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Psyco 350 Lec #11– Slide 1 Lecture 11 – Psyco 350, A1 Winter, 2011 N. R. Brown
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Lecture 11 – Psyco 350, A1 Winter, 2011

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Lecture 11 – Psyco 350, A1 Winter, 2011. N. R. Brown. Outline. Implicit Memory Introduction Dissociating Implicit & Explicit Memory Transfer Appropriate Processing Implicit Learning Dual Process Models Recognition & Remember/Know Process Dissociation Procedure Direct Tests. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *Lecture 11 Psyco 350, A1Winter, 2011N. R. Brown

    Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *

  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *OutlineImplicit MemoryIntroductionDissociating Implicit & Explicit MemoryTransfer Appropriate ProcessingImplicit LearningDual Process ModelsRecognition & Remember/KnowProcess Dissociation ProcedureDirect Tests

    Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *

  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *Evidence for Implicit Memory on Indirect Tests

    Indirect tests typically use improved performance as the measure of implicit memory

    Priming = the improvement in performance on a subsequent occasion due to processing on a previous occasion

    Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *

  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *Priming EffectsExp condition = a prior exposure to stimControl = no prior exposure to stim

    Priming:fragment, stem, anagram:dv % complete: exp > controlPerceptional Identification:dv -- % correct: exp > controlLexical Decision:dv RT: exp < control

    Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *

  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *Dissociating Implicit & Explicit MemoryDissociation: One variable affects one task differently than it affects another _______________________________________Tulving, Schacter, & Stark (1982)

    Design: Delay X Test Type . 1 hr fragment completion (indirect) 1 week recognition (direct)

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  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *Tulving, Schacter, & Stark (1982)

    Phase 1Intentional Study (96 words)1 hr delay Phase 2 Recognition48 wordsFrag Completion48 words1 week delay Phase 3 Frag Completion48 words Recognition48 words

    Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *

  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *Tulving, Schacter, & Stark (1982)Results:Reco w/ dealyfrag unaffected by delay

    Delay causes a dissociation between reco & frag tests. Implication: Test tap different forms of memory.

    Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *

  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *(Double) Dissociating Implicit & Explicit MemoryJacoby (1983)

    Aims: Using same materials demonstrate:explicit memory w/ depth of processingimplicit memory w/ perceptual similarity

    Materials selected so that:as depth of processing , perceptual similarity

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  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *Jacoby (1983)Design: Encoding Task X Test . (Antonym) Generation recognitionRead (antonym in context)perceptual ID (40 ms) Read (target alone)

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  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *Jacoby(1983): Two perspective on Encoding TasksPredictions:Recognition: deeper processing should produce better performance.Percp ID: priming should become stronger as study and test materials become more similar.

    TaskexampleLOPperc similarityGeneratehot deeplowRead in contexthot COLDmidmid Read no contextCOLDshallowhigh

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  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *Jacoby (1983): Resultsw/out prior exposure (control): perc ID = 60%In all conditions: Perc ID > 60% priming_________________________Reco with Depth of Processing

    Perc ID perc similarity (Perc ID LoP)Evidence for 2 types of memory

    Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *

  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *Jacoby (1983): Resultsw/out prior exposure (control): perc ID = 60%In all conditions: Perc ID > 60% priming_________________________Reco with Depth of Processing

    Perc ID perc similarity (Perc ID LoP)Evidence for 2 types of memory

    Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *

  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *Transfer Appropriate Process: TheoryAssumes:Performance depends of match between processing at study and processing at test.Analogous to encoding specificity. Two-types of ProcessesData-driven (perceptual) processing of physical features.Conceptually-driven (semantic) processing for meaning

    Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *

  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *Transfer Appropriate Processing: Two Types of Indirect TestData-driven (Perceptual):fragment completionstem completionanagram completionlexical decisionperceptual identification

    Conceptually-driven(Semantic):word associationdoctor ??category-instance generationname a mammalgeneral knowledgeThe capital of the US is ?

    Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *

  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *Transfer Appropriate Process: TheoryProcessing-type & memory task typically confounded:Direct tests require/benefit from conceptual processing Indirect tests require/benefit from data-driven processing. However, it is possible to unconfound test-type from process-type (e.g.):Fragment-cued, recall test data-driven, directgeneral knowledge test conceptual, indirect

    Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *

  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *Transfer Appropriate Processing: Blaxton (1989)Goal to demonstrate;data-driven processing can affect direct testsdata-driven processing do not necessarily affect indirect testsDesign: TEST TYPE Study Mode X Explicitness X Level . visual direct data-drivenauditory indirect conceptually-driven

    Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *

  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *Blaxton (1989): Four Types of Memory TestTarget word: bashfulgraphic-cued recall: looks like bushfulfree recallfrag completion: b_sh_u_General knowledge: Name one of the 7 dwarfs

    Data-drivenConceptually-drivenDirectGraphic-cuedRecallFree RecallIndirectFragmentCompletionGeneralKnowledge

    Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *

  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *Blaxton (1989): Competing PredictionsStandard view: modality match should affect only indirect tests for both implicit tests: visual > auditory for both explicit test: visual = auditory

    Data-drivenConceptually-drivenDirectno modality effectno modality effectIndirectvisual > auditoryvisual > auditory

    Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *

  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *Competing PredictionsTAP View: modality match should affect data-driven tasks only. priming depends on match between study/test processing match & not on test instructions: for both data-driven tests: visual > auditory for both conceptually-driven tests: visual = auditory

    Data-drivenConceptually-drivenDirectvisual > auditoryno modality effectIndirectvisual > auditoryno modality effect

    Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *

  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *Blaxton (1989): ResultsPriming Effect (v > a) for data-driven tasks only:indirect: frag completiondirect: graphemic-cued recall

    Not all indirect tests display priming effect.Gen Know (indirect, conceptual): v = Agraphemic-cued recallfragment completionfree recallGeneral knowledge

    Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *

  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *Transfer Appropriate Processing: ConclusionsIt is the match between processing at study and processing at test that produces priming effects.

    Priming can affect performance on both indirect tests and direct tests.

    Implication: at least for direct tests, performance reflects both implicit and explicit memory

    Question: Is it also the true that indirect tests reflect both implicit and explicit memory?

    Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *

  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *Implicit LearningLearning w/out intention or awarenessCovariation (required for use of availability/familiarity in judgment)Frequency-of-occurrenceSequence LearningFixed sequencesRule-based sequences

    Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *

  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *Fixed Sequence Learning: Nissen & Bullemer (1987)Task: Press button under 1 of 4 lights

    Sequence Type:Repeating same pattern reports every across every 10 trialsRandom lights presented at random (no sequence). Details:800 10-trial sequences (!)

    Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *

  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *On each trial a light goes onJust press corresponding button

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  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *Nissen and Bullemer (1987): Results:Repeated: RT rapidly over blocks Random: RT little changed over blockRepeat-condition Ps unable to report sequenceConclusion: Sequence learning/use was unconscious/implicit

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  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *Rule governedAnother N & B (1987)Exp.Subjects are sensitive to the presence of the sequence even when they deny knowing that there was a sequenceViolates rules

    Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *

  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *Rule-based Sequence Learning (Reber)Artificial Grammars General Approach

    Use Artificial Grammar to define/generate grammatical sequences

    Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *

  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *Example of an Artificial Grammar

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  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *Aim: Can people learn grammatical rules w/out intention:

    Two Groups: Grammatical (implicitly) learn sets of grammar-generated letter sequences Random learn sets of randomly generated letter sequences

    Test: Grammatically judgment:50% grammatical50% ungrammatical

    Reber (1967)

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  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *Results: Phase-1Learning: grammatical faster than random Phase-2 Grammatical-judgment task:Grammatical group: 79%Random group: chance Grammatical group could not state the rules explicitlyConclusion: Grammatical group (implicit) learned the rules/grammar during Task 1Rules: facilitated string learning; enabled classification

    Reber (1967)

    Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *

  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *Approaches to Implicit LearningRules (Reber)Instance Based (Brooks)Encode examples/instancesassess similarity between target and stored instancesFragment-based (Perruchet)Learn string fragments (bigrams, trigrams)reject strings lacking learned fragments Problem knowledge might be explicit.

    Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *

  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *Dual-Process AccountsGeneral View two sources of info analytic, explicit, controlled nonanalytic, implicit, automaticAssumption no process pure tasks

    Interpretation problem for Indirect Tests:contaminationIssue generalizes to:direct testsjudgments tasks

    Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *

  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *Recognition: Background Recognition Task (Radvansky, pp. 55-56)

    Process of list of items: STIM 1 . STIMn

    Test:Was STIMx on prior list?

    STIMx on list OLD

    STIMx not on list NEW

    Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *

  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *Dual-Process Account of Recognition: Mandler (1980)Reco judgments based on 2 types of information:Recollection:Judgment based on successful retrieval of information about the study episodeFamiliarity:Judgment based on assessed familiarity (fluency).Evidence:Remember/Know JudgmentsProcess Dissociations

    Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *

  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *Remember/KnowTwo memory processes 2 phenomenal experiences

    remember = successful recollect of details of prior episode

    know = high levels familiarity, in the absence of recollection

    remember Rknow A

    Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *

  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *Remember/Know: General Method@ study: manipulate some factor likely to manipulate recollection

    @ test: recognition

    yes no

    r/k

    Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *

  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *Remember/Know: An Example Rajaram (1993)Exp 1. Levels of ProcessingR: semantic > rhyme; K: deep = shallowExp 2. Pictures vs wordsR: picture > words; K: picture = word

    Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *

  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *Remember/Know (Radvansky, pp 307-308)General Findings:factors recollection, rememberLOP, repetition, short (vs long) delay

    Problems:poor terminology

    Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *

  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *Remember/Know Instructions: Rajaram (1993)

    Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *

  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *Remember/KnowGeneral Findings:factors recollection, rememberLOP, repetition, short (vs long) delay

    Problems:poor terminologyjudgmental criteriar/k as confidence judgment Converging Evidence:Process dissociation studies

    Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *

  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *Process Dissociation; Jacoby (1991)Two Independent Process: recollective (R) automatic (A)Strategy: set processes in opposition manipulate factor(s) affecting recollection 2 tests:recollection yes (Inclusion)recollection no (Exclusion)

    Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *

  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *Process Dissociation2 tests:recollection yes (Inclusion)recollection no (Exclusion)Goal: Compute values for R & AData: Inclusion = R + A(1-R)Exclusion = A(1-R)Parameter EstimatesR = Inclusion ExclusionA = Exclusion / (1-R)

    Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *

  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *Process DissociationEvidence for the role of Dual-Processes in two classes of memory test

    A Direct Test (recognition)

    An Indirect Task (fragment completion)

    Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *

  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *Process Dissociation: Direct TestRead a list of words List 1Hear a list of words List 2Two recognition tests:Both tests include List 1, List 2 and novel words.Inclusion test: Respond old if word was on either list.Exclusion test: Respond old only if word was on List 2.

    Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *

  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *Inclusion testInclusion test: Respond old if word was on either list.Intentional (recollective) process will have a certain probability of concluding old for List 1 words RAutomatic process will also have a certain probability of concluding old for List 1 words AIf either process concludes old, the subject will respond old

    P(old) = R + A (1-R)

    Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *

  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *Inclusion ConditionList1Word OLDRRecollectedNOT RecollectedHigh FamiliarityOLDANewLow FamiliarityP(OLD) = P(OLDR) + P(OLDA)R%1-R%1-A%A%

    Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *

  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *Exclusion testExclusion test: Respond old only if word was on List 2.Subject will only respond old to List 1 words if two things happen:The automatic process responds old due to a feeling of familiarity AThe intentional process fails to recognise the word (if it had, it would recall it was from List 1) (1-R)P(old ) = A(1-R)

    Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *

  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *Exclusion ConditionList1Word NEWRecollectedNOT RecollectedHigh FamiliarityOLDANewLow FamiliarityP(OLD) = P(OLDA)R%1-R%1-A%A%

    Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *

  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *Dissociating the processesData:Inclusion: P(old) = R + (1- R)Exclusion: P(old) = A(1-R)

    Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *

  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *Inclusion ConditionList1Word OLDRRecollectedNOT RecollectedHigh FamiliarityOLDANewLow FamiliarityP(OLD) = P(OLDR) + P(OLDA)R%1-R%A%1-A%

    Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *

  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *Exclusion ConditionList1Word NEWRecollectedNOT RecollectedHigh FamiliarityOLDANewLow FamiliarityP(OLD) = P(OLDA)R%1-R%1-A%A%

    Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *

  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *Dissociating the processesData:Inclusion: P(old) = R + (1- R)Exclusion: P(old) = A(1-R)

    Parameter EstimatesInclusion Exclusion = RA = Exclusion / (1-R)

    Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *

  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *Jacoby (1991)Materials:List 1: READ wordsList 2: HEAR wordsTests:InclusionList 1 OLDList 2 OLDExclusionList 1 NEWList 2 OLD

    Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *

  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *Jacoby (1991; Exp 3)Two recognition tests (% OLD for READ words):

    Inclusion testP(old) = 0.48Exclusion testP(old) = 0.37*

    R = Inclusion Exclusion = 0.11A = Exclusion / (1-R) = 0.37 / 0.89 = 0.42

    *in exclusion condition, OLD are errors

    Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *

  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *Jacoby (1991; Exp 3)Two recognition tests (% OLD for READ words):

    Inclusion testP(old) = 0.48Exclusion testP(old) = 0.37*

    R = Inclusion Exclusion = 0.11A = Exclusion / (1-R) = 0.37 / 0.89 = 0.42

    *in exclusion condition, OLD are errors

    Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *

  • Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *Jacoby (1991; Exps 2 & 3)Implication: When recollection is knocked out, P(OLD) in exclusion condition should equal A

    Exclusion test w/ digit monitoring task (monitor for 3 odd digits in a row).Expectation: Recollection eliminated by divided attention (digit task) R = 0

