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Mar 29, 2015
Mary and John at the Foot of the Cross John 19:24b-27 Slide 2 Near end of Passion Narrative (18:1-19:42) Read during Good Friday liturgy every year Begins with arrest of Jesus Moves into trial by Jews and trial by Pilate Concluded by Carrying of Cross; Crucifixion; Burial of Jesus Middle of Crucifixion of Jesus (19:16b-37) Crucifixion Scene is a chiasm Mary at the Foot of the Cross is the center of scene Slide 3 A1: Jesus is lifted up on the cross (19:16b-18) B1: Pilate identifies Jesus as King; refuses to phrase it according to Jews request (19:19-22) C1: Soldiers fulfill prophecy by casting lots for tunic (19:23-24a) D: Mary and John at the Foot of the Cross (19:24b-27) C2: Jesus fulfills prophecy by tasting vinegar before dying (19:28-30) B2: Jesus side is pierced after Pilate grants Jews request to remove bodies before sundown (19:31-37) A2: Jesus is removed from the cross (19:38-42) Slide 4 Between scenes depicting fulfillment and completion of Scripture Immediately after scene of soldiers casting lots for seamless tunic Immediately before scene of taking wine and handing over spirit (It is accomplished) Slide 5 Seeing ( ; ide; see, behold) Taking ( ; elaben; took) Jews took Jesus () and crucified him (Jn 19:16) Soldiers took his garments and divided them up (Jn 19:23) John took Mary into his own KingBecause of the contrast of those who see and do not accept with those who see and accept, the reader is able to see what the blind do not see: Jesus is enthroned king on the cross (Heil 118) Slide 6 Woman: Mary is never called by her name in Johns Gospel (Heil 95, n 34) Bride (Jn 2): Gods covenantal marriage with his people Mediation Faith of New Community is nurtured by her faith and commitment (Heil 98) Mother (; mtr) Appears five times in pericope (Moloney 504) His own ( ; ta idia) John taking Mary to his own Contrasts with the other disciples who went each to his own (16:32; Heil 97) Hour ( ; horas) Had not arrived yet at Wedding Feast in Cana (Jn 2) Arrived at Last Supper discourse (Jn 13:1ff) Slide 7 So the soldiers did this. Along with 28a, links this pericope with the fulfillment pericopes Contrasts the actions in this pericope with the actions of the soldiers Soldiers saw and took in hostile manner, but not in sympathetic faith (Heil 93-94) Reader is encouraged to act as does the beloved disciple (Heil 118) Thus this pericope regards a fulfillment of scripture Linked with Genesis 3 and John 2 Mary as Mother of all the Living Mary as Mediatrix of all Graces Forms a Greek sentence structure with 19:25 (Schnackenburg 276) (Indeed, the soldiers did this this; moreover [the women stood by the cross]) Slide 8 Standing by the cross of Jesus were his mother and his mother's sister, Mary the wife of Clopas, and Mary of Magdala. Synoptic tradition knew of women at the cross, from afar (Schackenburg 275) John follows this tradition Shapes it for his purposes Standing near Figuratively included in Jesus words to Mary and disciple Some say there are four women, while it makes more sense there were three Four soldiers contrasted with four disciples, including John Slide 9 When Jesus saw his mother and the disciple there whom he loved, he said to his mother, "Woman, behold, your son." Jesus mother Stands out from the rest of women (Schackenburg 277) First character in John to commit herself unconditionally to the word (2:3-5) (Moloney 503) Beloved disciple Model disciple (Moloney 503) Model of the ones for whom Jesus lays down his life (Heil 97) Had lain close to breast of Jesus (13:23) Woman Behold ( ; Ide), your son Mary is contrasted with the Israelites who beheld Jesus as their king but rejected him (19:14-18) (Heil 94) Slide 10 Then he said to the disciple, "Behold, your mother." And from that hour the disciple took her into his home. Jesus is obeyed unquestioningly (Moloney 503) Jesus hour prepares