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WESTERN Philosophy Human quest for Perfection

Philosophy history

Jun 27, 2015




  • 1. WESTERN PhilosophyHuman quest for Perfection

2. Western Philosophy: Ancient Period-Medieval Period Western Philosophy: Modern -contemporary Period Western Philosophy and Eastern Philosophy Reasoning: Methods of acquiring knowledge Religion: faith Belief And Human Civilization Religion: Eastern Philosophy 3. What is Philosophy? Philosophy is about: Finding answers to serious questions about ourselves andabout the world we live in: What is morally right and wrong? And why? What is a good life? Does God exist? What is the mind? What is art? Is the world really as it appears to us? What can we know? and much, much more Questioning existing knowledge and intuitions to get closerto the truth 4. What will you do when studyingPhilosophy? Philosophy is different from many other artssubjects: To study philosophy you have to do philosophy We analyze and criticize existing arguments We construct our own arguments We use fun thought experiments too 5. What will you get out of Philosophy? The skills are: Critical thinking, Argument skills, Communication, Reasoning, Analysis, Problem solving Which allow you to: Justify your opinions Spot a bad argument, no matter what the topic Explain to people why they are wrong and you are right Philosophy basically teaches you to think! 6. The Philosophy Subjects What is it to know something (and how canwe come to know something)? Epistemology, philosophy of science, logic What is there (and what are the natures ofthese things)? Metaphysics, philosophy of mind, philosophy ofreligion What has value (and why)? Aesthetics, moral & political philosophy 7. Knowledge What can we have knowledge about? What does it mean to have knowledgeabout something? Where can we get knowledge from? How can we get knowledge? Are we just brains in vats? Can we be sure we know anything?! Descartes: I think, therefore I am 8. Metaphysics What is time? Is time travel possible? Was there time before the universe? How did the universe start? What happened before the universe? Is everything in the universe caused? Is it possible for us to have free will? What is the meaning of life? 9. Philosophy of Religion What are the arguments for believing in a god? Do those arguments give good reason to believe in aGod? What are the arguments that certain kinds of Godscannot exist? Do those arguments give good reason not to believein a certain type of God? Why would a God who is all powerful, and all good letbad things happen to innocent people? 10. Aesthetics How can we tell whatis art and what isnt? Is popular art bad forus? Why do people enjoywatching scarymovies? 11. Moral & Political Philosophy Are there universal moral facts? What is the best possible life someone canhave? What makes actions morally right or wrong? What is the best form of government? Are human rights real? When, if ever, is it permissible to go to war? 12. Applied Ethics Applying moral theories to current real lifesituations to assess what we should do Topics include: Animal rights Environmental ethics Euthanasia Abortion Cloning and genetic engineering Business ethics (e.g. is advertising immoral?) Global poverty 13. Ancient Greek Philosophy 14. Greek PhilosophersPhilosophers lovers of wisdomSophists workers of wisdom Teachersphileo = lovesophia = wisdomIf sophia = wisdom and moron = fool,then a sophomore is a wise fool. 15. Map of Ancient Greece 16. AthensThe Agora where Socrates lectured 17. AthensParthenon: Built between 447 & 438 BCE with adornments continued to 432 BCE.It has served as a treasury, been converted both to a Christian Church and aMosque and was badly damaged when bombed by Venetians while serving as anOttoman armory in 1867. 18. AthensParthenon 19. Parthenon on AcropolisArtist's rendition 20. AthensHerodion Theatre (looking down from the Parthenon) 21. AthensTemple of Zeus (from Parthenon) 22. AthensTemple of Zeus 23. AthensTemple 24. The Beginnings of Western Philosophy Socrates and the Story of the Oracle at Delphi (from Apology):Philosophy as a critical stance in search of proper definitions 25. External Nature Thales, water Anaximander, the indefinite Empedocles, air earth, fire, and water Democritus, atoms Materialism, Reductionism, Determinism, andMechanism 26. The Milesians Thales, water Anaximander (b. 610BCE), The Indefinite Anaximenes (b585 BCE),Air Plenums and the lack ofspace 27. Thales of Miletus636-546 B.C. Earliest known philosopher Studied Egyptian andBabylonian astronomy andmathematics Believed that the universewas controlled by fixed laws Basic element water. 28. Pythagoras582-500 B.C. The universe could only beunderstood thru numbers. Sun, moon, and earthrevolved around a centralfire. Each planet produces a tone! Famous for the PythagoreanTheorem: a2 + b2 = c2 29. Pythagoras582-500 B.C.a2c2b2 Pythagorean Theorem: a2 + b2 = c2 30. Protagoras485 - 410 B.C. Most famous of the Sophists Believed that reason andknowledge should be used toachieve a comfortable, safe, andhappy life. Teachings to equip citizens forlife in the polis:1. Public speaking oratory andrhetoric2. Politics3. Grammar language4. The art of being respectable Plato named one of hisdialogues after him. 31. Hippocrates460-377 B.C. Founded a school ofmedicine Rejected that sicknesscomes from the gods Careful observations ofsymptoms Acute Chronic Holistic healing Hygiene Diet Curative powers of nature The Hippocratic Oath 32. Democritus460? - 360 B.C. Developed the atomic theory. Taught that the universe wasformed out of chaos throughthe joining of atoms of likeshape and size. Atoma = indivisible particles. the laughing philosopher 33. Euclidc.300 B.C. One of the most prominentmathematicians Wrote The Elements Widely used till about1903. 2nd only to the Bible innumbers of translations,publications, and study Greek Arabic Latin Said to Ptolemy: There isNo Royal Road togeometry! 34. Archimedes287 - 212 B.C. Greek mathematician Geometry War machines and other devices Theory of buoyancy - Eureka! Law of the lever Archimedean screw 35. Archimedean Screw 36. Modern application of the Archimedean Screw 37. The Three Most Famous PhilosophersSocrates Plato Aristotle 38. Socrates469 - 399 B.C. Critic of the Sophists Encouraged students to think Left no writings skeptical Dialectic method Conversational Based upon reason and logic Popular among the youth a gadflyin Athens Placed on trial for impiety andcorrupting the youth Was executed in 399 drankpoison hemlock 39. Socratic Method:I. Admit ignorance.II. Never rely on tradition.III. Continuously question.IV. Formulate your own opinions.V. Test your opinions withothers.Socrates469 - 399 B.C. 40. Socrates469 - 399 B.C.The unexamined life is not worth living. 