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Apr 14, 2020
Orthodontic Treatment, Including Transplanted Teeth and Dento-AlveolarOsteotomy, for Dental Ankylosis after Multidisciplinary Treatment forRhabdomyosacroma of the Cheek: A Case Report and ReviewSeigo Ohba1, 2, Hitoshi Yoshimura2, Takiko Matsuura2, Kazuo Sano2
1Department of Regenerative Oral Surgery, Nagasaki University, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Japan. 2Division ofDentistry and Oral Surgery, Department of Sensory and Locomotor Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui,Japan
AbstractMultidisciplinary treatment for head and neck malignant tumors is often performed in children and adolescents. This treatmentstrategy may induce dental morphological aberrations and missing teeth, resulting in leading to problems with occlusions. A 14-year-old male underwent multidisciplinary treatment for rhabdomyosarcoma of his right cheek when he was three years old. Heclaimed a serious malocclusion. The hopeless teeth were extracted. Simultaneously, the bilateral lower first premolars were autotransplanted to the upper right canine and first premolar regions. Total orthodontic treatment was initiated six months after thesurgery. Subsequently, a segmental osteotomy was performed because of dental ankylosis of the right upper central incisor. Finally,a good occlusion was created. Orthodontic treatment that includes the transplanted tooth after healing can create an ideal dental archand good occlusion. If dental ankylosis is determined, a dentoalveolar osteotomy should be performed to create a good occlusion.
Key Words: Multidisciplinary treatment, Tooth transplantation, Rhabdomyosarcoma, Dento-alveolar osteotomy, Dental ankylosis
IntroductionMultidisciplinary treatment, which combines tumor resection,chemotherapy (CT), and radiotherapy (RT) for malignanttumors in the head and neck region, is often performed inchildren and adolescents [1-3]. The outcomes of this treatmentstrategy have been reliable; however, there are a number ofdisadvantages accompanying this treatment, such as thedisturbance of growth and development in the head and neckregion . Furthermore, because the tooth is affectednegatively by CT and RT during its development, dentalmorphological aberrations and missing teeth can result .
One of the treatment options for a missing tooth is auto-tooth transplantation. This method is a quite reliable option,and its long-term survival rate is more than 90% [6-10]. Thereare two essential factors for the success of auto-toothtransplantation. One factor is an intact periodontal ligament, and the other is an appropriate size of the recipient site. The risk factors for the failure of auto-toothtransplantation are age (40 years or more) and using a molartooth as a donor . However, there is no report that hasexamined the survival rate of auto-tooth transplantation at theirradiated region. According to previous reports describingdental implantation at the irradiated region [13-16], auto-toothtransplantation may succeed at the irradiated region if the totalirradiation dose is less than 45 Gy.
While the harmful effects of CT to the periodontium remainunclear, there are a number of reports that refer to thedeleterious effects of RT to the periodontium [17,18]. Inparticular, the periodontal ligament has a high sensitivity toradiation. For instance, RT has been shown to expand theperiodontal space  or to induce periodontal attachmentloss, resulting in an increase in the occurrence ofosteoradionecrosis .However, there is no report that hasreferred to the relationship between CT or RT and dentalankylosis.
In this report, we describe a patient who had submitted tosuch a multidisciplinary treatment for arhabdomyosarcoma ofhis right cheek in childhood. For a dental morphologicalaberration and serious malocclusion, he underwent theextraction of the abnormal teeth and auto-tooth transplantationat the irradiated region. Subsequently, orthodontic treatmentand dento-alveolar osteotomy for the dental ankylosis createda good occlusion.
Case reportThis study received ethical approval from the institution. A14-year old male visited the Department of Dentistry and OralSurgery, University of Fukui Hospital, due to malocclusion(Figure 1). He had undergone a tumor resection when he wasthree years and had subsequently received CT (vincristine,actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide and cisplatin) and RT(Linac X-ray, total 44 Gy) for rhabdomyosarcoma of his rightcheek, according to the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma study-III protocol , one year after surgery. The patient has had norecurrences since submitting to the multidisciplinary therapy.According to routine examinations, includingorthopantomograph (OPG) (Figure 2), cephalometric analysis(Table 1), and clinical findings, some problems had beenobserved, as listed below:
• the first molar occlusal relationship wasclass III ontheright and class I onthe left
• crowding of the bimaxillary anterior teeth due toadiscrepancy between the size of the alveolar bone and thewidth of teeth
• remaining upper right deciduous cuspid• labioclination of the bimaxillary incisors• short roots of theupper right lateral incisor, canine,
premolars and theupper left lateral incisor• relatively short roots of theupper left central incisor,
second premolar and theupper right central incisor
Corresponding author: Seigo Ohba DDS, PhD, Department of Regenerative Oral Surgery, Nagasaki University, Graduate Schoolof Biomedical Science, 1-7-1 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8588 Japan, Tel: +81 95 819 7704; Fax: +81 95 819 7705; E-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org / email@example.com
Figure 1. Intraoral findings at his first visit.
