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Jan 14, 2016
Education mid 20th century
http://www.corbisimages.com/Administering an Intelligence Test: World War 1evanwinchester.wordpress.comThe tests were administered to over 2 million soldiers to help the army determine which men were best suited for specific positions and leadership roles (McGuire, 1994).
UNEXPECTED RESULTS OF THE TEST:
A large number of young men had educational and physical deficiencies
1/4 of all recruits were judged as being illiterate (particularly among rural youth)
The average recruit had a mental age of around 13.
(Johnson and Musial, 2008) , Psychological Examining in the United States Army, Vol. XV, Memoirs of the National Academy of Science
1917: Robert Yerkes developed two tests known as the Army Alpha and Beta tests:
The Army Alpha was designed as a written test
The Army Beta was administered orally in cases where recruits were unable to read.
THE FIRST 3 TESTS ARE BETA, administered orally.THE NEXT 3 TESTS ARE ALPHA, answered in writing. evanwinchester.wordpress.com
BETA TEST #1 : The Maze (administered orally)
Given 1 minute and 20 seconds to complete 3 mazes.Emphasis on WORKING FAST!!!
BETA TEST #2 : Cube Analysis (administered orally)
Given 1 minute and 15 seconds to complete all 8.
BETA TEST #3 : Picture Completion (administered orally)Given 90 seconds to fix nine pictures.
ALPHA TEST : DISARRANGED SENTENCES (WRITTEN TEST)
ALPHA TEST : ARITHMETIC PROBLEMS
ALPHA TEST : INFORMATION
About 1.75 million soldiers were tested before shipping out. Both the Army Alpha and Beta tests were scored on a point scale that was converted to letter grades:
A = a high officer type B= splendid sergeant material C= good private typeD= fair soldiers; often slow in learningE= unfit for regular army serviceA = a high officer type B= splendid sergeant material C= good private typeD= fair soldiers; often slow in learningE= unfit for regular army serviceOnly 12% got As or BsPsychological Examining in the United States Army, Vol. XV, Memoirs of the National Academy of Science
Of those scoring Ds or Es, more than 3/4 were African Americans and foreign immigrants. The standard for the tests normal intelligence was set at an equivalent of a 16 year old.
The average score of the recruits who took this test indicated a mental age of thirteen years.
A moron was defined as an adult performing intellectually at a mental age below twelve years.
The tests revealed an alarming number of morons in the young, male adult population of the United States in 1918.Psychological Examining in the United States Army, Vol. XV, Memoirs of the National Academy of Science