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THIVIM- This is the nearest railhead to Mapusa and Calangute beach. This place is a popular gateway for tourists looking for sun and sand. Fort Aguada From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article is about the fort in Goa. For the fort in Bandra, Mumbai, see Castella de Aguada. This article does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.(August 2008) Fort Aguada's ramparts overlook Sinquerim Beach and the Arabian Sea. Fort Aguada is a well-preserved seventeenth- century Portuguese fort standing in Goa, India, on Sinquerim beach, overlooking the vast expanses of Arabian Sea. [edit]Origins and history The fort was constructed in 1612 to guard against the Dutch and the Marathas. It was a reference point for the vessels coming from Europe at that time. This old Portuguese fort stands on the beach south of Candolim, at the shore of the Mandovi river. It was initially tasked with defense of shipping and the nearbyBardez District. A freshwater spring within the fort provided water supply to the ships that used to stop by. This is how the fort got its name: Aguada = Water. Crews of passing ships would often visit to replenish their fresh water stores. On the fort stands a 4-storey Portuguese lighthouse, erected in
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Page 1: Goa IV Report

THIVIM-This is the nearest railhead to Mapusa and Calangute beach.This place is a popular gateway for tourists looking for sun and sand.

Fort AguadaFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about the fort in Goa. For the fort in Bandra, Mumbai, see Castella de Aguada.This article does not cite any references or sources.Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.(August 2008)

Fort Aguada's ramparts overlook Sinquerim Beach and the Arabian Sea.

Fort Aguada is a well-preserved seventeenth-century Portuguese fort standing in Goa, India, on

Sinquerim beach, overlooking the vast expanses of Arabian Sea.

[edit]Origins and history

The fort was constructed in 1612 to guard against the Dutch and the Marathas. It was a reference

point for the vessels coming from Europe at that time. This old Portuguese fort stands on the

beach south of Candolim, at the shore of the Mandovi river. It was initially tasked with defense of

shipping and the nearbyBardez District.

A freshwater spring within the fort provided water supply to the ships that used to stop by. This is

how the fort got its name: Aguada = Water. Crews of passing ships would often visit to replenish

their fresh water stores. On the fort stands a 4-storey Portuguese lighthouse, erected in 1864 and

the oldest of its kind in Asia. Built in 1612, it was once the grandstand of 79 cannons, a moat

around the fort also protected it.

Fort Aguada was the most prized and crucial fort of Portuguese. The fort is so large that it

envelops the entire peninsula at the south western tip of Bardez. Built on the mouth of river

Mandovi, it was strategically located and was the chief defence of Portuguese against

the Dutch and Marathas.

Page 2: Goa IV Report

Fort Aguada light house

During the Salazar Administration, Fort Aguada was repurposed for use as a prison primarily,

some claim, for Salazar's political opponents.[citation needed] Many of its inmates are Western tourists

serving time for drug-related crimes.

[edit]Fort Aguada Beach Resort

Today the Fort Aguada Beach Resort sits where original fort once did.

The land around the fort is now owned by The Indian Hotels Co. On the ramparts behind the fort

is the Fort Aguada Beach Resort. The 5-star-rated hotel, owned by the Tatas is part of an 88-acre

complex overlooking the Arabian Sea is situated on Sinquerim Beach. It is located 18 km from

Panaji, Old Goa.

Fort Aguada Beach Resort is composed of a number of villas and cottages, with 130 rooms

including 24 Terrace Suites. There are also nine restaurants and nearby beaches. In addition to

water sports, there recreational facilities for tennis, squash and mountaineering.

the fort is actually a jail. Many of the freedom fighter of goa and many other states were



Fort Aguada Pictures

Page 3: Goa IV Report

Information Plaque


Calangute (Konkani: कळं�गु�ट/Kollongutt, pronounced [kɔɭɔŋɡuʈ]) is a census town in North Goa in

the state of Goa, India. It is famous for its beach, visited by domestic and international tourists

alike. The peak tourist season is during Christmas and New Year, and during the summer in

May. In the monsoon season, June through September, the sea can be rough, and

swimming is prohibited.



1   Overview

2   Demographics

3   References

4   External links


To the north lies [[Baga, Goa|Baga]], and south Candolim. To the east lies Saligao, and

the arabian sealashes its waves along the west. Calangute remains warm through the year with

little temperature fluctuations. Calangute is 10 km from Mapusa City, & 18 km from Panjim the

Page 4: Goa IV Report

capital of Goa, Languages spoken include Kannada, Konkani, Marathi and English. The town is

popular due to water sports, which are offered on the beaches of Calangute.

The word CALANGUTE which has become kolngutt or korgott, is derivedf rom KOLI-GUTT, (or

Gudi), which originally meant land inhabited by fisherfolk. It must have become Kolyiangutti,

kalangutti, kolngutt, kongott With the advent of the Portuguese, the word probably got distorted to

Calangute, and has stuck till today. The name Koli may be connected with the goddess kali,

worshipped by the fisher folk. there was a temple in the area of MOTTH. Another possibility is

that it comes from KALYAN-GUTTI, which means a village of art, a beautiful village. this is quite a

plausible derivation. a third derivation is from konvallo-ghott. which means the coconut was good

(strong pith), since coconut trees are believed to possess strong pith which is the "marrow" or soft

substance in the center of the plant.