41. Plato427 - 347 B.C. Preserved and perpetuated thework of Socrates Most important source of infoon Socrates Founded the Academy Wrote dialogues Universal Forms was a recurringtheme The Republic most importantdialogueThose things which arebeautiful are also difficult. 42. Theory of Form or Idea Form is immaterial, it is pure idea Form is eternal never change(transcendent) Form is backup of all things Form build up relation of all things 43. Aristotle384 - 322 B.C. Most famous student ofPlato Most famous teacher ofAlexander the Great Developed Logic as a fieldof study Devised a complex systemof classification Used in biology Views on Government 44. Aristotle384 - 322 B.C. Views on Government 3 Good Governments:MonarchyAristocracyDemocracy 3 Bad Governments:TyrannyOligarchyMob Rule 45. Aristotle384 - 322 B.C. All things inmoderation Man is by nature apolitical animal. 46. Alexander the Great356 -323 B.C. 47. Alexander the Great356 -323 B.C. 48. Medieval Philosophy 49. Philosophy and Monotheism From the Hellenistic Period forward, MonotheisticFaith and Greek Philosophy engage in a complexinterchange. Athens and Jerusalem Pagan thought evolves into monotheism. Monotheistic faith takes on the charge of reasoningout the truth. Christianity in particular comes about in the collisionof monotheistic faith and Greek thought. 50. Medieval Philosophy Consolidates the dialectic of Greek and Jew. Reasons out a philosophy in which faith is aconstitutive element. A tension between faith and reason ensues:what is the precise relationship between thetwo? How is one to live a life of faith, notbetraying it but rather enriching it with Greekreason 51. Jew, Christian, Muslim OrthopraxyJewish faith emphasizes a code ofconduct, of practices in regard to ones fellowhumans and God. OrthodoxyChristian faith emphasizes a code ofbelief, of doctrines in regard to ones soul and onesG-d. OrthosocialityIslamic faith flourishes as a mode ofliving, of law arrived at through social intercourseinfused with the inspiration of Allah. 52. PLAN The character of the Medieval Philosophy The main features of the Middle Agephilosophy The philosophers of that period 53. THE MIDDLE AGES During the decline of Greco-Roman civilization,Western philosophers turned their attention fromthe scientific investigation of nature and the searchfor worldly happiness to the problem of salvation inanother and better world. By the 3rd century ad,Christianity had spread to the more educatedclasses of the Roman Empire. The religiousteachings of the Gospels were combined by theFathers of the Church with many of thephilosophical concepts of the Greek and Romanschools. 54. THE MAIN CHARACTERISTICS THEOCENTRISM - any philosophical problem is studied in the context ofGod. THEODICY (God and justice)- the study which explains the contradiction ofthe idea of God as Absolute and the existence of the world evil. THEOLOGISM everything around is determined by God and eventuallyreaches its aim. PERSONALISM God is Absolute Personality, which served as a samplefor man creating. GNOSTICISM - derived from the Greek word gnosis (revealedknowledge). To its adherents, Gnosticism promised a secret knowledgeof the divine realm. Sparks or seeds of the Divine Being fell from thistranscendent realm into the material universe, which is wholly evil, andwere imprisoned in human bodies. Reawakened by knowledge, the divineelement in humanity can return to its proper home in the transcendentspiritual realm. 55. LOGOS Logos (Greek, word, reason, ratio), in ancient and especially in medievalphilosophy and theology, the divine reason that acts as the orderingprinciple of the universe. The Logos is present everywhere and seems to be understood as both adivine mind and at least a semiphysical force, acting through space andtime. Through the faculty of reason, all human beings (but not any otheranimals) share in the divine reason. the Greek word logos being translated as word in the English Bible: Inthe beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Wordwas God. . . . And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us . . . The Logos, for instance, was identified with the will of God, or with theIdeas (or Platonic Forms) that are in the mind of God. Christ's incarnationwas accordingly understood as the incarnation of these divine attributes. 56. St. Augustine of Hippo St Augustine was bornNovember 13, 354. He died August 28, 430 He is considered thepatron saint ofbrewers, printers,theologians, sore eyes,and a number of citiesand dioceses. 57. Education and Christianity St. Augustine was born atTagaste, which is now Souk-Ahras, about 60 miles fromBona (ancient Hippo-Reguis) His family was not rich, hisfather Patricius was one ofthe curiales of the city andstill was a pagan. Through the prayers of hisholy mother and themarvelous preaching of St.Ambrose, Augustine finallybecame convinced thatChristianity was the one truereligion. His mother, Monica 58. Early Education At the age of 11, Augustine wassent to school at Madaurus, a smallNumidian city about 19 miles southof Thagaste noted for its paganclimate. At Madaurus he became familiarwith Latin literature. 59. Pre-Christian Days Once, when very ill, he asked for baptism, but, all dangerbeing soon passed, he deferred receiving the sacrament,yielding to a terrible ritual of times. His association with "men of prayer" left three great ideasdeeply engraved upon his soul: a Divine Providence, thefuture life with terrible sanctions, and, above all, Christ theSavior. But a great intellectual and moral crisis stifled for a time allthese Christian sentiments. 60. Education Patricius, proud of his son's success in the schools of Tagasteand Madaura determined to send him to Carthage to preparefor a forensic career. Unfortunately, it required several months to collect thenecessary means, and Augustine had to spend his sixteenthyear at Tagaste in an idleness which was fatal to his virtue They gave himself up to pleasure with all the vehemence ofan ardent nature. 