active tag is powered by a battery to send and receiveRFID information. B. An active tag can be applied to any surface and has the ability to transport itself from one location to the next. C. An active tag can be interrogated within a few inches of the interrogator, and it is powered by the interrogator. D. An active tag does not have its own transmitter in comparison to a passive tag. Active tags have an internal battery to power them and are usually able to be rewritten and/or modified. Active tags can transmit their data over longer distances; the tag itself is larger than a passive tag and has a limited operational life span. Answer B is incorrect because active tags cannot magically transport themselves; they are carried on a product. Answer C is incorrect because active tags are not generally powered by interrogator; they have their own power source. Active tags have their own transmitter; therefore, answer D is also incorrect. 9. 8. What are some of the uses for a Low Frequency RFID tag? A. Pet tracking B. Smart shelves C. Paper plates D. Access control systems Low Frequency RFID tags are commonly used for animal identification. Pets, cattle, or endangered species can be implanted with small chips so that they may be returned to their owners if lost or stolen or for scientific purposes. Low Frequency systems are best for tracking and identification of dense objects in small ranges because they provide good penetration. Therefore, answer C is incorrect because paper plates are not a barrier to RF and are not usually tracked with LF systems. Answer B is incorrect because LF systems are not usually used in smart shelves. 10. 9. What does the terminductive couplingmean? A. A method of connecting different devices together B. A way of fusing data to the back-end application C. The process of fixating the fixtures of the antenna so they do not move D. A method of transmitting data between tags and readers Inductive coupling is the method of transmitting data between passive tags and readers in which the antenna from the reader picks up changes in the tags antenna. Answers A and B are not correct because the term refers to data transmission, not connection of devices or data subject to back-end systems. Answer C is not correct because the term does not refer to attachment of hardware. 11. 10. What is the EPC network? A. It is a network like the Internet, also storing and retrieving information on EPC products. B. It is a network protocol that allows only the environmental specialist access to data on the Internet. C. It is a computer storage location that holds information on all electronic codes. D. None of the above. The EPC network is architecture similar to the Internet; it is designed to link, store, and allow access to data related to EPCs. For example, it provides detailed item information such as description, ingredients, size, weight, and cost; manufacturing information about the specific lot, such as when and where it was produced and expiration dates; and distribution information about where it has been, including addresses, dates, and times. The data can be as detailed as including environmental factors such as temperatures during manufacturing or storage. Answer B is not correct because the question refers to RFID terms. Answer C is not correct because the EPC network contains only data related to the EPC global system. Therefore, answer D is incorrect as well. The EPCglobal network is composed of three key elements: EPC Information Services (EPC-IS) EPC Discovery Services Object Name Service (ONS) 12. 11. In a conveyor system, why is it important to test the tunnel interrogatorradiated field? A. Metal areas are not an issue in testing. B. There is no special need to test on a standard conveyor system. C. Typical conveyor systems are made of metal, and the radiated signalcan be configured in a way that the interrogator reads tags from another beltsystem nearby, resulting in failed or error reads. D. You need to ensure that the tags are read as far as possible from the tunnel to increase efficiency. Most conventional conveyor roller sections are made of metal, and the metal structure acts as a boundary condition to the radiated flux field. Thus, cons