Dec 30, 2015
Periodic LawChemistry I12
Group IA alkali metals
Group IIAalkaline earth Metals
Group IIIB-IIBtransition metals
Inner Transition Metals Lanthanide Series - also called the rare earth elements. Actinide Series3
Group VIIIA noble gases or inert gases
Group VIIA - halogens
Bright Green - nonmetals
Purple - metalloids or semiconductors
Light Blue - other metals
The Periodic Law states that The physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers. 1. the properties of the elements go through a pattern of change2. elements of similar properties occur at certain intervals, provided the elements are arranged in a periodic table in order of increasing atomic number.4Periodic Chart in Block FormPeriodic chart in Block Formhttp://www.gordonengland.co.uk/elements/blocks.htm
Periodic chart with videos for each elementhttp://ed.ted.com/periodic-videos 5Periodic TrendsAtomic Radius the distance between 2 adjacent nucleii in the crystalline forms of elements and/or in the molecules of gaseous elements.
Pattern of radius increase is as follows:
Top to Bottom
Right to left6Periodic Trends of Ionic RadiiIonic radii are formed by the loss of electrons forming positive ions (cations) or by the gain of electrons forming negative ions (anions). Metals usually form cations which, due to the loss of electrons are smaller than the atomic radius from which they were derived. Nonmetals usually form anions which, due to the gain of electrons, are larger than the atomic radius from which they were derived.Radii increase from top to bottomRadii increase from right to leftSee chart on next frame.
Source: http://picsicio.us/image/5e6a3797/8Ionization EnergyThe amount of energy needed to remove an electron from an atom. Low ionization energy is characteristic of metals and high ionization energy is characteristic of nonmetals. For any given atom, the ionization potential increases as successive electrons are removed.Within groups, 1st ionization potential increases with decreasing atomic number Bottom to Top.Within periods, 1st ionization potential decreases with increasing atomic number Left to Right99
http://www.grandinetti.org/Teaching/Chem121/Lectures/IonizationEnergy/index.html10Electron AffinityThe energy change that is required for a neutral atom to acquire an electron. Negative electron affinities indicate that energy is emitted when an electron is accepted indicating an exothermic reaction. Positive electron affinities indicate that energy is absorbed when an electronic is accepted indicating an endothermic reaction.11Electron Affinity PatternsWithin a family of light, active elements, electron affinity tends to increase with decreasing atomic number BOTTOM TO TOP.Within a family of transition or rare earth metals, electron affinity tends to increase with increasing atomic number TOP TO BOTTOM.Within a given period of elements, electron affinity tends to increase with increasing atomic number LEFT TO RIGHT.12
Source: http://www.grandinetti.org/Teaching/Chem121/Lectures/ElectronAffinity/index.html High Affinity13ElectronegativityElectronegativity is a measure of the tendency of an atom to attract a bonding pair of electrons.
Fluorine has the highest electronegativity (4 on the Pauling scale).Cesium and Francium are only 0.7.We will discuss electronegativity later when we discuss bonding types.Source: http://www.chemguide.co.uk/atoms/bonding/electroneg.html14Periodic Trends of Valence ElectronsValence Electrons found in the outermost energy level of an atoms that can be transferred or shared with other atoms.Within a given group, the number of valence electrons tend not to vary from one element to the next. (Same # of valence es in a group.)Within a given period, the number of valence es increase with increasing at. number LEFT TO RIGHT. Note d & f block elements have only 2 valence electrons.15
Source: http://www.chemprofessor.com/periodicqm_files/image005.gif16Chemical Activity is dependent on:1. Size of atom or ion 2. Ionization potential3. Electron affinity 4. # of valence electronsMost active metal: Francium (lower left) which has a large atom/ionic radius, low ionization potential, low electron affinity, & has the least number of valence electrons.Most active nonmetal: Fluorine (upper right) which has a small atomic/ionic radius, high ionization potential, high electron affinity; & greatest number of valence electrons without achieving the stable octet of the noble gases.17Ions charged particlesIons form when a neutral atom loses or gains electrons. Atoms become more stable (full outer shell) when they form ions.Losing yields a positive ion called a cation.Gaining yields a negative ion called an anion.18
A Sodium ion has11 protons+11 charge12 neutrons 0 charge10 electrons-10 chargeTotal charge+1 A cation!!
A Chlorine ion has17 protons+17 charge18 neutrons 0 charge18 electrons-18 chargeTotal charge- 1An anion!!
19Links to active metal behavior in waterGroup 1 - alkali metalshttp://youtu.be/uixxJtJPVXk
21Natrium (sodium) in water