61. Education When he reached Carthage,towards the end of the year 370,every circumstance tended to drawhim from his true course The many seductions of the greatcity that was still half pagan, thelicentiousness of other students,the theatres, the intoxication of hisliterary success, and a proud desirealways to be first, even in evil Before long he was obliged toconfess to Monica that he hadformed a sinful liaison with theperson who bore him a son 62. St. Ambrose His religious problemwould come to endwhen he went to Italyunder the influence ofSt. Ambrose. Having visited BishopAmbrose, thefascination of thatsaint's kindnessinduced him tobecome a regularattendant at hispreaching's. 63. Bishop of Hippo In 391 he was ordained apriest in Hippo Regius He became a famouspreacher and was noted forcombating the Manichaeanreligion, to which he hadformerly adhered. In 396 he became Bishop ofHippo 64. Teaching of Philosophy Along with being a prominent figure in the religious spectrum,Augustine was also very influential in the history of education. He introduced the theory of three different types of students,and instructed teachers to adapt their teaching styles to eachstudent's individual learning style. He claimed there are two basic styles a teacher uses whenspeaking to the students. The mixed style includes complex and sometimes showylanguage to help students see the beautiful artistry of thesubject they are studying. The grand style is not quite as elegant as the mixed style, butis exciting and heartfelt, with the purpose of igniting the samepassion in the students' hearts. 65. Pelagian Heresy St. Augustine was involvedwas his battle againstPelagianism. The Pelagians deniedoriginal sin and the fall ofhumanity. 66. Confessions His Confessions isconsidered a classic ofChristian autobiography. The work outlinesAugustine's sinful youth andhis conversion toChristianity. St. Augustine writes abouthow much he regrets havingled a sinful and immoral life.He discusses his regrets forfollowing the Manichaeanreligion and believing inastrology 67. St Augustines Books City of God a mammothdefense of Christianityagainst its pagan critics,and famous especially forthe uniquely Christian viewof history elaborated in itspages. On the Trinity comes fromhis polemic writings. On the Work of Monks, hasbeen much used bymonastics. 68. Influence on the Church Later, within the RomanCatholic Church, thewritings of CorneliusJansen, who claimed heavyinfluence from Augustine,would form the basis of themovement known asJansenism. Augustine was canonizedby popular acclaim, andlater recognized as aDoctor of the Church in1303 by Pope Boniface VIII His feast day is August 28,the day on which he died. 69. St. Augustines Death Shortly before Augustine'sdeath, Roman Africa wasoverrun by the Vandals, awarlike tribe with Ariansympathies. They had entered Africa at theinstigation of Count Boniface,but soon turned to lawlessness,plundering private citizens andchurches and killing many ofthe inhabitants. The Vandals arrived in thespring of 430 to besiege Hippoand during that time, Augustineendured his final illness. 70. SCHOLASTICISM philosophic and theological movement that attempted to use naturalhuman reason, in particular, the philosophy and science of Aristotle, tounderstand the supernatural content of Christian revelation. It was dominant in the medieval Christian schools and universities ofEurope from about the middle of the 11th century to about the middle ofthe 15th century. The ultimate ideal of the movement was to integrate into an orderedsystem both the natural wisdom of Greece and Rome and the religiouswisdom of Christianity. Nonetheless, throughout the Scholastic period, philosophy was called theservant of theology, not only because the truth of philosophy wassubordinated to that of theology, but also because the theologian usedphilosophy to understand and explain revelation. 71. St. Thomas Aquinas (1224 1274) 72. Aquinas, Saint Thomas,sometimes called the AngelicDoctor and the Prince ofScholastics (1225-1274),Italian philosopher andtheologian, whose works havemade him the most importantfigure in Scholastic philosophyand one of the leading RomanCatholic theologians. 73. SAINT THOMAS AQUINAS Aquinas combined Aristotelian science and Augustiniantheology into a comprehensive system of thought that laterbecame the authoritative philosophy of the Roman CatholicChurch. He wrote on every known subject in philosophy and science,and his major work, Summa Theologica, in which he presentsa persuasive and systematic structure of ideas, still constitutea powerful influence on Western thought. His writings reflectthe renewed interest of his time in reason, nature, andworldly happiness, together with its religious faith andconcern for salvation. 74. Aquinas made many important investigations into the philosophy ofreligion, including an extremely influential study of the attributes of God,such as omnipotence, omniscience, eternity. He also provided a new account of the relationship between faith andreason that the truths of faith and the truths of reason cannot conflict butrather apply to different realms. The truths of natural science andphilosophy are discovered by reasoning from facts of experience, whereasthe tenets of revealed religion, the doctrine of the Trinity, the creation ofthe world, and other articles of Christian dogma are beyond rationalcomprehension, although not inconsistent with reason, and must beaccepted on faith. The metaphysics, theory of knowledge, ethics, andpolitics of Aquinas were derived mainly from Aristotle, but he added theAugustinian virtues of faith, hope, and charity and the goal of eternalsalvation through grace to Aristotles naturalistic ethics with its goal ofworldly happiness. 