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Jet Airliners

Mar 09, 2015



Harsh Rawat
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AirlinersCurrent Public Movers

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ContentsArticlesJet airliner Wide-body aircraft Competition between Airbus and Boeing Boeing 737 Next Generation Boeing 777 Boeing 787 Boeing 747-8 Airbus A320 family Airbus A330 Airbus A340 Airbus A350 Airbus A380 1 3 13 28 39 58 80 92 109 119 130 142

ReferencesArticle Sources and Contributors Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 166 170

Article LicensesLicense 174

Jet airliner


Jet airlinerA jet airliner is an airliner that is powered by jet engines. This term is sometimes contracted to jetliner or jet. In contrast to today's relatively fuel-efficient, turbofan-powered air travel, first generation jet airliner travel was noisy and fuel inefficient. These inefficiencies were addressed by the invention of turboprop and turbofan engines.

A widebody jet airliner, the Boeing 777

Cutaway of an Airbus A300 jet airliner showing cabin and cargo deck

Early historyThe first airliners with turbojet propulsion were experimental conversions of the Avro Lancastrian piston engined airliner, which were flown with several types of early jet engine, including the de Havilland Ghost and the Rolls-Royce Nene, however these retained the two inboard piston engines, the jets being housed in the outboard nacelles and these aircraft were therefore of 'mixed' propulsion. The first airliner with full jet power was the Nene-powered Vickers VC.1 Viking G-AJPH, which first flew on the 6 April 1948.

First generation

Nene test-bed Lancastrian demonstrating in 1954 on the two jets with the two inner Merlins feathered

The first purpose-built jet airliner was the de Havilland Comet which first flew in 1949 and entered service in 1952. Also developed in 1949 was the Avro Jetliner, and although it never reached production, the term jetliner caught on as a generic term for all passenger jet aircraft. These first jet airliners were followed some years later by the Sud Aviation Caravelle, Tupolev Tu-104 (2nd in service), Boeing 707, Douglas DC-8, and Convair 880. National prestige was attached to developing prototypes and bringing these first generation designs into service. There was also a strong nationalism in purchasing policy, such that the Boeing and Douglas products became closely associated with Pan Am, while BOAC ordered British made Comets.

Jet airliner These two airlines with strong nautical traditions of command hierarchy rank and chain of command, retained from their days of operations with flying boats, undoubtably were quick to capitalize upon, with the help of advertising agencies, the linkings of the "speed of jets" with the safety and secure "luxury of ocean liners" among public perception. Aeroflot used Soviet Tupolevs, while Air France introduced French Caravelles. Commercial realities dictated exceptions, however, as few airlines could risk missing out on a superior product: American airlines ordered the pioneering Comet (but later cancelled when the Comet ran into fatigue problems), Canadian, British and European airlines could not ignore the better operating economics of the Boeing 707 and the DC-8, while some American airlines ordered the Caravelle. Boeing became the most successful of the early manufacturers. The KC-135 Stratotanker and military versions of the 707 remain operational, mostly as tankers or freighters. The basic configuration of the Boeing, Convair and Douglas aircraft jet airliner designs, with widely spaced podded engines under slung on pylons beneath a swept wing, proved to be the most common arrangement and was most easily compatible with the large-diameter high-bypass turbofan engines that subsequently prevailed for reasons of quietness and fuel efficiency. The de Havilland and Tupolev designs had engines incorporated within the wings next to the fuselage, a concept that endured only within military designs while the Caravelle pioneered engines mounted either side of the rear fuselage.


Second generationIn the 1960s, when jet airliners were powered by slim, low-bypass engines, many aircraft used the rear-engined, T-tail configuration, such as the BAC One-Eleven, Douglas DC-9 twinjets; Boeing 727, Hawker Siddeley Trident, Tupolev Tu-154 trijets; and the paired multi-engined Ilyushin Il-62, and Vickers VC-10 whose engines were mounted upon the aft fuselage. This engine arrangement survives into the 21st century on numerous twin engined Douglas DC-9 derivatives plus newer short haul and range turbofan powered regional aircraft such as the "regional Turan Air Tu-154M jet airliners" built by Bombardier, Embraer and, until recently, Fokker. However other "jetliner" developments, such as the concept of rocket assisted takeoffs RATO, and the briefly mentioned water-injection as used and tested upon first generation passenger jets, as well as trailing edge mounted powerplants, afterburners also known as reheat used upon supersonic jetliners (SSTs) such as Concorde and the Tupolev Tu-144, likewise have been relegated to the past. For business jets, the rear-engined universal configuration pioneered by the turbojet powered early Learjet 23, North American Sabreliner, and Lockheed JetStar is common practice on smaller bizjet aircraft as the wing is too close to the ground to accommodate underslung engines. This is as opposed to early generation jet airliners, whose design engineers slung jet engines on the rear to increase wing lift performance and at the same time reduce cabin noise of the lower bypass "turbojet" engines.

Jet airliner


Present dayAirliner descriptions are commonly broken down into the distinctions of the generally long-haul civilian passenger jumbo and, widebody jet airliners, and short-haul civilian passenger "jet" airliners. Among some of these categories included among the short-haul civilian passenger "jets" are both longer and shorter ranged "narrow-body jet and regional jet types." Semantically, the terms "civilian" "turbine powered" "jet" "passenger" "air" "liner" aircraft are routinely dropped from these various terms to accurately describe "jet aircraft" which can lead to confusion among those practicing language purity. It is also referenced in the Steve Miller song, "Jet Airliner".

An Airbus A340-600 on final approach. Notice the fourth undercarriage under the fuselage belly.

