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May 18, 2022



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144 Mastering new York’s grade 7 social studies standards
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Northern states, with fewer slaves, opposed this idea. Northern and Southern delegates also disagreed over whether the new Congress should be able to regulate or even outlaw the slave trade. The North wanted Congress to be able to regulate slavery, while Southerners opposed this. These disagreements were even- tually settled by a series of compromises:
Issue: How should states be represented in the national legislature?
Issue: How should slaves be counted?
The “Great Compromise:” larger states felt they should have a greater say in the national government. smaller states felt each state should have an equal voice. in this compromise, a two “house” (bicameral) legislature was created — congress. in the House of Representatives, states were represented according to their population size. this allowed states with a larger population to have a greater number of representatives. in the Senate, each state, no matter what its size, would be represented by two Senators. senators were elected indirectly. all laws needed the approval of both houses of congress.
The “Three-Fifths Compromise:” southern states wanted slaves counted as part of their population, to have more members in the House of representatives. the states compromised by agreeing to count every five slaves as three free persons for both taxation and representation.
Free Persons
taXation and rePresentation
The Commerce Compromise. In the “Commerce Compromise,” the delegates agreed to prohibit all taxes on exports — goods sold to foreign countries. Only imported goods could be taxed. They also agreed not to prohibit Congress from ending the slave trade for the next twenty years.
Create a chart about the Constitutional Convention. Show what the delegates agreed on, where they disagreed, and the compromises they made.
Hold a mock Constitutional Convention in your classroom. Have your teacher assign different roles to members of your class.
Applying WhAt you hAve leArned
Members of the Constitutional Convention discussing the issue of representation.
The “Core Curriculum” is presented in easy-to- comprehend chunks with plentiful illustrations, maps and graphic organizers.
CHAPTER 9: A Nation Is Created, 1750 to 1783 125
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CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE QUESTIONS Base your answers to questions 1 through 3 on the document below and your knowledge of social studies.
Albany Act of Union (1754)
“I t is proposed that … one general government may be formed in America as follows: 1. That the general government be administered by a President-General, to be
appointed and supported by the [King]; and a Grand Council, to be chosen by the representatives of the people of the several Colonies in their respective assemblies.
5. That after the first three years, when the proportion of money arising of each Colony to the treasury can be known, the number of members to be chosen for each Colony shall, in all [later] elections, be regulated, so that the number chosen by any one Province [is] not more than seven, nor less than two.
15. That they raise and pay soldiers and build forts for the defense of any of the Colonies, and equip vessels to guard the coasts and protect trade on the ocean, lakes, or great rivers.
16. That for these purposes they have power to make laws, and collect such general duties or taxes, as shall appear most equal and just [considering the ability and circumstances of the inhabitants in the Colonies].
1 Based on this document, what was the greatest number of representatives proposed for each colony in the Great Council? [1]
Score 2 Based on this document, state two powers proposed for the new government. [2]
Score (2)
Score 3 State one reason why the colonies refused to adopt the plan proposed in this
document. [1]
how to anSwer mUltIple-ChoICe qUeStIonS In this chapter, you will learn how to answer the different types of multiple-choice questions found on social studies tests, including the Grade 8 Intermediate-Level Social Studies Test you will take next year.
A multiple-choice question is a question followed by four possible answers. Your job is to choose the best answer to the question. Multiple-choice questions can be grouped into two main types:
y Statement questions. These questions begin with a question or an incomplete statement followed by a list of four choices or ways in which the statement can be completed.
y data-based questions. These questions present a piece of data or information as part of the question. You are then asked some question about the data, to which you respond by selecting the correct answer from a list of four choices.
how to USe the “e-r-a” approaCh Whatever type of multiple-choice question you are asked, we recommend that you follow a three-step approach to answer it. We call this the “E-R-A” approach:
EXaMInE the question
REcall what you Know
aPPly what you Know
Let’s look at each step to see how it can lead you to the correct answer. Here is a sample question:
cHapTER 3
The book includes more than 50 pages of test-taking strategies. Students learn our unique “E-R-A” approach, which really helps them to find the answers to multiple-choice questions.
CHAPTER 11: Life in the New Nation, 1789 to 1840 181
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Look up information on the Internet about the journey of the Cherokee along the Trail of Tears. Then write a journal entry as a Cherokee boy or girl, describing what you might have experienced on the journey.
Evaluate Andrew Jackson as President, based on the events that took place dur- ing his Presidency. Was Jackson a democrat or a tyrant?
Use primary sources from your school library or the Internet to examine differ- ent points of view on Jackson’s policies. Make a political cartoon to illustrate one of these viewpoints.
Applying WhAt you hAve leArned
Ess ial QUesTions
How did social and economic life change as the United States began to move from an agrarian to an industrial society?
How did geographic factors in the United States contribute to this change?
In the years before the Civil War (1861–1865), American industry was just beginning to emerge. Most Americans still lived in a pre-industrial age, but patterns of work and family life were beginning to be affected by the rise of industry. These changes occurred at differ- ent places in the United States at different times.
THE NATURE OF WORK The first factories appeared in the Northeast. Using machinery and steam power, facto- ries produced thousands of yards of cloth each day. In factories, goods could be mass produced. Mass production is the manu- facture of goods in large quantities using standardized designs, so that all the goods produced are the same. In fact, techniques of mass production were pioneered by the American inventor Eli Whitney. He used mass production to create interchangeable parts in the manufacture of muskets (guns).