75. Life and Significance Educated as Friar (Dominican Order), Studies Theology inCologne and Paris, Teaches in Paris and various Italian Cities Most famous Works Summa contra Gentiles, SummaTheologiae (unfinished), numerous biblical and philosophicalCommentaries Scholasticism and the Revival of Learning Canonized in 1323 Aquinas work is declared the official philosophy of theCatholic church in 1879 76. Aquinas Challenge The Return of Aristotle Teleology CausalityBook III The Errors of Aristotle The Claims of Reason and Faith What do you know about God? Being Attributes 77. Aquinas, God, and Ontology Five Ways of proving Gods Existence Descartes, Leibniz and Kant Causality, Being, Time, SpaceNot how the world is, is the mystical, but that itis (Ludwig Wittgenstein) 78. Five Ways of proving God Motion: Things move and change. Things are put into motion bysomething else. There cannot be an infinite regress, therefore there musthave been an initial unmoved mover. This we call God. Causation: All things have an immediate or efficient cause. The efficientcauses cannot go back infinitely, so there must be a first, uncaused cause.This we call God. Contingency: It is not necessary for any particular thing to exist, they are,rather, contingent things. All possible things at one point did not exist. Ifall things are merely contingent, then at one time things did not exist.There must be a necessary essence that caused all contingent things tobe. This we call God. Goodness: Things have degrees of perfectionlarger or smaller, heavieror lighter, warmer or colder. Degrees imply the existence of a maximumof perfection. This maximum perfection we call God. The Way of Design: Things in this world are ordered to particular ends.Even unintelligent things are predisposed to this and not that. This orderinherent in even inanimate things necessitates an intelligence to direct it.This intelligence we call God. 79. Politics and Religionin the Middle Ages From zoon politikon to homo credens This world and the next world (St.Augustine354-430: City of God) Religion and Politics, Pope and Emperor, TheHoly Roman Empire, Investiture andCoronation Feudalism 80. The CosmosUniverse/GodSociety/KingHousehold/Pater familias 81. Analogies and Hierarchies God is to the Universe what the King is toSociety is what the Head of Household is tothe Household Harmony, Hierarchy and Teleology 82. Law and Politics Law is an ordinance of reason for thecommon good Eternal Law, Natural Law, Human Law, DivineLaw Disobedience, Resistance, Legitimacy andLegality 83. What is Natural Law Underlying principles of moral practice One more Analogy: The Principle of Non-Contradiction andthe Law of Nature Good should be pursued and done and evil avoided Since good has the character of an end and evil the contrarycharacter, all those things to which a man has a naturalinclination reason naturally grasps as goods, andconsequently as things to be pursued Self-Preservation, Community, Contemplation 84. Modern Philosophy 85. The major figures in philosophy of mind,epistemology, and metaphysics during the17th and 18th centuries are roughly dividedinto 2 main groups. The "Rationalists," mostlyin France and Germany, argued all knowledgemust begin from certain "innate ideas" in themind. 86. Modern Philosophers Rationalists Descartes Kant Leibniz Empiricists Machiavelli Locke Hobbes Bacon MarxEpistemology - the theory of knowledge (what and how weknow) 87. Machiavelli 1469-1527 control populace politics, government -two books, The Prince isstill used today inpolitics (Stalin reallyliked The Prince), endsjustify the means, feartactic in leadership(better feared thanloved) 88. EpistemologyEpistemology is one of the core areas of philosophy. It isconcerned with the nature, sources and limits ofknowledge. Epistemology has been primarily concernedwith propositional knowledge, that is, knowledge thatsuch-and-such is true, rather than other forms ofknowledge, for example, knowledge how to such-and-such.There is a vast array of views about propositionalknowledge, but one virtually universal presupposition isthat knowledge is true belief, but not mere true belief. Forexample, lucky guesses or true beliefs resulting fromwishful thinking are not knowledge. Thus, a centralquestion in epistemology is: How do we know what weknow is true, and what is the difference(s) betweenknowledge, belief and truth? 89. Thomas Hobbes 1588 4 December 1679 90. Everyone is selfish 91. Bacon has been called the creator ofempiricism. Sir Francis Bacon (22 January 1561 9 April1626) 92. Rene Descartes( 1596 1650) 93. Rene Descartes Rationalist fixated on figuring out how toknow truth. Through deconstruction/reduction, heeliminates everything to get to a CRITERIONOF TRUTH a kernel of absolutely trueknowledge from which an entire world can beconstructed 94. Phases Doubt EVERYTHING that can be doubted Find the criterion of truth Expand from that point to find what isknowable and true This is a rational exercise the senses cannotbe trusted. 95. John Locke (1632 1704), 96. Locke's theory of mind is often cited as theorigin of modern conceptions of identity andthe self His work had a great impact upon thedevelopment of epistemology and politicalphilosophy. knowledge is determined only by experiencederived from sense perception. 97. Karl Heinrich Marx (1818 14 March 1883) 98. Marx has been called "the first great user ofCritical Method critical in social sciences." He criticized speculative philosophy, equatingmetaphysics with ideology. By using the above approach, Marx attempted toseparate key findings from ideological bias and itset him apart from many contemporaryphilosophers. 99. Believes that humans are not trapped in apredetermined state of being. It is humans who made history, therefore theycan change it. Viewed Capitalism as a step towardprogressive society. 100. Realism v. Idealism: Since society can decide for itself,there are different interpretationsRealism v. Nominalism : The Tangible world andcapitalism.-Ideas exist in tangible world.-Connects abstract to real.Idealist v. Materialist:-Not about spirituality- Human struggle and capital. 101. Immanuel Kant ( 1724 1804) 102. Immanuel Kant Synthesized rationalism and empiricism Said both are partly right and partly wrong, took theright parts from each All knowledge comes from experience, but reasondetermines how we perceive reality. We need to keep in mind HUMAN PERCEPTION - athink in itself vs. a thing for us We cannot evade our humanistic filter 103. Disagrees with Hume on causation and saysthat is the rational structure of the mind atwork. We apply meaning. Kants ETHICS - based on the CategoricalImperative ACT AS IF THE MAXIM OF YOUR ACTION,THROUGH YOUR WILL, WOULD BECOME THE LAWOF NATURE 104. Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (26 April1889 29 April 1951) 105. Philosophical Investigations The later Wittgenstein made an about face (which,however, does have many roots in the Tractatus): heabandoned the idea that logic had any natural claim toTruth, and (therefore) meaning Instead, he argued that logic (and meaning) was rootedin social agreement, defined by grammars arising fromforms of lifePhilosophical Investigations is a vote for sanity oversystem.Jan Zwicky / Lyric Philosophy 106. 