See also Airliner Aviation Business jet Freight aircraft Jet aircraft

Wide-body aircraft

Wide-body aircraftA wide-body aircraft is a large airliner with two passenger aisles, also known as a twin-aisle aircraft.[1] The typical fuselage diameter is 5 to 6 m (16 to 20 ft).[2] In the typical wide-body economy cabin, passengers are seated seven to ten abreast,[3] allowing a total capacity of 200 to 600 passengers. The largest wide-body aircraft are over 6m (20ft) wide,[4] and can accommodate up to eleven passengers abreast in high-density configurations. Wide-body aircraft are also used for the transport of commercial freight and cargo[5] and other special uses, described further below. The spelling widebody aircraft is also commonly found within the aircraft industry.[6] [7]

The Airbus A380 is the world's largest and widest passenger aircraft [8]

By comparison, a traditional narrow-body airliner has a diameter of 3 to 4 m (10 to 13 ft), with a single aisle,[1] and seats between two and six people abreast.[9]

Wide-body aircraft were originally designed for a combination of efficiency and passenger comfort. However, airlines quickly gave in to economic factors, and reduced the extra passenger space in order to maximize revenue and profits.[10] Depending on how the airline configures the aircraft, the size and seat pitch of the airline seats will vary significantly.[11] For example, aircraft scheduled for shorter flights are often configured at a higher seat density than long-haul aircraft.

Wide-body aircraft


Due to current economic pressures on the airline industry, high seating densities in the economy cabin are likely to continue.[12]

Size comparison between a Boeing 737-300 (narrow-body) and a Boeing 777 (widebody aircraft)

HistoryThe Bristol Brabazon was a wide-body transatlantic design that first flew in 1949 but never reached production. Following the success of the Boeing 707 and Douglas DC-8 in the late 1950s, airlines began seeking larger aircraft to meet the rising global demand for air travel. Engineers were faced with many challenges as airlines demanded more passenger seats per aircraft, longer ranges and lower operating costs. Early jet aircraft such as the 707 and DC-8 seated passengers along either side of a single aisle, with no more than six seats per row. Larger Boeing 747, the first widebody passenger aircraft, aircraft would have to be longer, higher (such as a double deck), or operated by Pan American World Airways wider in order to accommodate the greater number of passenger seats. Engineers also realized that lengthening the fuselage would have resulted in aircraft that would be too long to be handled by airports, while having two decks created difficulties in meeting emergency evacuation regulations, which were extremely challenging provided the technology available at the time. These parameters left a wider fuselage as the best option: by adding a second aisle, the wider aircraft could accommodate as many as 10 seats across.[13] The wide-body age began in 1970 with the entry into service of the first wide-body airliner, the four-engined, double-deck Boeing 747.[14] New trijet widebody aircraft soon followed, including the McDonnell Douglas DC-10 and the Lockheed L-1011 Tristar. The first widebody twinjet, the Airbus A300, entered service in 1974.[15] After the success of the early wide-body aircraft, several successors came to market over the next two decades, including the Airbus A330-A340 Series and the Boeing 777. In the jumbo category, the capacity of the Boeing 747 was not surpassed until October 2007, when the Airbus A380 entered commercial service with the nickname Superjumbo.[16]

Wide-body aircraft


Design considerationsAlthough widebody aircraft have a larger frontal area (and thus greater form drag) than a narrow-body aircraft of similar capacity, they have several advantages over their narrow-body counterparts: Larger volume of space for passengers, giving a more open feeling to the space Lower ratio of surface area to volume, and thus lower drag on a per-passenger basis Twin aisles that accelerate loading, unloading, and evacuation compared to a single aisle[17] Wider fuselage that reduces the overall aircraft length, improving ground manoeuvrability and reducing the risk of tail strikes Greater under-floor freight capacity Better structural efficiency for larger aircraft than would be possible with a narrow-body design British and Russian designers had proposed widebody aircraft similar in configuration to the Vickers VC-10 and Douglas DC-9, but with a widebody fuselage. The British Three-Eleven project never left the drawing board, while the Russian Il-86 widebody proposal eventually gave way to a more conventional wing-mounted engine design, most likely due to the inefficiencies of mounting such a large engine on the aft fuselage.

Cross-section comparison of Airbus A380 and Boeing 747-400

Airbus A300 cross-section, showing cargo, passenger, and overhead areas

EnginesAs jet engine power and reliability have increased over the last decades, most of the widebody aircraft built today have only two engines. A twinjet design is more fuel-efficient than a comparable trijet or four-engined aircraft. The increased reliability of modern jet engines also allows aircraft to meet the ETOPS certification standard, which calculates reasonable safety margins for flights across oceans. The trijet design has been eliminated due to higher maintenance and fuel costs, and only the heaviest widebody aircraft today are built with four engines (the Airbus A340, Airbus A380 and Boeing 747-8).[18] [19]Mechanic working on a Rolls Royce Trent 900 engine during testing. The Trent is a typical type of high bypass turbofan used in widebody airliners.

The Boeing 777 twinjet features the largest and most powerful[20] jet engine in the world, the General Electric GE90, which is 128inches (3.25m) in diameter.[21] This is almost as wide as the entire fuselage of a Boeing 737 at 148inches (3.76m).

The massive maximum takeoff weight of the Airbus A380 (560tonnes (1200000lb)) would not have been possible without the engine technology developed for the Boeing 777 (such as contra-rotating spools).[22] The Trent 900 engine pictured, used on the Airbus A380, has a fan blade diameter of 116inches (2.95m), only slightly smaller than the GE90 engines on the Boeing 777. An interesting design constraint of the Trent 900 engines is that they are designed to fit into a Boeing 747-400F freighter for relatively easy transport by air cargo.[23]

Wide-body aircraft


InteriorsThe interiors of aircraft, known as the aircraft cabin, have been undergoing evolution since the first passenger aircraft. Bar and lounge areas which were once installed on the Boeing 747 have mostly disappeared, but a few have returned in first or business class on the Airbus A340-600,[24] Boeing 777-300ER,[25] and on the Airbus A380.[26] Emirates has installed showers for First Class passengers on the A380; twenty-five minutes are allotted for use of the room, and the shower operates for a maximum of five minutes.[27] [28] A comparison of interior cabin widths and economy class seating layout is below under widebody specifications. Further information can be found under external links.

