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IMPROVING OSTRICH SKIN QUALITY - · PDF fileIMPROVING OSTRICH SKIN QUALITY Ostrich Information day Oudtshoorn Research Farm| Anel Engelbrecht | 16 March 2017

Apr 26, 2018

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  • IMPROVING OSTRICH SKIN QUALITY

    Ostrich Information day

    Oudtshoorn Research Farm| Anel Engelbrecht | 16 March 2017

  • Western Cape Government 2012 |

    Income from ostrich skin

    R 50

    R 5 500

    (R 2 600)

    Average R 1100 ?

    2

  • Western Cape Government 2012 |

    Ostrich leather

    3

    Unique

    Exotic & luxury leather

    QUALITY QUALITY QUALITY

  • Western Cape Government 2012 |

    What determines leather quality / price?

    4

    Size

    determines price/ dm2

    optimal size, highest

    price: 140 dm2 +

    Defects & damage

    downgraded

    Nodule acceptability

    unacceptable:

    different, lower price

    structure

  • Western Cape Government 2012 |

    Size - dm2 Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4

    140 + 53 31 23 12

    130 139 53 31 23 12

    115 129 12 10 8 7

    5

    Acceptable nodules

    Size - dm2 Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4

    140 + 100 48 37 23

    130 139 86 42 33 22

    115 129 26 22 19 14

    Price table: relative unit price (per dm2)

    Not acceptable

    R 2600 R 600 R 300

  • Western Cape Government 2012 |

    Economic value

    6

    The change in profit

    expected for

    each unit of improvement

    in the trait

  • Western Cape Government 2012 |

    Economic value / effect

    1 dm

    R10 to R 578

    Skin size

    1 grade

    R 332 to R 1202

    Skin damage / defects

    Acceptable vs. not acceptable

    ~ R 525

    Nodule acceptability

    7

  • Western Cape Government 2012 |

    Ostrich skin quality

    8

    visible

    damage /

    defects

    nodules

    size

  • Western Cape Government 2012 |

    Ostrich skin quality

    9

    visible

    damage /

    defects

    nodules

    size

  • Western Cape Government 2012 |

    Skin size

    Heritability Correlation

    Live weight 0.48 0.09

    Skin size 0.51 0.09

    Live weight & skin size

    genetic: 0.94

    phenotypic: 0.79

    10

  • Western Cape Government 2012 |

    Skin size

    11

    Yield increases with age

    Weight dependent

    Medium to highly heritable

    19% when weight is accounted for

    Optimal size: 140 dm +

    live weight of 92.5 kg +

  • Western Cape Government 2012 |

    Subjectively assessed ostrich

    leather quality traits

  • Western Cape Government 2012 |

    Ostrich skin quality

    13

    visible

    damage /

    defects

    nodules

    size

  • Western Cape Government 2012 |

    Nodule size (diameter)

    14

  • Western Cape Government 2012 |

    Nodule shape

    15

  • Western Cape Government 2012 |

    Subjective skin traits

    Heritability (independent from slaughter weight)

    16

    Trait

    h2

    Nodule size score 0.34 0.08

    Nodule shape score 0.37 0.08

    Source: Engelbrecht 2013

  • Western Cape Government 2012 |

    Nodule acceptability: subjective evaluation

    Source: Van Schalkwyk et al., 2005

    3

    4

    5

    6

    7

    8

    4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

    Actual slaughter age (months)

    No

    du

    le a

    cc

    ep

    tab

    ility

    sc

    ore

    Age unknown

    Age known

    17

  • Western Cape Government 2012 |

    Acceptable nodules

    18

    10, 11 months of age +

    95kg+ live weight

    Age declares 45% of

    variation in nodule size

  • Western Cape Government 2012 |

    Ostrich skin quality

    19

    visible

    damage

    / defects

    nodules

    size

  • Western Cape Government 2012 |

    Skin damage

    20

    Increases with increase in weight

    Increases with increase in age

    No genetic variation determined by environment

    Damage incurred at young age causes permanent lesions that is

    still visible at slaughter

  • Damage incurred at:

    13 months

    10 months

    7 months

    4 months

  • Western Cape Government 2012 |

    Types of damage

    Scratch & kickmarks

    Schafe marks

    Feather pecking & sunburn

    Parasite damage

    Tick bites

    Pitting

    Farm damage

  • Western Cape Government 2012 |

    Skin damage

    Prevent on-farm scarring

    23

    Hatch remove eggshells

    Clipping of toenails

    Chick rearing methods & environment

    Minimize stress, cold, handling

    Treatment for ectoparasites

    Disturbances at night

    lights & visibility of fences

  • Western Cape Government 2012 |

    General

    24

    Remove thorn trees in camps, corridors

    Space / density

    Placement of feeding troughs

    Inadequate handling and holding

    facilities, fences

    Protruding wires etc.