    Prediction: Exclusion = A(1-R) = 0.42 (1-0) = 0.42

    Results: Exclusion w/ divided attention: Prob(Old) = 0.43

    Psyco 350 Lec #11 Slide *

    N. R. Brown, U of AlbertaN. R. Brown, U of AlbertaPsyco 350*Psyco 350N. R. Brown, U of AlbertaN. R. Brown, U of AlbertaPsyco 350*Psyco 350N. R. Brown, U of AlbertaN. R. Brown, U of AlbertaPsyco 350*Psyco 350N. R. Brown, U of AlbertaN. R. Brown, U of AlbertaPsyco 350*Psyco 350N. R. Brown, U of AlbertaN. R. Brown, U of AlbertaPsyco 350*Psyco 350N. R. Brown, U of AlbertaN. R. Brown, U of AlbertaPsyco 350*Psyco 350N. R. Brown, U of AlbertaN. R. Brown, U of AlbertaPsyco 350*Psyco 350N. R. Brown, U of AlbertaN. R. Brown, U of AlbertaPsyco 350*Psyco 350N. R. Brown, U of AlbertaN. R. Brown, U of AlbertaPsyco 350*Psyco 350N. R. Brown, U of AlbertaN. R. Brown, U of AlbertaPsyco 350*Psyco 350N. R. Brown, U of AlbertaN. R. Brown, U of AlbertaPsyco 350*Psyco 350N. R. Brown, U of AlbertaN. R. Brown, U of AlbertaPsyco 350*Psyco 350N. R. Brown, U of AlbertaN. R. Brown, U of AlbertaPsyco 350*Psyco 350N. R. Brown, U of AlbertaN. R. Brown, U of AlbertaPsyco 350*Psyco 350N. R. Brown, U of AlbertaN. R. Brown, U of AlbertaPsyco 350*Psyco 350N. R. Brown, U of AlbertaN. R. Brown, U of AlbertaPsyco 350*Psyco 350N. R. Brown, U of AlbertaN. R. Brown, U of AlbertaPsyco 350*Psyco 350N. R. Brown, U of AlbertaN. R. Brown, U of AlbertaPsyco 350*Psyco 350N. R. Brown, U of AlbertaN. R. Brown, U of AlbertaPsyco 350*Psyco 350N. R. Brown, U of AlbertaN. R. Brown, U of AlbertaPsyco 350*Psyco 350N. R. Brown, U of AlbertaN. R. Brown, U of AlbertaPsyco 350*Psyco 350N. R. Brown, U of AlbertaN. R. Brown, U of AlbertaPsyco 350*Psyco 350N. R. Brown, U of AlbertaN. R. Brown, U of AlbertaPsyco 350*Psyco 350N. R. Brown, U of AlbertaN. R. Brown, U of AlbertaPsyco 350*Psyco 350N. R. Brown, U of AlbertaN. R. Brown, U of AlbertaPsyco 350*Psyco 350N. R. Brown, U of AlbertaN. R. Brown, U of AlbertaPsyco 350*Psyco 350N. R. Brown, U of AlbertaN. R. Brown, U of AlbertaPsyco 350*Psyco 350N. R. Brown, U of AlbertaN. R. Brown, U of AlbertaPsyco 350*Psyco 350N. R. Brown, U of AlbertaN. R. Brown, U of AlbertaPsyco 350*Psyco 350N. R. Brown, U of AlbertaN. R. Brown, U of AlbertaPsyco 350*Psyco 350N. R. Brown, U of AlbertaN. R. Brown, U of AlbertaPsyco 350*Psyco 350N. R. Brown, U of AlbertaN. R. Brown, U of AlbertaPsyco 350*Psyco 350N. R. Brown, U of AlbertaN. R. Brown, U of AlbertaPsyco 350*Psyco 350N. R. Brown, U of AlbertaN. R. Brown, U of AlbertaPsyco 350*Psyco 350N. R. Brown, U of AlbertaN. R. Brown, U of AlbertaPsyco 350*Psyco 350N. R. Brown, U of AlbertaN. R. Brown, U of AlbertaPsyco 350*Psyco 350N. R. Brown, U of AlbertaN. R. Brown, U of AlbertaPsyco 350*Psyco 350N. R. Brown, U of AlbertaN. R. Brown, U of AlbertaPsyco 350*Psyco 350N. R. Brown, U of AlbertaN. R. Brown, U of AlbertaPsyco 350*Psyco 350N. R. Brown, U of AlbertaN. R. Brown, U of AlbertaPsyco 350*Psyco 350N. R. Brown, U of AlbertaN. R. Brown, U of AlbertaPsyco 350*Psyco 350N. R. Brown, U of AlbertaN. R. Brown, U of AlbertaPsyco 350*Psyco 350N. R. Brown, U of AlbertaN. R. Brown, U of AlbertaPsyco 350*Psyco 350N. R. Brown, U of AlbertaN. R. Brown, U of AlbertaPsyco 350*Psyco 350N. R. Brown, U of AlbertaN. R. Brown, U of AlbertaPsyco 350*Psyco 350N. R. Brown, U of AlbertaN. R. Brown, U of AlbertaPsyco 350*Psyco 350

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