Economy class on an EVA Air Boeing 777 in nine-abreast layout.

Cubana's Ilyushin Il-96 economy class cabin.

Lufthansa Airbus A340-600 Economy cabin

Airbus A330 Business Class (Avianca).

Wake turbulence and separationAircraft are categorized by ICAO according to the wake turbulence they produce. Because wake turbulence is generally related to the weight of an aircraft, these categories are based on one of four weight categories:[29] light, medium, heavy, and super.[30] Due to their weight, all current widebody aircraft are categorized as heavy, or in the case of the A380, super. The wake-turbulence category also is used to guide the separation of aircraft.[31] Super and heavy-category aircraft require greater separation behind them than those in other categories. In some countries, such as the United States, it is a requirement to suffix a heavy (or super) aircraft's call sign with the word "heavy" (or super) when communicating with air traffic control in certain areas.

This picture from a NASA study on wingtip vortices illustrates wake turbulence

Special usesWidebody aircraft are used in science, research, and the military. Two specially modified Boeing 747 aircraft, the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft, are used to transport the U.S. Space Shuttle. Some widebody aircraft are used as flying command posts by the military, such as the Boeing E-4, while the Boeing E-767 is used for Airborne Early Warning and Control. New military weapons are tested aboard widebodies, as in the laser weapons testing on the Boeing YAL-1. Other widebody aircraft

A U.S. Space Shuttle mounted on a modified Boeing 747

Wide-body aircraft are used as flying research stations, such as the joint German-U.S. Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy. Airbus A340,[32] Airbus A380,[33] and Boeing 747[34] four-engine widebody aircraft are used to test new generations of aircraft engines in-flight. A few aircraft have also been converted for aerial firefighting, such as the DC-10-based[35] Tanker 910 and the 747-based Evergreen Supertanker.[36] Some widebody aircraft are used as VIP transport. Germany uses the Airbus A310, while Russia uses the Ilyushin Il-96 to transport their highest leaders. The specially modified Boeing 747-200 used by the President of the United States is known as Air Force One, or the Boeing VC-25. More information can be found under: Air transports of heads of state and government.


Future developmentAirbus and Boeing are racing to market with two new widebody designs, currently in development.[38] Both manufacturers have been under significant pressure to see which obtains the most orders.[39] Currently, the Boeing 787 has received more orders than Airbus, and will be first to enter into airline service. The 787 is also the first large commercial aircraft to utilize a monolithic composite fuselage.[40]The Boeing 787, the first large composite aircraft, The initial Airbus A350 design was only a minor upgrade to that of the [37] expected in service in 2010 A330/A340 series, but Airbus was forced to make significant design changes in response to feedback from the airlines.[41] [42] In addition to being a few inches wider than the Boeing, Airbus claims that the A350 final specifications will be better than that of the 787.[43] [44] [45]

The article on competition between Airbus and Boeing further discusses the rivalry, while order counts between the two aircraft can be compared under Airbus A350 orders versus Boeing 787 orders.

Widebody specificationsModel [46] EIS Final Prod. Year Airbus A300 19742007 2 132.0 [51] tons 171.7 [52] tons Airbus A310 Airbus A330 19822007 2 164.0 [57] tons 233.0 [60] tons 208inches (5.28m) [57] 222inches (5.64m) [57] 208inches (5.28m) [52] 222inches (5.64m) [53] [52] [54] 8 across (17.0" wide) in 2-4-2 on TG [55] 8 across (17.0" wide) in 2-4-2 on [56] LH # Eng. Maximum [47] Metric MTOW [48] [48] Inside Diameter, main Outside Diameter, main passenger deck passenger deck, upper passenger deck Number of seats across in [49] economy, main deck (seat [50] width)

8 across (17.4" wide) in 2-4-2 on AI [59]




208inches (5.28m)

222inches (5.64m)


[61] 8 across (17.5" wide) in 2-4-2 on EK 8 across (17.5" wide) in 2-4-2 on [62] NW 8 across (17.3" wide) in 2-4-2 on EY [65] 8 across (19.0" wide) in 2-4-2 [69] [70] proposed 9 across (17.7" wide) [69] [71] in 3-3-3 proposed

Airbus A340 Airbus A350



380.0 [63] tons 298.0 [66] tons

208inches (5.28m)


222inches (5.64m)




220inches (5.59m)


234inches (5.94m) [67] [68]

Wide-body aircraft[72] 259inches (6.58m) [72] 233inches (5.92m)


Airbus A380


560.0 [72] tons

281inches (7.14m) [72]

10 across (18.6" wide) in 3-4-3 on [73] SQ 10 across (18.1" wide) in 3-4-3 [74] on QF 10 across (18.0" wide) in 3-4-3 on [75] EK

Boeing 747



412.8 [76] tons

240inches (6.10m) [78] 136inches [79] (3.45m) 186inches (4.72m)


256inches (6.50m) [79]

10 across (17.7" wide) in 3-4-3 on [80] TG 10 across (17.2" wide) in 3-4-3 [81] [82] on NW [86] 7 across (18.0" wide) in 2-3-2 on UA [87] 7 across (17.0" wide) in 2-3-2 on [88] [89] US 9 across (18.0" wide) in 2-5-2 on UA [93] [94] 9 across (17.9" wide) in 3-3-3 [95] [96] on CO 10 across (17.0" wide) in 3-4-3 on [97] [98] [99] AF