17th to 18th century Moving from religion to fact/science Age of reason Not a single movement or thought, but rather a setof values Figure out a reason why we are here without usingreligion as an answer thinking outside the box The way people thought was changing Politics and how people were governed 107. A complex philosophyemphasizing the absurdityof reality and the humanresponsibility to makechoices and acceptconsequences!ANDREW WYETHChristinas World (1948) 108. It was during theSecond World War,when Europe founditself in a crisis facedwith death anddestruction, that theexistential movementbegan to flourish,popularized in France inthe 1940sGEORGIO DE CHIRICOLove Song 109. BBiigg IIddeeaass ooff EExxiisstteennttiiaalliissmmMARK ROTHKOUntitled (1968)Despite encompassing a hugerange of philosophical, religious,and political ideologies, theunderlying concepts ofexistentialism are simple 110. Cogito ergo sum.EExxiisstteennccee PPrreecceeddeessEEsssseenncceeExistentialism is the title of the set of philosophical ideals thatemphasize the existence of the human being, the lack of meaningand purpose in life, and the solitude of human existence Existenceprecedes essence implies that the human being has no essence (noessential self). 111. AAbbssuurrddiissmm The belief nothing can explain orrationalize human existence. There is no answer to Why am I? Humans exist in a meaningless,irrational universe and any searchfor order will bring them into directconflict with this universe. 112. You will never be happyif you continue to searchfor what happinessconsists of. You willnever live if you arelooking for the meaning oflife.It was previously a question of finding outwhether or not life had to have a meaningto be lived. It now becomes clear, on thecontrary, that it will be lived all the better ifit has no meaning. 113. CChhooiiccee aanndd CCoommmmiittmmeenntt Humans have freedom to choose Each individual makes choices thatcreate his or her own nature Because we choose, we must acceptrisk and responsibility for whereverour commitments take us A human being is absolutely free and absolutely responsible.Anguish is the result. Jean-Paul Sartre 114. DDrreeaadd aanndd AAnnxxiieettyyMAN RAYLes Larmes (Tears) 115. DDrreeaadd aanndd AAnnxxiieettyy Dread is a feeling of generalapprehension. Kierkegaard interpretedit as Gods way of calling eachindividual to make a commitment to apersonally valid way of life. Anxiety stems from our understandingand recognition of the total freedom ofchoice that confronts us every moment,and the individuals confrontation withnothingness. 116. NNootthhiinnggnneessss aanndd DDeeaatthhEDVARD MUNCHNight in Saint Cloud (1890) 117. NNootthhiinnggnneessss aanndd DDeeaatthh Death hangs over all of us. Ourawareness of it can bring freedom oranguish. I am my own existence. Nothingstructures my world. Nothingness is our inherent lack of self. We are in constantpursuit of a self. Nothingness is the creative well-spring fromwhich all human possibilities can be realized. Jean-Paul Sartre 118. All existentialists are concerned with the study of being or ontology.TO REVIEW: An existentialist believes that a persons life is nothing butthe sum of the life he has shaped for himself. At every moment it isalways his own free will choosing how to act. He is responsible for hisactions, which limit future actions. Thus, he must create a morality inthe absence of any known predetermined absolute values. Goddoes not figure into the equation, because even if God does exist, Hedoes not reveal to men the meaning of their lives. Honesty with oneselfis the most important value. Every decision must be weighed in light ofall the consequences of that actionLife is absurd, but we engage it! 119. Edward Hopper New York Movie (1939) 120. HHuummaann SSuubbjjeeccttiivviittyyI will be what I choose tobeIt is impossible to transcendhuman subjectivity.There are no trueconnections betweenpeopleMy emotions are yet anotherchoice I make. I amresponsible for them.Edward Hopper New York Movie (1939) 121. Subjectivity vs. Objectivity In reason, subjectivity refers to the property ofperceptions, arguments, and language as beingbased in a subject's point of view, and henceinfluenced in accordance with a particular bias. As I Lay Dying presents a world that is completelysubjective (if you rule out Faulkner ordering thechapters and choosing the speakers) 122. Objectivity Subjectivitys opposite property is objectivity,which refers to such as based in a separate,distant, and unbiased point of view, such thatconcepts discussed are treated as objects. A scientist and a spiritual man have one thingin common each seeks to understand anobjective truth in the world. 123. Human existence cannot be captured by reason orobjectivity it must include passion, emotion andthe subjectiveEach of us is responsiblefor everything and to everyhuman being.GEORGIA OKEEFFESky Above White Clouds I (1962)Simone de Beauvoir 124. No Exit by Jean-Paul Sartre 125. Bad Faith when individuals negate their true nature in anattempt to become a self they are not. The classic example is Sartre's waiter who is alwaysjust slightly too friendly, too helpful, too willing toplay the part of a waiter rather than being the lessfriendly, helpful and waiter-like self he would be if hewere not assuming the identity of "waiter." In assuming the role of "waiter," Sartre's character hasnegated himself by denying his authentic ego with all itscharacteristics not becoming of a waiter. 126. Bad Faith In social situations weplay a part that is notourselves. If wepassively become thatpart, we are therebyavoiding the importantdecisions and choicesby which personalityshould be formed 127. One of the most important implications of bad faithis the abolition of traditional ethics and morality. Because being a moral person requires one to denyauthentic impulses and change one's actions basedon the will of a person other than oneself, being amoral person is one of the most severe forms ofbad faith. 