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Life • Individual survival – Take in, digest, eliminate nutrients – Recognize self from non-self – Recognize enemies – Repair damage • Reproduction – Survival of species – Gene transfer

Life Individual survival –Take in, digest, eliminate nutrients –Recognize self from non-self –Recognize enemies –Repair damage Reproduction –Survival of.

Dec 20, 2015



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  • Life Individual survival Take in, digest, eliminate nutrients Recognize self from non-self Recognize enemies Repair damage Reproduction Survival of species Gene transfer
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  • Bacteria Archaea Protozoa Algae Plants Fungi Animals Invertebrates Vertebrates US UCA Prokaryotes Eukaryotes Single-celled
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  • Cell Functions Maintenance Recovery of energy from nutrients Storage of energy Synthesis of correct proteins and other cell components Perpetuation of self DNA replication Cell division Specialized functions e.g. muscle, blood, nerve cells, immune system
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  • The molecules of life Nucleic acids (DNA, RNA) Proteins Carbohydrates Lipids Lipoproteins, glycoproteins, vitamins.
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  • DNA RNAProtein DNA + DNA Translation Protein synthesis DNA Replication Cell division The Proteome Proteomics Genomics The Genome Transcription
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  • PROTEINS Chains of amino acids Structural elements - cell walls, membranes Catalysts - enzymes Communication - within cells, between cells Cytokines Signal transduction factors Receptors Vital for regulation of growth, cell division
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  • Schematic metabolic cycle Cellular components Nucleic acids, Carbohydrates, Protein, Fat Metabolic intermediates NADPHNADP+ Work Transport Assembly Movement Heat ATP ADP + Pi Food Carbohydrates, Fats, Glucose, Proteins Wastes CO 2, H 2 O, lactic acid ATP ADP + Pi NAD+ NADH The Metabolome - Metabolomics
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  • Viruses 0.02-0.3 micrometers diameter Genetic material: ss or ds DNA, RNA Protein coat Some enzymes Lipid envelope enveloped/non enveloped viruses Nomenclature semi-systematic Hepatitis A Virus, HAV Need host cell for replication
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  • The plasma membrane Lipid bilayer Polar Non-polar (Lipid) Protein Av. Width 7.5 nm (75 ) Sugar Glycolipid Glycoprotein
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  • The Flu Virion Neuraminidase Hemagglutinin Lipid bilayer envelope Matrix protein
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  • Envelope: lipid bilayer membrane + glycoproteins, typically acquired from host cell membranes Capsid (protein coat): multiple copies of 1 or more proteins in an array
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  • Life-cycle of virus Particle, virion Infects host cell Genetic material uses hosts replication apparatus to produce new viral components (capsid, core proteins, genetic material) Components assemble into viral particles, exit host cell, sometimes lysing host cell
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  • Each type of virus has its own specific host Viruses that colonize bacteria are bacteriophage viruses (bacteriophages).
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  • Viruses in the Environmment Must be able to survive outside host cell Non-enveloped viruses are more persistent than enveloped viruses Lipid envelope more easily damaged, protein coat confers stability Enteric viruses are almost all non-enveloped Hepatitis A, poliovirus, noroviruses, rotaviruses Transmitted by direct and indirect contact, fecally contaminated water, food, fomites and air.
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  • Respiratory viruses, mostly enveloped adenoviruses, coronaviruses, rhinoviruses, influenza viruses, Transmitted by direct and indirect contact, air (aerosols) and fomites (some also by water and food).
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  • Unicellular organisms Bacteria - procaryotes Protozoa Algae - eucaryotes Fungi
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  • Procaryotic Cell (left) and Eucaryotic Cell (right)
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  • Procaryotes: Bacteria and Others Unicellular organisms Simple internal organization Multiply by binary fission Diameter ~0.5-1.0 micrometer Envelope: cytoplasmic membrane, cell wall & capsule (polysaccharide) Some have appendages: flagella: for locomotion pili: attachment to other cells for genetic transfer; virus receptor site Standard Linnean nomenclature: Genus species
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  • Diverse bacteria Gram positive Gram negative
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  • More bacterial types Aerobes Anaerobes Facultative aerobes Rods (bacilli) Spherical (cocci) Comma-shaped (vibrios) Spiral (spirochetes)
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  • Bacteria in the Environment Some bacteria form spores: highly resistant to physical and chemical agents and very persistent in the environment
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  • Pathogenic Bacteria Pathogenic bacteria possess structures or chemical constituents that contribute to virulence properties Outer cell membrane of Gram negative bacteria: endotoxin (fever producer) Exotoxins Pili: for attachment to cells and tissues Invasins: to invade cells
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  • Unicellular Eucaryotes: More complex internal organization: organelles: discrete nucleus, mitochondria Wide range of sizes: 2 micrometers and larger
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  • Protozoa Unicellular; non-photosynthetic; flexible cell membrane; no cell wall; some are parasites, have complex life-cycles Wide range of sizes and shapes; 2 micrometers to 2 mm Disease-causing: Amoebae: Entamoeba histolytica Flagellates: Giardia lamblia Ciliates: Balantidum coli Sporozoans: Plasmodium vivax Coccidians: Cryptosporidium parvum Microsporidia: Cyclosopora cayetanensis
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  • Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts: ~5 m diameter Acid fast stain of fecal preparation Wet mount by differential interference contrast microscopy
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  • Giardia lamblia cyst: ~10 x 8 micrometers
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  • More Protozoans: Fungi Fungi (yeasts and molds): non-photosynthetic immotile; rigid cell wall Molds: grow as branched, interlacing chains or filaments (hyphae) called mycelia Yeasts: do not form mycelia grow as single cells that bud sexual reproduction possible Mitospores (conidia) of Penicillium, one of the asexual Ascomycota Yeasts
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  • Algae Photosynthetic Rigid cell wall Simple plants, protists, protozoa, plancton, derived from cyanobacteria ? Wide range of sizes and shapes 2 micrometers and larger Some algae are harmful Algal booms Toxins Anabaena, anatoxins Nostoc
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  • Helminths (Worms) Multicellular animals Some are human and/or animal parasites Eggs pass via human and animal excreta to water, food, soil. Several major groups: Roundworms, Nematodes eg. Ascaris, Trichinella spiralis, hookworms Flatworms Platyhelminthes: Cestodes (tapeworms): pork, beef tapeworms, and Trematodes (flukes) eg Schistosomes Annelids (leeches) Necator (hookworm) eggs adult
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  • Eggs hatch in soil Infective stage: larvae Penetrate skin, migrate to blood, lungs, trachea or are ingested Adults mature in intestine Attach to intestinal walls anemia Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale (hookworm)
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  • Trematodes Schistosomes (blood flukes) Liver fluke
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  • Cestodes Head (scolex) attaches to tissue beef tapeworm, Taenia saginata pork tapeworm (T. solium) Grows in intestine
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  • Multicellular organisms Plants Animals Invertebrates Vertebrates
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