Boeing 767



204.1 [83] tons


198inches (5.03m)


Boeing 777



351.5 [90] tons

231inches (5.87m)


244inches (6.20m) [91] [92]

Boeing 787




245.0 [100] tons

215inches (5.46m)


227inches [102] [103] (5.77m)

8 across (18.5" wide) in 2-4-2 [102] proposed 9 across (17.2" wide) in 3-3-3 [102] proposed 9 across (18.0" wide) in 3-3-3 [107]

Ilyushin Il-86



208.0 [104] tons [105] 240.0 [108] tons 231.3 [112] tons 259.5 [116] tons 286.0 [119] tons

224inches (5.70 m)


239inches (6.08 m) [106]

Ilyushin Il-96 L1011 Tristar MD DC-10 MD MD-11



224inches (5.70 m)


239inches (6.08 m) [110] 237inches (6.02m)

9 across (18.0" wide) in 3-3-3 on [111] SU 9 across (17.0" wide) in 2-5-2 on [115] SV 9 across (17.2" wide) in 2-5-2 on [117] [118] NW 9 across (17.5" wide) in 3-3-3 on KL [120] [121]



225inches (5.72m) [114] 224inches (5.69m)





237inches [116] (6.02m) 237inches [119] (6.02m)



224inches (5.69m)



Head-on view of the Airbus A380 during pushback

Japan Airlines Boeing 747

The Rolls Royce Trent 900 Engine

Rough Boeing 747 interior airframe

Wide-body aircraft


The first twinjet widebody (1972), the Airbus A300

Lockheed L-1011 TriStar of Royal Jordanian Airlines

Airbus A330 parked at an airport gate

Ilyushin IL-96 operated by Aeroflot

See also List of large aircraft List of wide-body aircraft Aircraft seat maps Seat configurations of the Airbus A380 Competition between Airbus and Boeing

External links Official Airbus website [122] Official Boeing website [123] Airplane seating Information from, single aircraft per page [124] Airplane seat pitch and width information from, in table form [125] Airplane seat pitch and width information from, in table form [126] [127] information and chronology [128] Etihad Airways document of their A340-600 interior [129].


[1] Ginger Gorham, Ginger Todd, Susan Rice (2003). A Guide to Becoming a Travel Professional. Cengage Learning. p.40. ISBN1401851770, 9781401851774. [2] Paul J. C. Friedlander (1972-03-19). "the traveler's world; Test of a New Wide-Bodied Airbus" (http:/ / select. nytimes. com/ gst/ abstract. html?res=F20E15F93C59107A93CBA81788D85F468785F9& scp=133& sq=wide-body& st=p). New York Times. . [3] Doganis, Rigas (2002). Flying Off Course: The Economics of International Airlines. Routledge. p.170. ISBN041521324X, 9780415213240. [4] Note: See table in this article for wide-bodied passenger-aircraft fuselage widths. [5] "Wide body cargo screening still a challenge" (http:/ / www. impactpub. com. au/ aircargo/ index. php?option=com_content& task=view& id=2659& Itemid=60). Impact Publications. 2008-11-18. . Retrieved 2009-02-17. [6] http:/ / www. boeing. com/ commercial/ startup/ pdf/ business/ Financing_Options. pdf [7] http:/ / www. airbus. com/ en/ presscentre/ pressreleases/ press-release/ ?tx_ttnews[cat]=152&tx_ttnews[pS]=1209592800&tx_ttnews[pL]=2678399&tx_ttnews[arc]=1&tx_ttnews[tt_news]=1266&tx_ttnews[backPid]=1683&cHash=67 [8] "narrowbody aircraft" (http:/ / www. businessdictionary. com/ definition/ narrowbody-aircraft. html). . Retrieved 2009-03-18. [9] Royal Aero Club (Great Britain), Royal Aero Club of the United Kingdom (1967). Flight International (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=U3s7AAAAMAAJ& pgis=1). IPC Transport Press Ltd.. p.552. . [10] Eric Pace (1981-05-24). "How Airline Cabins are Being Reshaped" (http:/ / query. nytimes. com/ gst/ fullpage. html?res=9B02E3D61438F937A15756C0A967948260& sec=travel& spon=& pagewanted=all). New York Times. . [11] "Airline Seat Pitch" (http:/ / www. uk-air. net/ seatpitch. htm). . Retrieved 2009-02-17. [12] "Flying through a storm" (http:/ / www. economist. com/ research/ articlesBySubject/ displaystory. cfm?subjectid=348873& story_id=12454133). 2008-10-22. . Retrieved 2009-03-16. [13] Irving, Clive (1994). Wide Body: The Making of the Boeing 747. Coronet. ISBN0 340 59983 9. [14] Rumerman, Judy. "The Boeing 747" (http:/ / www. centennialofflight. gov/ essay/ Aerospace/ Boeing_747/ Aero21. htm), U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission. Retrieved: 30 April 2006.

