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Dec 10, 2015
Introduction, History and Computer Basics Introduction to Computers and Computer Technology
Computer Science: A foundationProgrammingGame DevelopmentSoftware Engineering* A computer science foundationSoftware DevelopmentNetworking and ITDigital MediaGeneral EducationWeb design and developmentAnimationModelingNetworkingSecuritySystem AdministrationInformation TechnologyHistoryPerspectiveSocial issuesEconomic issuesEthic issuesConsumer issues
*Role of AlgorithmsAlgorithm: A set of steps that defines how a task is performedProgram: A representation of an algorithmProgramming: The process of developing a programSoftware: Programs and algorithmsHardware: Equipment used to input information (data) and output the results of the programs, algorithms.AlgorithmProgramProgrammingSoftwareHardware
*Origins of Computing Machines:Early computing devices
Abacus: positions of beads represent numbersAbacus 300 BC by Babyloniansaround 1200 A.D. in China and Japan
Early computing devices*Pascals mechanical calculator - 1645Gear-based machines (1600s-1800s)Positions of gears represent numbersInventors: Blaise Pascal, Wilhelm Leibniz, Charles Babbage
*Early Data StoragePunched cardsFirst used in Jacquard Loom (1801) to store patterns for weaving clothStorage of programs in Babbages Analytical EnginePopular through the 1970s
*Early programmingAugusta Ada King (Byron), Countess of Lovelace (1815-1852)She is known as the "first programmer".The computer language Ada, created by the U.S. Defense Department, was named after Ada Lovelace.
*Babbages Difference Engine (1822)Babbage is credited with inventing the first mechanical computer that eventually led to more complex designs. (1822)The first difference engine was composed of around 25,000 parts, weighed fifteen tons (13,600 kg), and stood 8 ft (2.4 m) high. Although he received ample funding for the project, it was never completed. (Wikipedia)Part of the Difference Engine (below)
*Early ComputersHere is a brief overview of some of the early computers and trends in computing.Vacuum tubeTransistorMicrochip
*First Generation Vacuum Tubes1930s Vacuum tubes were used as electronic circuits or electronic switches.
*1946 - ENIACFirst large-scale electronic digital computer was ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator)30 feet long, 8 feet wide, and 8 feet high3 additions every second, (incredibly slow by todays standards). http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VAnhFNJgNYY
*Second Generation Transistors1947 - Walter Brittain and Willaim Shockley invented the transistor at Bell LaboratoriesReplaced the vacuum tube as an electronic switch
*Third Generation Integrated Circuits1959, Jack Kirby and Robert Noyce (who later became the cofounder of Intel Corp.) developed the first integrated circuit (silicon chip or microchip). An integrated circuit (IC) is a system of interrelated circuits packaged together on a single sliver of silicon. It is a way of placing multiple (millions) transistor devices into as single, smaller device, the microchip. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aWVywhzuHnQ&feature=related
*Fourth Generation - MicroprocessorA microprocessor is a Central Processing Unit (CPU) on a single chip. 1971, Intel Corp. introduced the first microprocessor chip. Intel 4004 108 kHz and contained (equivalent of) 2300 transistors
IBM Personal ComputerOn August 12, 1981, IBM released their new computer, named the IBM PC2004 IBM sells PC business to Lenovo *
Apple Computers1975 Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak starts Apple Computer1984 Apple Macintosh with Graphical User Interface (GUI)*
Laptops1981 - Adam Osborne, produced the Osborne 11988 - Compaq laptop with color screen2008 Macbook Air thinnest laptop2011 Dell XPS 15Z thinnest Windows laptop
*Trends from 1990 to todayMicrosoft continues to update Windows with latest version Windows called Windows 8LINUX operating system, an open source version of UNIX, is taking on MS Windows and gaining in popularityIBM has stopped making small computers; sold their business to LenovoHP, the largest maker of PC is planning to sell their PC divisionApple continues to be a major player in personal computers, especially for the creative market, iPods, iPads, iPhones, etc.Google has become a major player in the Internet solutions
*Trends from 1990 to todayFasterSmallerMore reliableLess expensiveEasier to use
Fifth GenerationFifth generation computing devices, based onartificial intelligence, are continuing to be in development.Parallel Processing is coming and showing the possibility that the power of many CPU's can be used side by side, and computers will be more powerful than those under central processing.The goal of fifth-generation computing is to develop devices that respond tonatural languageinput and are capable of learning and self-organization.*
**What is a computer? A computer is a digital device which can be programmed to change (process) information from one form to another. Do exactly as they are told.Digital devices: Understand only two different states (OFF and ON - 0 and 1)
**Traditional Types of ComputersGeneral purpose computersSuper computerMainframePersonal Computer
Traditional types of computers:Super computersfast processing powerused by NASA and similar organizationsExample: CRAY supercomputers
**Traditional Types of Computers:First computers, introduced in 1950s Used by large businesses Typically supported thousands of usersVery expensiveUsed for very large processing tasksIBMs new Mainframehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LN4J4mClckAMainframe Computers
**Traditional Types of Computers:Personal ComputersSmall, self-contained computers with their own CPUsUses a microprocessor, a CPU (Central Processing Unit) on a single chip.
**Personal ComputersDesktop computersLaptop computersTabletsWearables
**Hardware versus SoftwareHardware = The physical components that make up a computer system.
**Hardware versus SoftwareSoftware = The programs (instructions) that tell the computer what to do.System SoftwareApplication SoftwareStored on a storage media such as hard disk, CD-ROM, floppy disk, tape, etc.
**Hardware ComponentsKnow these!PROCESS
**Input and Output Devices
**The ProcessorLets open the box!
**The Processorcircuit board = a board with integrated circuits (microchips)system board or motherboardinterface boards or expansion boardssystem board or motherboard = a single circuit board with the components which make up the computers processor for a microcomputer, including the:CPU (Central Processing Unit)MemoryRAMROM or ROM BIOSexpansion slots
*Rick Graziani [email protected]*The Processor: The CPUCPU (Central Processing Unit) = A complex collection of electronic circuits on one or more integrated circuits (chips) which:1. executes the instructions in a software program2. communicates with other parts of the computer system, especially RAM and input devices
The CPU is the computer!
**RAMRAM is TEMPORARY memory
RAM is volatilestores ON and OFF bits (software and data) electricallywhen power goes off, everything in RAM is lost
**ROM (Read Only Memory)ROM (Read Only Memory) = integrated circuits (microchips) that are used to permanently store start-up (boot) instructions and other critical informationRead Only = information which:Cannot be changedCannot be removedFixed by manufacturer
**ROM (Read Only Memory)ROM is sometimes known as ROM BIOS (Basic Input Output System software)
ROM contains:start-up (boot) instructionsinstructions to do low level processing of input and output devices, such as the communications with the keyboard and the monitor
**Computer Performance:CPU speed (and type)Amount of RAM (and speed)Hard disk capacity
**SoftwareSystem SoftwareApplication Software
**Application SoftwarePerforms specific tasks:Word processingCalculationsInformation storage and retrievalAccountingGamesCannot function without the OS (Operating System)Written for a specific operating system and computer hardware.
**Operating System SoftwareLoads automatically when you switch on a computerMain roles:Controls hardware and software Permits you to manage files Acts as intermediary between user and applications
**GUI Graphical User InterfaceWindows 3.1Windows 95/98/XP
**CLI Command Line InterfaceNo GUIMS DOS / Command PromptLinux / Unix