for the hour of the Church (apekeins ts hras) Temporal meaning: particular time The Hour of Jesus (cf. 12:23; 13:1; 17:1) (Moloney 503) Not to mention 2:4! Preposition apo has causitive meaning: because of the hour of Jesus Mary and John are united as mother son. (Moloney 503) The wine miraculously produced at Cana did not unify Gods people; Jesus death, his true hour, does unify them to God (Heil 95-96) Mary participates in special way in Jesus hour, becoming universal mother of the Church Dramatic and sophisticated nature of scene gives more significance than just ensuring Mary is cared for (Moloney 504) Mary is given a maternal role in the new family of the Church She who was his mother (i.e., Jesus) and then the mother and woman is now your mother (Heil 94) She represents the Church, the Bride of Christ, who spiritually gives birth to adopted sons of God Leads the community in loving one another as Jesus loved them (cf. 15:11-17; Heil 98) (eis ta idia) Same phrase as in Prologue (Jn 1:11), at which time Jesus was not accepted by his own Here John accepts Mary into his own, thereby accepting Jesus word (Moloney 504) Slide 11 Context of Popes Exegesis of Jn 19:25-27 Luke 11:27-28Blessed the womb that bore Jesus John 2:1-12Wedding feast at Cana Genesis 3:15 and Revelation 12:1 Acts 2:1-4First Pentecost Luke 11:27: A woman cried out, Blessed is the womb that bore you, and the breasts that you sucked! Brings to mind the infancy of Jesus with Mary bearing him in her womb, giving him birth, and nursing him Highlights Jesus true humanity First to fulfill Magnificat: All generations shall call me blessed (Lk 1: 48) Slide 12 Jesus replies: Blessed rather are those who hear the word of God and keep it (Lk. 11:28) New dimension of motherhood "My mother and my brothers are those who hear the word of God and do it" (cf. Lk. 8:20-21). in the dimension of the Kingdom of God, in the salvific radius of God's fatherhood (RM 21) Mary exemplified this more than any other at the Annunciation Mary more fully opened herself to this over her life Constitute her part beside her Son (RM 20) Slide 13 Wedding Feast at Cana (Jn 2:1-12) Marys part Mother of Jesus according to the flesh Jesus invited because of Mary (RM 21) Contributes to beginning of his signs Revelation of Jesus messianic power Not yet Jesus hour (Jn. 2:3-4) Nonetheless: Do whatever he tells you (Jn. 2:5) Manifests Marys motherhood according to the spirit and not just according to the flesh, that is to say Mary's solicitude for human beings, her coming to them in the wide variety of their wants and needs (RM 21) Bringing those needs within the radius of Jesus messianic mission and salvific power (RM 21) Mediation wholly oriented towards Christ and tending to the revelation of his salvific power (RM 22) Intercession: They have no wine Teaches the faith necessary for manifestation of messianic power: Do whatever he tells you Slide 14 Exegesis of Jn 19:25-27 Solemn confirmation of Jesus of Marys Part At the crowning moment of salvific economy of grace (RM 23) Marys motherhood of the entire human racestated and established (RM 23) Mother of Christ and mother of mankind New maternity born out of her love united with her Sons redemptive love (RM 23) Fulfillment of Genesis 3:15: conquers sin and death at its roots Jesus calls Mary woman again Heart of the mystery of Mary (RM 24) Marys unique part in salvation history The words uttered by Jesus from the Cross signify that the motherhood of her who bore Christ finds a "new" continuation in the Church and through the Church, symbolized and represented by John. In this way, she who as the one "full of grace" was brought into the mystery of Christ in order to be his Mother and thus the Holy Mother of God, through the Church remains in that mystery as "the woman" spoken of by the Book of Genesis (3:15) at the beginning and by the Apocalypse (12:1) at the end of the history of salvation.