Wide-body aircraft[15] "The Airbus A300" (http:/ / www. cbc. ca/ world/ story/ 2001/ 11/ 12/ airbus011112. html). CBC News. 2001-11-12. . Retrieved 2009-08-24. [16] "Business | Airbus unveils 'superjumbo' jet" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ business/ 4183201. stm). BBC News. 2005-01-18. . Retrieved 2009-12-20. [17] Bor, Robert (2003). Passenger Behaviour. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.. p.170. ISBN0754609367, 9780754609360. [18] Note: As of 2008-11-30 published Airbus data, only a handful of Airbus A340-500 aircraft orders are still pending. See Airbus A340#Deliveries and (http:/ / www. airbus. com/ en/ corporate/ orders_and_deliveries/ ) [19] Note: This fact can be viewed in the Specifications section; click arrows under MTOW to sort by weight. [20] Eisenstein, Paul. "Biggest Jet Engine." (http:/ / www. popularmechanics. com/ science/ extreme_machines/ 1280866. html) Popular Mechanics, July 2004. Retrieved: December 2, 2008. [21] See (http:/ / geae. com/ engines/ commercial/ ge90/ ge90-115b. html) [22] Guy Norris, Mark Wagner (2005). Airbus A380: superjumbo of the 21st century (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=KcaYjPhRnWUC& pg=PA105). Zenith Imprint. pp.105115. ISBN076032218X, 9780760322185. . [23] Guy Norris, Mark Wagner (2005). Airbus A380: superjumbo of the 21st century (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=KcaYjPhRnWUC& pg=PA111). Zenith Imprint. p.111. ISBN076032218X, 9780760322185. . [24] (http:/ / www. etihadairways. com/ sites/ etihad/ SiteCollectionDocuments/ global/ Documents/ Call Centre/ October07/ A340-600 FAM . pdf) [25] International Business Class (http:/ / www. vaustralia. com. au/ in-flight-services/ international-business/ index. htm) [26] "A380 First Class Social Area & onboard Lounge | Emirates A380 First Class | The Emirates A380 | Our Fleet | Flying with" (http:/ / www. emirates. com/ uk/ english/ flying/ our_fleet/ emirates_a380/ first_class/ social_area_onboard_lounge. aspx). Emirates. 2009-06-02. . Retrieved 2009-12-20. [27] "A380 Shower Spa | Emirates A380 First Class | The Emirates A380 | Our Fleet | Flying with" (http:/ / www. emirates. com/ uk/ english/ flying/ our_fleet/ emirates_a380/ first_class/ shower_spa. aspx). Emirates. 2009-06-02. . Retrieved 2009-12-20. [28] "Double luxury - how the airlines are configuring their A380s" (http:/ / www. flightglobal. com/ articles/ 2008/ 09/ 01/ 315369/ double-luxury-how-the-airlines-are-configuring-their. html). . Retrieved 2009-12-20. [29] "EUROCONTROL - Revising wake turbulence categories to gain capacity (RECAT)" (http:/ / www. eurocontrol. int/ eec/ public/ standard_page/ EEC_News_2008_3_RECAT. html). 2008-11-21. . Retrieved 2009-12-20. [30] Posted by B. N. Sullivan (2008-08-04). "Professional Pilot News: Airbus A380 requires new 'super' wake separation category" (http:/ / propilotnews. com/ 2008/ 08/ airbus-a380-requires-new-super-wake. html). . Retrieved 2009-12-20. [31] http:/ / www. faa. gov/ air_traffic/ publications/ ATpubs/ AIM/ Chap7/ aim0703. html [32] "PICTURES: Airbus prepares A340-600 testbed for GTF ground runs" (http:/ / www. flightglobal. com/ articles/ 2008/ 09/ 26/ 316574/ pictures-airbus-prepares-a340-600-testbed-for-gtf-ground-runs. html). 2008-09-29. . Retrieved 2009-12-20. [33] http:/ / www. flightglobal. com/ articles/ 2010/ 04/ 29/ 341141/ r-r-prepares-to-ground-test-trent-xwb-ahead-of-a380-trials-next. html [34] "GE - Aviation: GE90-115B Prepares For Flight Aboard GE's 747 Flying Testbed" (http:/ / www. geae. com/ aboutgeae/ presscenter/ airshows/ singapore/ singapore_20020226c. html). 2002-02-26. . Retrieved 2009-12-20. [35] "Firefighting DC-10 available to lease" (http:/ / www. flightglobal. com/ articles/ 2009/ 03/ 30/ 324526/ firefighting-dc-10-available-to-lease. html). . Retrieved 2009-12-20. [36] Evergreen International Aviation - Supertanker Services Inc. (http:/ / www. evergreenaviation. com/ supertanker/ index. html) [37] http:/ / www. flightglobal. com/ articles/ 2008/ 12/ 09/ 319833/ airbuss-boeing-787-dossier-could-have-wider-implications-for-both-airframers. html Airbuss Boeing 787 dossier could have wider implications for both airframers, Retrieved 2008-12-09. [38] http:/ / www. iht. com/ articles/ 2006/ 04/ 10/ business/ airbus. php [39] "Qatar picks A350 over 787, but makes $4.6 billion 777 order" (http:/ / seattlepi. nwsource. com/ business/ 228341_qatar14. html). 2005-06-14. . Retrieved 2009-12-20. [40] Norris, G.; Thomas, G.; Wagner, M. and Forbes Smith, C. (2005). Boeing 787 Dreamliner - Flying Redefined. Aerospace Technical Publications International. ISBN0-9752341-2-9. [41] " Airplane kingpins tell Airbus: Overhaul A350 (http:/ / seattletimes. nwsource. com/ html/ boeingaerospace/ 2002896362_boeing29. html)." Gates, D. Seattle Times. 29 March 2006. [42] " Redesigning the A350: Airbus tough choice (http:/ / www. leeham. net/ filelib/ ScottsColumn040406. pdf)." Hamilton, S., Leeham Company. [43] Airbus's A350 vision takes shape (http:/ / www. flightglobal. com/ Articles/ 2006/ 12/ 12/ Navigation/ 179/ 211028/ Airbus's+ A350+ vision+ takes+ shape+ -+ Flight+ takes+ an+ in-depth+ look+ at+ the+ new. html) Flight International December 2006 [44] 787 fact sheet (http:/ / www. boeing. com/ commercial/ 787family/ programfacts. html) Boeing [45] http:/ / www. eads. com/ xml/ content/ OF00000000400004/ 7/ 19/ 41508197. pdf Taking the lead: A350XWB presentation] EADS [46] Note: Entry into Service through Final Production Year [47] Note: Maximum MTOW of heaviest passenger version, in metric tonnes. Data have been rounded up to nearest tenth of a metric ton. Margin of error should be assumed. Use for comparison only. [48] Note: Original airframe manufacturer source data specified in feet, inches, or meters, without error margin information. Thus, due to rounding and conversion errors, a margin of error of 2 inches should be taken into account. Compare with automotive specifications, currently