Calangute is divided by a ward (vaddo) system which breaks it up into:

Gauravaddo  (east & west)[ward of the "Gaudds", or more probably of "gauri" (milk diary)]

Agarwaddo  [Ward of Salt pans ("agor")]

Tivaivaddo [A ward near the seashore]

Naikavaddo [ward that used to be resided by Naik community]

Maddovaddo [ward full of coconut trees ("Madd").]

Porbavaddo [ward that used to be resided by porob community; "prabhu"]

Dongorpur  & Boa-Viagem[ City of hill, because it lies on the hill]

Umtavaddo [Because according to tradition the people from Carambolim came to

Calangute on camels, during epidemic there. they were Prabhus]

Chobravaddo [Probably there was more "Khobrem" there (copra=coconut dried for

extracting oil]

Sauntavaddo [the ward where the Saunte(Sawant)resided]

Baga  [derived from the Goddess Bhagvati, where there was a temple in her honour,

which gave the name to the river and the ward. It was called Vaddol, because there was

mud(usually considered as a part of Calangute)]

Shri Mangueshi temple (Devanagari:श्री� मं�गे�शी� मं�दीर) is located at Mangueshim in Priol, Ponda Taluka,1 kilometer

from Mardol close to Nagueshi, 22 km from Panaji the capital of Goa and 26 km from Margao.

Page 5: Goa IV Report

This temple is one of the largest, most enchanting, serene and most frequently visited

temples in Goa.



1   Deity

2   History

3   Mangeshkar Family

4   See also

5   External links


The temple is dedicated to Lord Mangueshi, an incarnation of Shiva. He is a kuldevta of

many Hindus in Goa including the Saraswat Brahmins. He is also referred to as Saib (The Lord

of Goa) by Hindus.

The Mangesh Linga is said to have been consecrated on the mountain of Mangireesh (Mongir) on

the banks of river Bhagirathi by Lord Brahma , from where the Saraswat Brahmins brought it to

Trihotrapuri in Bihar. They carried the linga to Gomantaka and settled at Mathagrama, the

present-day Madgaon, establishing their most sacred and ancient temple of Mangesh on the

banks of the river Gomati or Zuari as it is called today. Lord Mangesh is worshipped here in the

shape of a Shiva linga. According to the legends Lord Shiva had manifested in to a tiger to

scare Parvati. Paravati who was paranoid at the sight of the tiger went in search of Lord Shiva.

Parvati was supposed to say "Trahi maam Gireesh" but instead out of nervousness she said:


Shri Mangueshi is the Kuldevta (family deity) of many Goud Saraswat Brahmins,Karhade

Brahmins ,and Bhandaris.


This temple actually had its origins in Kushasthali Cortalim, a village in Saxty (Salcette) which fell

to the invading Portuguese in 1543.In the year 1560, the Portuguese started Christian

conversions in Salsette taluka, the Saraswats of Vatsa Gotra felt insecure and shifted the

Mangesh Linga from the original site at the Kushasthali or Cortalim on the banks of river

Aghanashini (Zuari) to its present location at Mangeshi in Priol village of Atrunja Taluka, on May

1, 1560 A.D. (according to Hindu calendar - 1482 sakha) then ruled by the Hindu kings of Sonde

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of Antruz mahal (Ponda), to prevent certain destruction. After remaining in the house of a temple

priest for sometime, Sri Mangesh deity was finally installed in its present site at Priol. The original

site was a very simple structure, and the current structure was only built under Maratha rule,

some 150 years after it had been moved. The Peshwas donated the village of Mangeshi to the

temple in 1739 on the suggestion of their Sardar, Shri Ramchandra Malhar Sukhtankar, who was

a staunt follower of Shri Mangesh. Ironically, just a few years after it was built, this area too fell

into Portuguese hand in 1764, but by now, the Portuguese had lost their initial religious zeal and

had become quite tolerant of other religions, and so, this structure remained untouched.

The 400-year-old Shri Mangesh temple dedicated to Shiva stands out with its simple and yet

exquisitely elegant structure. The temple is noted for the pillars which are considered to be the

most beautiful among the temples in Goa. There is a prominent Nandi Bull which is considered to

be the Vahana (Vehicle) of Shiva. A beautiful seven-storeyed deepstambha (lamp tower), stands

at the gates in the temple complex. The temple also has a magnificent water tank, which is

believe to be the oldest part of the temple.