Early advertisement for Whitney’s mass produced firearms.
Students interact with and apply what they read through Applying What You Have Learned activities that rein- force content and skills tested on the Grade 8 Test. Many of these activities are based on New York State’s recom- mended “Classroom Ideas.”
A NATION IS CREATED, 1750 to 1783 In this chapter, you will learn how British colonists in North America objected to the impo- sition of new taxes by the British. This dispute eventually brought the colonists into armed conflict with Great Britain. The outbreak of war led colonial leaders, in turn, to declare their independence. This chapter is divided into the following three sections:
The French and Indian War. The British victory in the French and Indian War had important effects on the colonies.
Causes of the American Revolution. A variety of factors contributed to the outbreak of the American Revolution. These factors included the Proclamation Line of 1763 and a series of new taxes imposed on the colonists.
The Road to Independence. Actual fighting between the British army and the colonists broke out at Lexington and Concord in 1775. The Second Continental Congress declared American independence in 1776, but the war lasted until a peace treaty was signed in 1783.
French and Indian War Boston Tea Party Ethan Allen Albany Plan of Union Intolerable Acts Fort Ticonderoga Treaty of Paris (1763) Lexington / Concord Battle of Long Island Proclamation Line of 1763 Loyalists / Patriots Valley Forge John Locke Common Sense George Washington Stamp Act Thomas Paine John Burgoyne Boycott Thomas Jefferson Battle of Saratoga Townshend Acts July 4, 1776 Battle of Yorktown Sons of Liberty Declaration of Indep. Treaty of Paris (1783)
Key Chapter terms, ConCepts, and people
Chapter 9
Each content chapter begins with an advance organizer and Word Wall. Every section opens with one or more Essential Questions from the “Core Curriculum.”
CHAPTER 10: Experiments in Government, 1777 to 1788 151
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Provisions for Change
Protection of Individual
Rights Federalism PRINCIPLES
The Federalist Papers
TESTING YOUR UNDERSTaNDING 1 Under the Articles of Confederation, the national government
(1) established a central bank (3) allowed the President to declare war (2) created a process to admit new states (4) allowed Congress to tax the states
ExaminE thE QuEstion: This question asks for an achievement of the national government under the Articles of Confederation. REcall What You KnoW: You should recall that the Articles left most power with the states: there was no national executive or courts. How- ever, the Confederation government did pass the Northwest Ordinance. applY What You KnoW: The government never created a central bank, so (1) is wrong. There was no President or direct taxing under the Articles of Confederation, so (3) and (4) are wrong. The Northwest Ordinance created a process to admit new states. Thus, (2) is the best answer.
Applying the “e-R-A” AppRoAch
Each chapter ends with Study Cards, a comprehensive Con- cept Map, Guided Practice, and numerous multiple-choice and constructed-response questions.
JARRETT PUBLISHING COMPANY The Gold Standard in Test Preparation Jarrett Publishing Company
Books for Today’s Educational Needs
As Their everydAy GrAde 7 sociAl sTudies TexT
• Mastering New York’s Grade 7 Social Studies Standards is reasonably priced for today’s challenging economic environment and more focused on New York State’s “Core Curriculum” than more costly textbooks.
• Major Historical Development sections are written in a student-friendly style at a reading- level students can easily comprehend. The book provides a concise survey of U.S. history from pre-Columbian times to Reconstruction.
• The text is not just aligned with the “Core Curriculum,” but completely embodies it. Compare the “Core Curriculum” with the text of this book and judge for yourself. Maps, photographs, and graphic organizers clarify events and developments.
• The book applies the latest educational research to help students realize their full potential in learning. Based on the principles of How People Learn, the book includes chapter openers, Word Walls, and Essential Questions as advance organizers. Every key concept is explained and reinforced with Applying What You Have Learned activities and Learning with Graphic Organizers. Finally, Study Cards and Concept Maps at the end of each chapter help students review and see connections.
• Includes more than 50 pages of test-taking strategies — including techniques for answering each type of multiple-choice and constructed-response questions.
• An entire chapter shows students how to answer DBQs step-by-step. Students learn how to interpret historical documents and visual data, how to answer scaffolding questions in Part A, how to interpret the “action words” used in the Task, how to organize information from documents, and how to plan and write their essays. In addition, there are five complete DBQs for student practice.
• Special Looking At features at the start of each content chapter provide a foundation for understanding major themes, such as geographic terms, the fundamentals of government and economics, and key turning points in history.
• Many of the “Classroom Ideas” of the “Core Curriculum” are directly integrated into the book in the form of Applying What You Have Learned activities. Many activities call for students to look online or to utilize resources in their school or pubic library.
• Testing Your Understanding sections reinforce learning with practice questions like those on the Intermediate-Level Social Studies Test.
• A practice final examination provides further experience in answering multiple-choice, constructed-response, and document-based questions. Every question is identified by its place in New York State’s “Core Curriculum.”
• Written by nationally-recognized experts on testing and social studies, including a New York City “Outstanding Social Studies Teacher of the Year” and a Stanford Ph.D. in history — with extensive experience in writing test items for New York State.