Wide-body aircraftpublished to within 2 millimeters. (http:/ / www. nist. gov/ public_affairs/ factsheet/ abc. htm) Maximum interior cabin width is measured at chest or eye level when seated, as is usually a few inches wider than the cabin floor. [49] Note: Airlines custom-configure the interior layout as per their objectives. Isle width and armrest width also affect layout but are not shown here. [50] Note: Seat-width specifications are not always represented accurately; multiple sources are encouraged, as well as the comparison of multiple airlines. Unexpected widths may be in error and should not be included here. [51] Note: The lightest widebody aircraft ever built was the Airbus A300B1 with a maximum take-off weight of 291000lb (132000kg). [52] A300-600 specifications (http:/ / www. airbus. com/ en/ aircraftfamilies/ a300a310/ a300-600/ specifications. html), Airbus [53] Note: There appears to be a unit conversion error on the Airbus webpage for the A300 O.D. specifications. 222inches (5.64m) is presumed to be correct. [54] "SeatGuru Seat Map Thai Airbus A300-600 Vers. 1 (AB6)" (http:/ / www. seatguru. com/ airlines/ Thai_Airways/ Thai_Airways_Airbus_A300-600_36R1. php). . Retrieved 2009-12-20. [55] TG New Fleet / Seat (http:/ / www. thaiairways. co. th/ eng/ TG/ A300-600. php?mid=ab6), Thai Airways [56] (http:/ / www. seatguru. com/ airlines/ Lufthansa/ Lufthansa_Airbus_A300-600. php), [57] A310 specifications (http:/ / www. airbus. com/ en/ aircraftfamilies/ a300a310/ a310/ specifications. html), Airbus [58] Airbus 310-300 page (http:/ / home. airindia. in/ SBCMS/ Webpages/ Fleet-Airbus-310. aspx?MID=196), Air India [59] (http:/ / www. seatguru. com/ airlines/ Air_India/ Air_India_Airbus_A310-300. php), [60] A330-200 specifications (http:/ / www. airbus. com/ en/ aircraftfamilies/ a330a340/ a330-200/ specifications. html), Airbus. Retrieved 2008-12-09. [61] "SeatGuru Seat Map Emirates Airbus A330-200 3-Class (332)" (http:/ / www. seatguru. com/ airlines/ Emirates_Airlines/ Emirates_Airlines_Airbus_A330-200_3class. php). . Retrieved 2009-12-20. [62] A330-200 seating and specifications page (http:/ / www. nwa. com/ travel/ trave/ seatm/ a330200/ index. shtml), NWA [63] (http:/ / www. airbus. com/ en/ aircraftfamilies/ a330a340/ a340-600/ specifications. html) [64] A340-200 specifications (http:/ / www. airbus. com/ en/ aircraftfamilies/ a330a340/ a340-200/ specifications. html), Airbus [65] (http:/ / www. etihadairways. com/ sites/ etihad/ SiteCollectionDocuments/ global/ Documents/ Call Centre/ October07/ A340-600 FAM . pdf), Etihad Airways [66] A3550-1000 Specifications (http:/ / www. airbus. com/ en/ aircraftfamilies/ a350/ efficiency/ a3501000_specifications. html), Airbus. Retrieved 2008-12-08. [67] A350 specifications (http:/ / www. airbus. com/ en/ aircraftfamilies/ a350/ efficiency/ a350800_specifications. html), Airbus [68] Note: Possible error on original Airbus webpage, conversion of metric to imperial off by 1 inch on Airbus webpage. [69] 10-abreast A350 XWB 'would offer unprecedented operating cost advantage' (http:/ / www. flightglobal. com/ articles/ 2008/ 05/ 19/ 223853/ picture-10-abreast-a350-xwb-would-offer-unprecedented-operating-cost-advantage. html), [70] Note: Possible unit-conversion error in article, 48 cm used as source. [71] Note: Published article indicated most airlines will choose the 9-across configuration [72] A380 specifications (http:/ / www. airbus. com/ en/ aircraftfamilies/ a380/ a380/ specifications. html), Airbus [73] "Comparing A380 Cabins" (http:/ / www. planenation. com/ comparing-a380-cabins). Plane Nation. . Retrieved 2009-12-20. [74] (http:/ / www. seatguru. com/ airlines/ Qantas_Airways/ Qantas_Airways_Airbus_A380. php), [75] (http:/ / www. seatguru. com/ airlines/ Emirates_Airlines/ Emirates_Airlines_Airbus_A380. php), [76] Boeing 747 specifications (http:/ / www. boeing. com/ commercial/ 747family/ technical. html) [77] Boeing 747 specifications (http:/ / www. boeing. com/ commercial/ 747family/ technical. html), Boeing 747 airport planning report (http:/ / www. boeing. com/ commercial/ airports/ acaps/ 7474sec2. pdf), Boeing [78] Note: Interior width for Boeing 747 main deck shown as 239inches (6.07m) or 240inches (6.10m) in different Boeing documents. [79] "Microsoft Word - 7474s2_062008.doc" (http:/ / www. boeing. com/ commercial/ airports/ acaps/ 7474sec2. pdf) (PDF). . Retrieved 2009-12-20. [80] (http:/ / www. thaiairways. co. th/ eng/ TG/ B747-400. php?mid=744), Thai Airways [81] (http:/ / www. nwa. com/ travel/ trave/ seatm/ 747400/ index. shtml), NWA [82] (http:/ / www. seatguru. com/ airlines/ Northwest_Airlines/ Northwest_Airlines_Boeing_747-400. php) [83] http:/ / www. boeing. com/ commercial/ 767family/ pf/ pf_400prod. html, Boeing 767-400 Specifications. Retrieved 2008-12-09. [84] Boeing 767 specifications (http:/ / www. boeing. com/ commercial/ 767family/ technical. html), Boeing [85] Note: An extensive Internet search did not reveal any original Boeing source for the actual O.D. of the B767. [86] "United Airlines - B767-300" (http:/ / www. united. com/ page/ article/ 0,6722,50976,00. html). . Retrieved 2009-12-20. [87] (http:/ / www. seatguru. com/ airlines/ United_Airlines/ United_Airlines_Boeing_767-300_D. php), [88] "SeatGuru Seat Map US Airways Boeing 767-200 (767)" (http:/ / www. seatguru. com/ airlines/ US_Airways/ US_Airways_Boeing_767-200. php). . Retrieved 2009-12-20. [89] "Legroom Guide" (http:/ / www. cheapflights. com/ travel-tips/ legroom-guide/ ). . Retrieved 2009-12-20. [90] "777 Airplane Characteristics for Airport Planning" (http:/ / www. boeing. com/ commercial/ airports/ 777. htm). Boeing. . Retrieved on 2008-12-08. [91] Boeing 777 specifications (http:/ / www. boeing. com/ commercial/ 777family/ 777technical. html), Boeing