    Experienced people to handle birds

    Minimize transport

    Inadequate transport conditions

    Prevent on-farm scarring

  • Western Cape Government 2012 | 25

    Beak rings

    Feather pecking

  • Western Cape Government 2012 |

    Scratches and kick marks

    26

    Toenails responsible for more than 50% of scratches

    Clipping the toenails decrease skin damage:

    Behaviour climbing on top of each other

    Skins very thin & toenails sharp

    Toenails grow back - blunt

  • Western Cape Government 2012 |

    Toenails

    27

    Husbandry practice

    Standardised approved procedure

    Standardised equipment

    Use of anti-inflammatory

    Training

  • Western Cape Government 2012 |

    Trial results: toenail clipping

    28

    0

    0.5

    1

    1.5

    2

    2.5

    3

    No clipping Clipped

    Grading

  • Western Cape Government 2012 |

    Results: toenail clipping

    29

    0

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    30

    35

    No clipping Clipped

    %1st grade skins

  • Western Cape Government 2012 |

    Results: toenail clipping

    30

    0

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    7

    No clipping Clipped

    # of Scratches

  • Western Cape Government 2012 |

    Grading of skins

    Tannery data

    0%

    10%

    20%

    30%

    40%

    50%

    60%

    70%

    80%

    90%

    Scratches

  • Western Cape Government 2012 |

    Position of cut

    32 Go to Insert > Header & Footer > Enter presentation name into footer field

  • 33

  • Pitting

    34

  • Western Cape Government 2012 |

    Pitting

    35

    Small pits on processed leather

    Codes:

    SCOT 18, 28, 52

    KKI 24

    Average frequency 11%

    Incurred during lifetime of ostrich

    Specific farmers - repeatability

  • Western Cape Government 2012 |

    Pitting

    36

    Damage similar to damage on hides caused

    by biting stable flies

    Linked to control of ectoparasites and

    pastures

    Ectoparasitic hypersensitivity

    Visiting or multi-host parasites

    Biting and/or bloodsucking insects

    Linked to rainfall less in dry season / drought

  • Western Cape Government 2012 |

    Pitting: on-farm trial results

    Source: Engelbrecht et al., 2015

    Least-squares means ( SE) depicting the effect of treatment on pitting

    Treatment N

    Pitting (0/1)

    Mean SE

    Not treated 84 0.760.05c

    Deltamethrin monthly 79 0.340.05a

    Flumethrin monthly 84 0.580.06b

    37

  • Western Cape Government 2012 |

    Pitting

    38

    Monthly treatment did not prevent all pitting

    not frequent enough to control all insects that

    visited the birds in between treatments

    Off-host/multi-host parasites

    Deltamethrin more effective

    known to be potent for control of insects

    Biting insects

  • Western Cape Government 2012 |

    General

    39

    Pour-ons:

    Correct application

    Wings vs. topline / along back

    Sprays:

    Properly mixed

    Correct concentration

    Wet properly (5L per bird)

    High pressure

    Use of ectoparasiticides

    Synthetic pyrethroids toxic effect via contact

  • Western Cape Government 2012 |

    Ectoparasiticides

    40

    Spray-ons: water soluble

    1-3 days

    Pour-ons: oil-based

    7-14 days

    Deltemethrin more effective

    Regular application important

    Start early (young)!

  • Skin defects

    41

  • Western Cape Government 2012 |

    Hair follicles / pinholes

    42

    Hairlike feathers

    Between feather follicles

    Highly variable among individual birds

    Increase with age

    Breeders: females more hairs

    50% heritability

    Not correlated with slaughter weight

    Filoplumes & hairlike bristles

  • Western Cape Government 2012 |

    Filoplumes & bristle hairs

    43

  • Western Cape Government 2012 | 44

  • Look at skin grading results

    Determine risks on farm & address

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