Figure 2. Orthopantomography at his first visit.
Table 1. Cephalometric analysis before and after treatment. T1; pre-treatment, T2; before corticotomy, T3; at retainer setting.
Mean SD T1 T2 T3
Facial angle 85.07 5.76 87.3 87.7 87.9
Convexity 5.60 4.33 10.0 8.7 8.8
A-B plane -5.10 3.28 -4.9 -3.7 -4.1
SNA 81.82 3.09 86.4 85.8 86.1
SNB 78.61 3.15 81.4 81.7 81.8
Mandibular Plane 26.25 6.34 30.3 29.3 29.2
Y-axis 65.71 3.27 62.3 61.9 62.0
Occlusal Plane 9.52 4.01 7.1 9.2 8.2
Interincisal 129.66 8.99 99.9 122.7 124.0
U-1 to FH plane 108.94 5.62 129.2 116.2 114.9
L-1 to Mandibular plane 94.67 7.21 100.6 91.9 91.9
Based on the problems mentioned above and the patient’swishes, a treatment procedure was planned. Because thereason for his malocclusion was a discrepancy between thesize of the alveolar bone and the width of teeth, we extractedhis upper right lateral incisor, deciduous cuspid, canine andupper right first premolar and upper left lateral incisor, whichwere considered to be hopeless because of disabilities in theirroot development. Subsequently, the bilateral lower firstpremolars were extracted and transplanted into the region ofright upper canine and first premolar. These treatments
created the occlusion after that the bilateral upper lateralincisors and bilateral lower first premolars were lacking.Although the length of roots of the upper right central incisor,upper right second premolar and upper left central incisorwere relatively short, these teeth were considered to bemaintained. If the teeth had been lost, dental implants wouldhave been inserted. Root canal fillings of the auto-transplantedteeth were performed after three weeks (Figure 3), andorthodontic treatment was initiated two months post-surgery.
Figure 3. Intraoral findings when the root canal fillings of transplanted teeth were performed.
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After two years, adento-alveolar osteotomy was performedat the upper right central incisor due to its dental ankylosis(Figure 4). A retainer was set six months later (Figure 5). No
root resorption, including at the transplanted teeth, wasobserved on OPG (Figure 6).
Figure 4. Intraoperative finding of the corticotomy before osteotomy (left) and after fixation with an absorbable plate (right).The bone particlewas filled into the gap.
Figure 5. Intraoral findings at setting of a retainer.
Figure 6. Orthopantomography one year after the orthodontictreatment. No root absorptions of transplanted teeth wereobserved.
DiscussionIt is well-known that both CT and RT adversely affect dentaldevelopment during the incipient stages, and the combinationof these two therapies increases the deleterious effects. Thepresent patient underwent a systemic CT and local RT for his
rhabdomyosarcoma. While he had hypoplastic roots for someteeth in the irradiated region, there were no abnormal teethoutside of this region. This finding meant CT did not providea sufficient side effect to create the abnormal teeth by itself;rather, RT alone or the combination of CT and RT may inducesuch abnormal teeth. There is no report that has clearly foundhow much irradiation is needed to produce such a dentalmorphological aberration. According to our case, 44 Gy mayinduce dental morphological aberrations when systemic CT isperformed simultaneously.
This case demonstrated that it is possible to transplant anauto-tooth at the irradiated region when the irradiation dose isless than 44 Gy, even if systemic CT is simultaneouslyperformed. It is also considered possible to performorthodontic treatment for the transplanted tooth if theperiodontal ligament regenerates and the bioactivity of the jawbone is maintained. When performing tooth transplantation, itis important to confirm that the irradiated region of the jawdoes not suffer from osteoradionecrosis. Marx et al. suggested that RT damages the capillaries at the lesion,resulting in hypoxia due to the ischemic condition. Thus,osteoradionecrosis of the jaw (ORNJ) may be developed.ORNJ may occur when the irradiated dose is approximatelygreater than 50 Gy .In this case, the facial appearance wassymmetrical, and no bilateral developmental differences wereobserved at the maxilla according to lateral and frontalcephalogram. No canting of the maxilla was observed.Moreover, the development of the maxilla was not disturbedby RT, according to the normal development of the mandibleoutside of the RT field. Cephalometric analysis also impliednon-disturbed bone growth (Table 1). Therefore, the patient’sbone activity was considered to be unimpaired.