Wide-body aircraft[92] Note: Boeing specifications for B777 O.D. do not convert precisely between inches and metric. Margin of error is unknown based on published Boeing material. [93] "United Airlines - B777-200" (http:/ / www. united. com/ page/ article/ 0,6722,50977,00. html). . Retrieved 2009-12-20. [94] http:/ / www. seatguru. com/ airlines/ United_Airlines/ United_Airlines_Boeing_777-200_3. php [95] "Continental Airlines - Boeing 777-200ER with 48/235 Configuration (777)" (http:/ / www. continental. com/ web/ en-US/ content/ travel/ inflight/ aircraft/ 777. aspx). . Retrieved 2009-12-20. [96] (http:/ / www. seatguru. com/ airlines/ Continental_Airlines/ Continental_Airlines_Boeing_777-200_B. php), [97] http:/ / www. airfrance. fr/ common/ image/ PlansCabine/ en/ B777300_nev_325pax_maxi_en. gif [98] (http:/ / www. seatguru. com/ airlines/ Air_France/ Air_France_Boeing_777-300_C. php), [99] Note: Some Air France Boeing 777 aircraft seat 9 across. See http:/ / www. airfrance. us/ US/ en/ common/ guidevoyageur/ classeetconfort/ plan_cabine_boeing. htm for specific aircraft. [100] "Boeing 787-9 Dreamliner Fact Sheet" (http:/ / www. boeing. com/ commercial/ 787family/ 787-9prod. html). Boeing. . Retrieved 2007-11-23. [101] "BBJ Fact Sheet" (http:/ / www. boeing. com/ news/ feature/ farnborough08/ assets/ bgs-facts/ FAS 2008 fct widebody BBJ. pdf) (PDF). . Retrieved 2009-12-20. [102] "787 Airplane Characteristics for Airport Planning" (http:/ / www. boeing. com/ commercial/ airports/ acaps/ 7878. pdf) (PDF). . Retrieved 2009-12-20. [103] http:/ / www. boeing. com/ commercial/ 787family/ 787-8prod. html Note: some Boeing B787 source material indicates 227inches (5.77m) outer diameter, while other Boeing sources indicate 226inches (5.74m) [104] "Ilyushin Il-86 commercial aircraft. Pictures, specifications, reviews" (http:/ / www. airlines-inform. com/ commercial-aircraft/ Il-86. html). . Retrieved 2009-12-20. [105] Note: Other references for the Ilyushin Il-86 MTOW ranged between 206 and 215 metric tonnes. [106] Gunston B, Aircraft of the Soviet Union, Osprey, London, 1984 [107] Gunter Endres. The Illustrated Directory of Modern Commercial Aircraft (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=nA9UX1Az_k0C). Zenith Imprint, 2001. p.358. . "ISBN 0-7603-1125-0, ISBN 978-0-7603-1125-7" [108] "Rossiya - russian airlines" (http:/ / www. pulkovo. ru/ en/ about/ fleet/ AircraftFleet/ ?id4=108& i4=6). . Retrieved 2009-12-20. [109] "Flight - Airline Industry news, aviation jobs & airline recruitment" (http:/ / www. flightglobal. com/ directory/ detail. aspx?aircraftCategory=CommercialAircraft& manufacturerType=CommercialAircraft& navigationItemId=389& aircraftId=42& manufacturer=0& keyword=& searchMode=Manufacturer& units=Metric). . Retrieved 2009-12-20. [110] (http:/ / www. aeronautics. ru/ il96. htm) [111] "SeatGuru Seat Map Aeroflot Russian Airlines Ilyushin IL 96-300 Vers. 2 (IL9)" (http:/ / www. seatguru. com/ airlines/ Aeroflot_Russian_Airlines/ Aeroflot_Russian_Airlines_Ilyushin_IL-96-300_B. php). . Retrieved 2009-12-20. [112] L-1011 Specifications. Retrieved 2008-12-09. (http:/ / home2. swipnet. se/ ~w-26408/ 1011spec. htm) [113] http:/ / www. orbital. com/ NewsInfo/ Publications/ L1011. pdf [114] "Cabin Widths Tech Ops Forum" (http:/ / www. airliners. net/ aviation-forums/ tech_ops/ read. main/ 191291/ ). . Retrieved 2009-12-20. [115] Saudi Airlines Seating Configuration. Retrieved 2008-12-09. (http:/ / www. saudiairlines. com/ portal/ site/ saudiairlines/ menuitem. d9a467d070ca6c65173ff63dc8f034a0/ ?vgnextoid=4e3b9f6412852110VgnVCM1000008c0f430aRCRD) [116] http:/ / www. boeing. com/ commercial/ airports/ acaps/ dc10. pdf DC-10 Airplane Characteristics for Airport Planning, Boeing. Retrieved 2008-12-09. [117] (http:/ / www. eskyguide. com/ reference/ plane_config. html), [118] Note: Retired from service in 2007. [119] McDonnell Douglas (1998-08, Revision E). "MD-11 Airplane Characteristics for Airport Planning, Report MDC K0388" (http:/ / www. boeing. com/ commercial/ airports/ acaps/ md11. pdf). . [120] "SeatGuru Seat Map KLM McDonnell Douglas MD-11 Vers. 1 (M11)" (http:/ / www. seatguru. com/ airlines/ KLM/ KLM_MD-11. php). . Retrieved 2009-12-20. [121] (http:/ / www. klm. com/ travel/ gb_en/ travel_information/ on_board/ seating_plans/ md11. htm) (Note: KLM's website does not include seat width information.) [122] http:/ / www. airbus. com [123] http:/ / www. boeing. com [124] http:/ / www. seatguru. com [125] http:/ / www. eskyguide. com/ reference/ plane_config. html [126] http:/ / www. cheapflights. com/ travel-tips/ legroom-guide/ [127] http:/ / www. seatmaestro. com [128] http:/ / www. widebodyaircraft. nl/ airindex. htm [129] http:/ / www. etihadairways. com/ sites/ etihad/ SiteCollectionDocuments/ global/ Documents/ Call%20Centre/ October07/ A340-600%20FAM%20. pdf