128. SSoommee FFaammoouussEExxiisstteennttiiaalliissttss Sren Kierkegaard(1813-1855) Friedrich Nietzsche(1844-1900) Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980) Albert Camus (1913-1960)A woman is not bornshe Beauvoirs most famous textis The Second Sex (1949),which some claim is the basisfor current gender studies 129. Albert Camus dissociated himself from theexistentialists but acknowledged mans lonelycondition in the universe. His man of theabsurd (or absurd hero) rejects despair andcommits himself to the anguish andresponsibility of living as best he can.Basically, man creates himself through the choices he makes. There are noguides for these choices, but he has to make them anyway, which renderslife absurd 130. AAlliieennaattiioonn oorrEEssttrraannggeemmeenntt From all otherhumans From humaninstitutions From the past From the future We only exist rightnow, right hereEDGAR DEGASLabsinthe (1876) 131. "Just What is it that makes today's home so different, so appealing?" (1956) -Richard Hamilton 132. POSTMODERNISMPHILOSOPHY 133. Postmodernism: Significant EventsAugust 6, 1945 - atomic explosion overHiroshima, Japan The conclusion of World WarIIThe Korean War (Conflict?) The Cold War of the 1950s McCarthyism and the House Un-AmericanActivities Committee The Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962 The assassination of President Kennedy, Nov.1962 Identity Movements of the 1960s:Feminism, Civil Rights/Black Power The assassinations, in 1968, of Martin LutherKing, Jr. and Robert F. Kennedy 134. Postmodernism: Significant Events (cont) The Vietnam War (Conflict?) The killing of four students by the NationalGuard at Kent State Univ., 1970 The resignation of President Nixon in 1974The AIDS epidemicIdentity Movements: Gay, Lesbian, Queermovements, Postcolonial movements andminority literature.The rise of TheoryCulture Wars: debates over canonicalinclusion and great books 135. Postmodernism Samples (fromJameson)John Ashbery -- David AntinPop BuildingsPop Art, Conceptual Art,PhotorealismJohn Cage, Philip Glass, theClash, Talking Heads, Gang ofFourVanguard film: Godard, etc. toHollywood nostalgia filmFiction: Burroughs, Pychnon,DeLillo, French new novelOther samples? 136. Still Life with a Bottle of Rum, Summer 1911Pablo Picasso (Spanish, 18811973)Oil on canvas; 24 1/8 x 19 7/8 in. (61.3 x 50.5 cm) 137. Cubist Still Life by Roy Lichtenstein, 1974. 138. Recurrent Ideas in Theory(from: Barry, Peter. Beginning Theory: AnIntroduction to Literary and Cultural Theory.Second Edition. Manchester, 2002)1. Anti-essentialismmany of the notionspreviously regarded as universal and fixed(gender identity, individual selfhood) are actuallyfluid and unstable. These are socially constructedor contingent categories rather than absolute oressential ones.2. All thinking and investigation is affected by priorideological commitments. There is nodisinterested enquiry.3. Language itself conditions, limits, andpredetermines what we see. Language doesntrecord reality but constructs it. Meaning in textsis jointly constructed by the reader and writer.4. Theorists distrust all totalizing notions (greatbooks, human nature) 139. Barry sums these ideas up in 5 keypoints:politics is pervasivelanguage is constituativeTruth is provisionalMeaning is contingentHuman nature is a myth. 140. Westin Bonaventure Hotel, Los Angeles 141. MetafictionMetafiction is a term given to fictional writingwhich self-consciously and systematically drawsattention to its status as an artifact in order topose questions about the relationship betweenfiction and reality. In providing a critique oftheir own methods of construction, such writingsnot only examine the fundamental structures ofnarrative fiction, they also explore the possiblefictionality of the world outside the literaryfictional text.(Patricia Waugh, courtesy of Patrick) 142. David Lodge: 4 Techniques Typical of PM Fiction Permutation: incorporating alternative narrativelines in the same text Discontinuity: disrupting the continuity, unity,reality of the text (by unpredictable swerves oftone, metafictional asides to the reader, blankspaces in the text, etc). Randomness: discontinuity produced by composingaccord to the logic of the absurd Excess: as a method of departing from or testing thebounds of reality 143. The Babysitter fragmentsa scream a fight Stop it!Decides to take a quick bath a golf cluba pair of underpants are you being a good girl?Dolly! Wheres Harry? peeping inHey! Whats going on here? Harry?Im just wrapped in a towelIll spank! Something about a babysittera ringing telephoneMaybe you better get in the tub tooTheyre all dead 144. Eastern Philosophy 145. Eastern Religion & Philosophy Hinduism Buddhism Taoism Confucianism 146. Hinduism 147. Hinduism The term refers to the collect faiths thatoriginated in India. Hinduism does not have a clear origin. There is not one holy book or text. There is not a single founder. 148. Indian Civilization The Indian Subcontinent is home to one of the oldestcivilizations in the world A wide diversity of religions exists on the IndianSubcontinent (modern Pakistan, India, Bangladesh,Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka) Four major religious traditions have emerged fromthis area: Hinduism Jainism Buddhism Sikhism 149. Hinduism Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism are relativelyunified religious traditions Hinduism, by contrast, refers to a wide varietyof religious traditions, philosophies, and folkpractices, which may be only marginallyrelated to each other The term Hinduism was introduced byEuropeans in the 18th century to describefollowers of various Indian religions 150. History of Hinduismc. 8000-6000 BCE: the Vedas are heard, according totraditionc. 2500-1500 BCE: Indus Valley civilization flourishes incities such as Mohenjo-daro and Harappa (modern-dayPakistan)c. 900-700 BCE: Brahmanas writtenc. 600-100 BCE: Upanishads writtenc. 400 BCE 200 CE: Ramayana writtenc. 400 BCE 400 CE: Mahabharata written 151. History of Hinduism711 CE Muslim invasions of India begin1556-1707 Mughal Empire1857-1947 British Raj1947 Independence, partition of India andPakistan1948 Assassination of Mohandas Gandhi 152. Shaivism Shiva- The supreme beingand creator of theuniverse. Parvati, Sakti- wife Ganesha-child Nandi- Bull 153. Saktism Sakti- wife of Siva, thefemale part of theuniverse. Destroyer ordestructive force in thisrealm. 154. Vaisnavism Vishnu- Is a personalgod. Protector in thisrealmThe Buddha was anincarnation of theGod Vishnuaccording to Hindus. 