There is no report that has reviewed the success rate ofauto-tooth transplantation at the irradiated region. To predictwhether tooth transplantation is successful, the availability ofthe success rates of dental implants at the irradiated region isinformative. Colella et al.  reported that there is nosignificant difference in the implant success rate within 45Gy, and Dholam and Gurav  concluded that RT did notinfluence the implant treatment if the amount was less than 45
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to 50 Gy. Moreover, Javed et al.  stated thatosseointegration is not affected by 50 to 65 Gy. According tothese previous reports, biological activity should beconsidered to be inhibited by more than a 45 Gy RT dose.Hence, auto-tooth transplantation was considered to have littlepossibility of succeeding in such cases. The preservation ofthe periodontal ligament is one of the essential factors tosuccessful auto-tooth transplantation. In this case, the donorteeth were considered not to be affected byRT because thedonor teeth existed outside the irradiation area. In fact, thedonor teeth were normal, and the periodontal ligament spacesof these teeth were observed on OPG.
While Fiorentino et al.  initiated orthodontic treatmentsix months after auto-tooth transplantation, Ziegler et al. initiated orthodontic treatment four weeks after auto- toothtransplantation. Day  advocated that orthodontic treatmentshould be initiated 4-6 months after tooth transplantation. Onthe other hand, Kim et al.  reported that the soft tissuehealing was completed two to four months after auto-toothtransplantation. Although the timing of the initiation oforthodontic treatment after the auto-tooth transplantationvaries based on the previous reports, it is considered that themovement of the transplanted tooth should be initiated sixmonths after the auto-tooth transplantation, at which point theperiodontal membrane regenerates and the alveolar bone healscompletely . We initiated post-surgical orthodontictreatment two months after transplantation, but thetransplanted teeth were moved six months post-surgery.
Park et al.  transplanted the tooth into a space providedduring orthodontic treatment based on previous predictions,creating a good occlusion. Moreover, dental implant treatmentis often performed instead of auto-tooth transplantation insimilar procedures. Because orthodontic treatment wasplanned in this case, auto-tooth transplantation was consideredbetter than dental implants due to its movability. Orthodontictreatment, including the transplanted teeth, provided a goodoutcome in this case.
RT sometimes affects the periodontium adversely[19,20,24,25]. Most reports have referred to periodontalattachment loss and damage to the periodontal ligament.Although there is no report that has specifically referred to therelationship between CT or RT and dental ankylosis, theupper right central incisor in this case showed dentalankylosis. In fact, orthodontic treatment was unable to movethe tooth. The tooth was considered to be affected by RT dueto its short root. Because the tooth had not had any episode ofperiodontal disease after CT/RT, the dental ankylosis wasconsidered to be caused by damage to the periodontalligament due to RT/CT. However, it was unclear why onlythis tooth showed dental ankylosis at the irradiated region.Dento-alveolar osteotomy was indicated, and a segment wasmoved to an ideal position with an ideal direction according tothe previous report . No infected bone was observedduring surgery (Figure 4). The ideal dental arch wascompleted after surgery (Figure 5).
ConclusionRT and/or CT for tumors of the oral and maxillofacial regionoften induce abnormal events, such as missing teeth and
abnormal dental morphology. Moreover, a size discrepancycan occur between the dental arch and alveolar bone.Malocclusion can be observed in these cases, and orthodontictherapy may be needed. If there are hopeless teeth due to theside effects of RT/CT, these teeth are extracted and normalteeth are transplanted into the region. Orthodontic treatment,including the transplanted tooth, can create an ideal dentalarch and good occlusion. If dental ankylosis accompaniedwith CT/RT is observed and the bioactivity of jaw bone isnormal, dento-alveolar osteotomy is indicated for the creationof an ideal dental arch.
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ContentsOrthodontic Treatment, Including Transplanted Teeth and Dento-Alveolar Osteotomy, for Dental Ankylosis after Multidisciplinary Treatment for Rhabdomyosacroma of the Cheek: A Case Report and ReviewAbstractKey Words:IntroductionCase reportDiscussionConclusionReferences