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It all Starts with the Neuron uman-brain-videos-playlist.htm#video- 6080

Mar 27, 2015

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Slide 2 It all Starts with the Neuron http://videos.howstuffworks.com/health/h uman-brain-videos-playlist.htm#video- 6080 Slide 3 Neuron Structure Neurons do NOT touch each other- the space in between is called synaptic cleft. Slide 4 Neural Bases of Psychology: The Structure of a Neuron Slide 5 How a Neuron Fires It is an electrochemical process Electrical inside the neuron Chemical outside the neuron (in the synapse in the form of a neurotransmitter). The firing is call Action Potential. Slide 6 Neural Bases of Psychology: Neural Communication Within a neuron, communication occurs through an action potential (neural impulse that carries information along the axon of a neuron). Slide 7 Neural Bases of Psychology: Neural Communication Within a neuron, communication occurs through an action potential (neural impulse that carries information along the axon of a neuron). Slide 8 The All-or None Response The idea that either the neuron fires or it does not- no part way firing. Like a gun Slide 9 Steps of Action Potential Dendrites receive neurotransmitter from another neuron across the synapse. Reached its threshold- then fires based on the all-or-none response. Opens up a portal in axon, and lets in positive ions (Sodium) which mix with negative ions (Potassium) that is already inside the axon (thus Neurons at rest have a slightly negative charge). The mixing of + and ions causes an electrical charge that opens up the next portal (letting in more K) while closing the original portal. Process continues down axon to the axon terminal. Terminal buttons turns electrical charge into chemical (neurotransmitter) and shoots message to next neuron across the synapse. Slide 10 9 Slide 11 Action Potential Slide 12 How Neurons Communicate Slide 13 Slide 14 Which sentence most closely describes neural transmissions? A. an electric charge is created in the neuron, the charge travels down the cell, and chemicals are released that cross the synapse to the next cell B. a chemical change occurs within the cell, the change causes an electric charge to be produced and the charge jumps the gap between the nerve cells. C. the electric charge produced chemically inside a group of neurons causes chemical changes in surrounding cells D. neurotransmitters produced in the hindbrain are transmitted to the forebrain, causing electric Slide 15 Neurotransmitters Chemical messengers released by terminal buttons through the synapse. We should know at least 6 types and what they do. Slide 16 15 Neurotransmitters Slide 17 Acetylcholine Its function is motor movement and maybe memory. To much and you will. Not enough and you will. Lack of ACH has been linked to Alzheimers disease. Slide 18 Dopamine Its function is motor movement and alertness. Lack of dopamine is associated with Parkinsons disease. Overabundance is associated with schizophrenia. Slide 19 PET scan Parkinsons Muscle rigidity Tremors Speech slur Difficult gait Before/After medicine www. Epub.org What type of scan Is this? Slide 20 Serotonin Function deals with mood control. Lack of serotonin has been linked to depression. Slide 21 Endorphins Function deals with pain control. We become addicted to endorphin causing feelings. Slide 22 What are agonists and antagonists? They are drugs Agonists mimic neurotransmitters. Example: Nicotine is an ACh agonist Antagonists block neurotransmitters: Ex: curare is an antagonist for ACh (paralyzes you) Slide 23 Agonists and Antagonists Slide 24 You eat some bad Chinese food and feel you are losing control of your muscles. The bacteria you ingested from the food most likely interferes with the use of: A. serotonin B. insulin C. acetylcholine D. Thorazine E. adrenaline Slide 25 What is reuptake? The mopping up of excess neurotransmitter. o Excess neurotransmitters in the synapse are reabsorbed into the sending neurons. This process applies the brakes on neurotransmitter action. Slide 26 How does Prozac work? It is a serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Slide 27 How does Cocaine work? The white cocaine blocks the reuptake of dopamine. Slide 28 Types of Neurons Sensory Neurons Motor Neurons Inter Neurons Slide 29 28 Kinds of Neurons http://videos.howstuffworks.com/health/human-brain- videos-playlist.htm#video-6081 http://videos.howstuffworks.com/health/human-brain- videos-playlist.htm#video-6081 Motor Neurons carry outgoing information from the CNS to muscles and glands. Interneurons connect the two neurons. Sensory Neurons carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the CNS. Sensory Neuron (Bipolar) Interneuron Neuron (Unipolar) Motor Neuron (Multipolar) Slide 30 Divisions of the Nervous System para like A parachute Slide 31 30 Peripheral Nervous System Somatic Nervous System: Controls voluntary muscle movement. Uses motor (efferent) neurons. Autonomic Nervous System: Controls the automatic functions of the body. The glands and muscles Divided into two categoriesthe sympathetic and the parasympathetic Slide 32 31 Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) Sympathetic Nervous System: Fight or Flight Response during stressful situations. Automatically accelerates heart rate, breathing, dilates pupils, slows down digestion. Parasympathetic Nervous System: calms the body, conserving its energy. Provides homeostasis homeo = same Homeostasis means same state you were in before you saw the dog! Slide 33 Think how the right side is different from the left side. Lie detector http://videos.howstuff works.com/discovery /6833-human-body- how-polygraph-tests- work-video.htm http://videos.howstuff works.com/discovery /6833-human-body- how-polygraph-tests- work-video.htm Slide 34 A Simple Reflex Slide 35 Slide 36 Mouse lab http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/addi ction/drugs/mouse.htmlhttp://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/addi ction/drugs/mouse.html 35