155. The Vedas The sacred texts of Hinduism are called Shruti, meaningheard The Vedas are a collection of ancient religious hymns Written in Sanskrit, an ancient Indian language The earliest Vedas are among the oldest surviving religioustexts in the world According to Hindu tradition, the Vedas were not created byhumans, but have existed eternally and were heard byancient sages called rishis, and compiled by Vyasa, anincarnation of the god Vishnu Contemporary scholars believe the Vedas were first writtenin the first millennium BCE, but were passed on orally priorto being written 156. The Vedas There are four Vedas:The Rig Veda: a book of sacred hymnsThe Yajur Veda: a book of knowledge andmelodies for the hymnsThe Sama Veda: descriptions of the materials forsacrificeThe Atharva Veda: contains magic spells andother folk knowledge 157. Dont Get Confused! The study of Hinduism requires learning anumber of Sanskrit terms, some of which aresimilar but have distinct meanings. Brahman = the Infinite Brahmanas = Shruti texts on sacrifice Brahma = a creator god Brahmin = a priestly-caste Hindu 158. Brahman and Atman The Atman is the inner essence of the humanbeing the soul The Atman is the same as Brahman a commonly-usedanalogy is the relationship between a drop ofwater and the ocean The goal of some schools of Hinduism is forpractitioners to realize that their individualconsciousness is nothing but Brahman and toreunite with the Infinite 159. Other Concepts Reincarnation: the belief that the atman migrates after deathto a new body (human or other) Karma: the law of cause and effect; good deeds lead to goodresults, and evil deeds lead to evil results.This may follow the atman through death and affect reincarnationTheistic schools may view karma as being divine judgement Samsara: the cycle of birth, death, and reincarnation Moksha: enlightenment; freedom from Samsara. Onerealizes the unity of atman and Brahman and is freed fromthe cycle of samsara, existing in a state of blissful union withBrahman 160. Common Themes in Hinduism Most forms of Hinduism have the following incommon: Connection to Truth through the Vedas and otherscriptures, and also through meditation andmystical experiences Acceptance of the Vedas is the primary factor thatdistinguishes Hinduism from Buddhism and Jainism Importance of ethics (karma) Seeking of personal enlightenment throughrealization of the true nature of the Self 161. Philosophical Schools Indian civilization has a long and rich philosophicaltradition, much of which is closely related toreligious belief Samkhya: An ancient philosophical school based ondualism, which is the belief in two separate states ofreality: the material world (Prakriti) and the eternalSelf or cosmic consciousness (Purusha) Advaita Vedanta: a monistic philosophy. Holds thateverything is one (Brahman), and all differentiationin the world is illusion (maya) 162. Yoga Yoga (Sanskrit meaning to yoke, a metaphor for union)refers to spiritual disciplines for attaining a state of samadhi:higher awareness, or union with the true Self Systematized in the Yoga Sutras, developed by the sagePatanjali in the 3rd century BCE Different types of yoga are appropriate for different types ofpeople Raja yoga: meditation Includes chanting of mantras, breath control, channeling of prana energy,and moral living Jnana yoga: rational questioning Karma yoga: disinterested good deeds Bhakti yoga: loving devotion to a personal deity 163. WWhhaatt aabboouutt tthhiiss kkiinndd??ooff yyooggaa The form of yoga most commonly practiced in theWest derives from Hatha Yoga, a later form of yogadeveloped by Yogi Swatmarama in the 15th centuryCE 164. Some oollddeerr ttrraaddiittiioonnss ooffHHiinndduuiissmm aacckknnoowwlleeddggeetthhrreeee aassppeeccttss ooff tthheeDDiivviinnee:: BBrraahhmmaa,, tthhee ccrreeaattoorr VViisshhnnuu,, tthheepprreesseerrvveerr SShhiivvaa,, tthhee ddeessttrrooyyeerr BBrraahhmmaa iiss rraarreellyy tthheeoobbjjeecctt ooff ddeevvoottiioonn TThhee ootthheerr ddeeiittiieess mmaayybbee sseeeenn aassrreepprreesseennttiinngg tthhee ttoottaalliittyyooff tthhee DDiivviinnee 165. Shaivism Shaivites are worshippers ofShiva Shiva represents asceticismand the union of themasculine and the feminine Shiva is sometimes depictedwith a consort, either Parvatior Kali 166. The popular deity Ganesha, the remover of obstacles, isthe son of Shiva and Parvati 167. Vaishnavites Vaishnavites are worshippersof Vishnu Vishnu is a merciful deity whoappears in many incarnations(avatara) One popular avatar of Vishnuis Krishna Another is the hero Rama 168. The Epics In Hindu mythology, Vishnuincarnates as an avatar atcritical times in history torestore the moral order(dharma) Two great epic poems, theRamayana and theMahabharata, tell ofVishnus intervention in theworld and conquest of evilforces 169. The Ramayana The Ramayana, probably composed between 400 BCE and200 CE, tells the story of the mythical prince Rama, identifiedas an avatar of Vishnu The central theme of the Ramayana is dharma, the virtuouslife, as exemplified in proper human relationships Rama is banished from his kingdom by his stepmother. Hegoes willingly to live in the forest for fourteen years,accompanied by his wife, Sita Sita is abducted by the demon king Ravana Rama, his brother Lakshman, and the monkey king Hanumanfight a war against Ravanas armies to retrieve Sita 170. The Mahabharata The Mahabharata is a famous epic poem in Sanskrit, wasprobably composed between 400 BCE and 400 CE It tells the story of an ancient dynastic struggle One of the best-known parts of the Mahabharata is theBhagavad-Gita, or Song of the Supreme Being In the Bhagavad-Gita, the prince Arjuna is forced to go tobattle against his friends and loved ones Distraught, he turns to his charioteer for advice His charioteer, who is Krishna, gives Arjuna instruction onself-transcendence, dharma, and philosophy, which explainin detail many core beliefs in the Hindu tradition 171. Do your duty to the best ofyour ability, O Arjuna, withyour mind attached to theLord, abandoning worry andselfish attachment to theresults, and remaining calmin both success and failure.The selfless service is ayogic practice that bringspeace and equanimity ofmind.- Bhagavad-Gita 2.48 172. Puranas The Puranas are Sanskrit texts that narrate mythsbased on the Upanishads Eighteen Puranas in total six about Brahma, sixabout Vishnu, six about Shiva Best known is Bhagavata Purana, which tells storiesof Krishna, avatar of Vishnu Strong emphasis on practice of bhakti loving devotion toKrishna Depicts Krishna as a mischievous child Also depicts Krishna as a young man dancing with gopis(young, female cow-herders) 173. Ritual Life Many rituals make up Hindu religious life Puja is Hindu worship Sometimes takes place at temples; may beconnected by specialists such as brahmin priests May also take place at home shrines Statues of deities are often the focal point ofritual; these are treated as if they were theactual deity 174. Caste Over the course of history, Hindu society came to be dividedinto four castes, or social classes:Brahmins: priests, the highest casteKshatriyas: warriors and kingsVaishyas: merchantsShudras: manual labourers Some people do not fall