Competition between Airbus and Boeing


Competition between Airbus and BoeingCompetition between Airbus and Boeing (sometimes referred to as the "Airliner Wars") is a result of the two companies' domination of the large jet airliner market since the 1990s, which is itself a consequence of numerous corporate failures and mergers within the global aerospace industry over the years. Airbus began its life as a consortium, whereas Boeing took over its former arch-rival, McDonnell Douglas, in 1997. Other manufacturers, such as Lockheed and Convair in the USA and Dornier and Fokker in Europe, have pulled out of the civil aviation market after disappointing sales figures and economic problems. The collapse of the Eastern Bloc and its trade organization Comecon around 1990 has put the former Soviet aircraft industry in a disadvantaged position, although Antonov, Ilyushin, Sukhoi, Tupolev and Yakovlev develop new airplanes and gain a small market share. All this has left Boeing and Airbus in a near-duopoly in the global market for large commercial jets comprising narrow-body aircraft, wide-body aircraft and jumbo jets. However, Embraer has gained market share with their narrow-body aircraft in the Embraer E-jets series. There is also a similar competition in regional jet manufacturing competition between Bombardier Aerospace and Embraer. In the decade between 2000 and 2009 Airbus received 6,452 orders, while Boeing received 5,927. Airbus had higher deliveries between 2003 and 2009, but fell slightly short of Boeing's deliveries, delivering 3,810 aircraft compared to Boeing's 3,950. The competition is intense, and each company regularly accuses the other of receiving unfair state aid from their respective governments.

Competition by productRange overlapThough both manufacturers have a broad product rangein various segments from single-aisle to wide-body, manufacturers' offerings do not always compete head-to-head. As listed below they respond with slightly different models. The A380, for example, is substantially bigger than the B747. The A350 XWB competes with the high end of the B787 and the low end of the B777. The A320 is bigger than the 737-700 but smaller than the 737-800. The A321 is bigger than the B737-900 but smaller than the previous B757-200. The A330-200 competes with the smaller B767-300ER.

Airlines can use this as a benefit since they get a more complete product range from 100 seats to 500 seats than if both companies offered identical aircraft.

Competition between Airbus and Boeing


Passengers/range km (statute miles) for all models

A chart comparing the passenger capacity (2-class typical) and range (maximum in nautical miles) of in-production, future, and out-of-production since 2000 Airbus and Boeing aircraft.

2,645 to 5,600 to 3,185 5,900 (2400sm) (3500sm) 100-139 (B717-200) A318-100 B737-600 140-156 148-189

6,800 to 7,700 (4500sm)

9,000 to 10,200 (5900sm)

10,500 to 11,300 (6800sm)

12,250 to 12,500 (7700sm)

13,300 to 13,900 (8500sm)

14,200 to 14,800 (9000sm)

14,900 to 15,400 to 15,200 16,000 (9300sm) (9800sm)

16,700 to 17,400 (10500sm)

B737-700 A319-100 B737-800 A320-200 A321-200 (B757-200) B737-900 (B757-300)



(A310-200) (A310-300)

B767-300ER B767-200ER



B767-400ER B747SP A330-200 A340-200 A350-800 B787-9 A350-900 B777-200LR A340-500 A340-500HGW A350-900R




295-440 313-366




A340-300 B777-200ER


B747-100SR B747-100 B747-300SR



B777-300ER A350-1000

Competition between Airbus and Boeing

15A340-600 A340-600HGW B747-400 B747-400ER B747-8 A380