into any caste; these are calleddalits, or untouchablesDalits have traditionally been tasked with work such as cleaningstreets and working with human and animal corpses and waste Caste-based discrimination is now illegal in India, andaffirmative-action policies aim to improve standards of livingin lower castes, but inequalities persist 175. Four Goals of Life Hinduism defines for objectives, or ends, ofthe good life: Dharma: carrying out duties and responsibilities Artha: pursuit of worldly success and wealth Kama: love, sensual pleasure, and art Moksha: enlightenment Different goals are considered appropriate fordifferent people 176. The Life Cycle The journey towards enlightenment is thought totake many lifetimes Being born as a human, especially an upper-castemale, is thought to be a unique opportunity forspiritual development Brahmin males are ideally expected to pass throughfour stages of life: Student Householder Spiritual seeker Ascetic 177. Women in Hinduism The place of women in Hinduism has a complex history Hindu tradition prescribes clear social roles for all membersof society, including womenThese social roles often involve marriage and family lifeWhile domestic roles are honoured in Hindu tradition, in practice theyoften lead to limited social status for womenExpectations of a large dowry being given to the husbands family atmarriage have led to women being seen as an economic burden insome familiesArranged marriages are a Hindu tradition that is sometimes stillpracticed today Women are not traditionally expected to pursue spiritualenlightenment, although many women become ascetics 178. Buddhism Buddha Four Noble Truths Eightfold Path 179. Buddhism A philosophical tradition, founded by GautamaSiddhartha Buddha in the fifth century b.c., thattook on various forms as a religion and spreadthroughout Asia; It is a branch of Hinduism Buddhism attempts to help the individual conquerthe suffering and mutability of human existencethrough the elimination of desire and ego andattainment of the state of nirvana. 180. Eightfold Path The way or practice recommended inBuddhism that includes: Right View, Right Aim, Right Speech, Right Action, Right Living, Right Effort, Right Mindfulness, Right Contemplation. 181. Four Noble Truths Buddha's answer to the central problem of life(1) There is suffering; (2) suffering has specificand identifiable causes; (3) suffering can beended; (4) the way to end suffering is throughenlightened living, as expressed in theEightfold Path. 182. Different planes of reality For some Buddist, this plane of existence isnot the only one. You can be reincarnated as a higher or lowerbeing, depending upon your karma at death. 183. Taoism Lao Tzu Chuang Tzu Sun Tzu Lieh Tzu Yin and Yang 184. Chinese PhilosophiesZhou China c. 500 bceConfucianism,Daoism,Legalism 185. Why did these philosophies develop? War and social changeswere disrupting everydaylife Government lackedcontrol These philosophies helpedguide people and thegovernment to a betterlife 186. ConfuciusKung fu-tzu or Kongfuzi 551-479 bce Itinerant teacher Sayings collected in TheAnalects 187. Confucianism Founder: Confucius Sacred Test: Analects collection of Confuciussayings Major Teachings: 3 Levels Status/Position Age Gender 5 Relationships to Develop Ruler to Subject Parent to Child (Filial Piety) Husband to Wife Older Brother to Younger Brother Friend to Friend (Golden Rule) Importance of Education Importance of Morals and Values 188. The ancientState of LuThats where Confuciuswas born & spent mostof his life. 189. Confucian goal Unconditional moral obligation to work for: Universal human well-being Order & harmony peace & happiness in this life here on earth Good ruler Morally good Reasonable Moderate not extreme Kind and helpful Implications for Government Best rulers are wise Lead by example Developed & used civil service system Exams and training for govt jobs 190. Followers of Confucius 191. Confucian Values Li: Politeness4 basic rules of human conduct: Courtesy Politeness Good manners Respect Jen (Ren): RespectGolden Rule: Do not do to others what you do not want done to you. Te: Moral actionStrong leaders guide by example Wen: Arts of peace:Music, poetry, art harmony, order, excellence, beauty. 192. Daoism / Taoism Founder Laozi (Lao-Tze) Sacred Text Tao-te-Ching Lao-Tze - The Book of the Way Major Teachings Live in harmony with nature Be like water: Water goes with the flow but is unstoppable Implications for Government Government unnatural Tries to change too much Usually makes things worse 193. Daoism / Taoism Tao: ultimate reality behind existence Man must conform to nature But not to society Confucian & Legalist social, economic, andpolitical thinking: Masculine, hard, managing, aggressive, rational,and commanding Daoists are different. balancing masculine with feminine Be yielding, permissive, withdrawing, mystical, andreceptive 194. Yin and Yang Negative and positive principles of theuniverse. One cannot exist without the other Each is incorporated into the other Not Opposites, but Complements Complete each other 195. Yin & YangfemaledarkcoolmoistpassivenegativeevilHeaven& SunmalebrighthotdryactivepositiveEarth good&Moon 196. Three Jewels of Taosim Compassion - leads to courage Moderation - leads to generosity Humility - leads to leadership 197. Taoist Response to Confucianism 198. Chuang Chou(Chuang Tzu orZhuangZi )The Way has nothing todo with the rightsand wrongsassociated withtraditions such asConfucianism. 199. "Once I, Chuang Tzu, dreamed that I was a butterfly.Suddenly I awoke, and there I was, visibly Tzu. I donot know whether it was Tzu dreaming that he was abutterfly or the butterfly dreaming it was Tzu,Between Tzu and the butterfly there must be somedistinction. [But one may be the other.] This is calledthe transformation of things." 200. Legalism Hanfiezi c. 250 bce Major Teachings People are naturally selfish andcorrupt so they need to be controlled Intellectualism and literacy arediscouraged Law is the supreme authority andreplaces morality The ruler must rule with a strong,punishing hand. War is the means of strengtheninga rulers power. Implications for Government Many rules Harsh punishments Strong military Important during Qin & Sui dynasties 201. Summary of the 3 ChinesePhilosophiesConfucianism --> Moral order in society.Daoism --> Freedom for individuals andless govt. to avoid uniformity andconformity.Legalism --> Rule by harsh law & order.

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