The Sabha Griha is a spacious hall which accommodates over 500. The decor includes the

chandeliers of the nineteenth century. The central part of the Sabha Griha leads to the Garbha

Griha where image of Mangesh resides. The temple has shrines of Parvati and Ganesha. The

other deities in the temple are Nandikeshvar, Gajana, Bhagavati and the Gramapurusha Deva

Sharma of the Vatsa gotra. Other features to see here are the ancient stone devatas housed in

the subsidiary shrines to the rear of the main building are Mulakeshwsar, Virabhadra,

Lakshminarayana, Shanta Durga and Kala Bhairav.

[edit]Mangeshkar Family

The famous musical family of the Mangeshkar's belong to this village of Mangeshi.

Their father, Deenanath Mangeshkar was born(1900) in the village of Mangeshi then

in Portuguese India to a temple priest and handmaiden of the deity Mangesh. His mother tongue

was Konkani,and he belonged to Gomantak Maratha community of Goa.

The family's last name used to be Hardikar; Deenanath changed it to Mangeshkar in order to

identify his family with his native town, Mangeshi.

Shanta Durga templeFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

  (Redirected from Shantadurga temple)

Page 7: Goa IV Report

Shree Shantadurga

This content has an uncertain copyright status and is pending deletion. You cancomment on its removal.

Shantadurga temple is a large temple complex 33 km (21 mi) from Panaji at the foothill

of Kavalem village in Ponda Taluka, Goa, India.



1   Deity

2   Temple complex

3   Notes

4   See also

5   External links


The temple is dedicated to Shantadurga, the Goddess who mediates between Vishnu and Shiva.

The deity is also called 'Santeri' colloquially. Local legends tell of a battle between Shiva and

Vishnu The battle was so fierce that Lord Brahma prayed to Parvati to intervene, which she did in

the form of Shantadurga. Shantadurga placed Vishnu on her right hand and Shiva on her left

hand and settled the fight. The deity of Shantadurga is shown as holding two serpents, one in

each hand, representing Vishnu and Shiva. She is then said have gone to Shankleswari a village

in Ponda Taluka (goa in which she went to Gothana (a small place in Shankleswari) to kill

the demons that were harassing theBrahmins. As a reward, she was given the name

of Vijaya where she is now called Shri Vijayadurga. Shri Vijayadurga shrine was located in

Shankleshwari along with Shri Shantadurga and Shri LakshmiNarsimha but was later shifted to a

place called Kerim in Ponda Taluka during the Portuguese invasions. .[1]

Shantadurga is the Kuldevi (family deity) of many Goud Saraswat Brahmins, Rajapur Saraswat

Brahmins, Karhade Brahmins, Daivajnas and Bhandaris.

Page 8: Goa IV Report

[edit]Temple complex

Entrance to the Shanta Durga Temple

The original temple at Cavellossim (Quelshim) in Salsette was destroyed by the Portuguese in

1564. The deviwas shifted to Kavalem and worship was continued there. The site on which the

original temple of Shree Shantadurga stood at Cavellossim is known as "Deoolbhata" and it is in

the possession of the temple trust.[citation needed]

Shanta Durga Temple, Goa

The current temple was constructed during the reign ofMaratha ruler Chatrapati Shahu Raje

of Satara about 1738 A.D. Shri Naroram Mantri (Naroram Shenvi Rege) originally from Kochar

village in the Vengurla region was a Mantri (minister) in the Chatrapati Shahu's Court around

1723 A.D. He obtained finances to construct the new temple for the Devi from the Chatrapati. The

temple construction started around 1730 A.D. and with the help from other mahajans, the present

beautiful temple was completed. Due to his efforts the village Kavalem was bequeathed to the

temple authorities by Shahu Maharaja in the year 1739 a.d.[citation needed]

Page 9: Goa IV Report

Temple Deepastambha

The temple complex is on the slope of the foothills of a mountain chain, surrounded by lush

vegetation. There is a main temple and three smaller temples of other deities which have been

built on three sides of the temple. The temple consists of a collection of pyramidal roofs with an

interesting dome. The pillars and floorings are made of Kashmir stone. The temple has a

huge tank, a DipaStambha and agrashalas (guest houses).

Many renovations have been completed over the years to the main temple and the temples of the

other deities as well as to the agrashala.[2]

Bharat PetroleumFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

  (Redirected from BPCL)This article needs additional citations for verification.Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2009)

This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. Please improve this article if you can. (January 2009)

This article is written like an advertisement. Please help rewrite this article from a neutral point of view. Forblatant advertising that would require a fundamental rewrite to become encyclopedic, use {{db-spam}} to mark for speedy deletion. (January 2009)

Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited

Page 10: Goa IV Report

Type PSU (Trading on BSE)

Industry Petroleum

Founded 1976 (After nationalisation ofBurmah Shell Company)

Headquarters Mumbai, India

Key people Ashok Sinha, Chairman & MD

Products Oil , LPG

Revenue ▲ US$27.71 Billion (2008)

Total assets ▲ US$11.86 Billion (2008)

Employees 14,729 (2007)


Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (BPCL) is one of India's largest PSU companies,

with Fortune Global 500 rank of 287 (2008). Its corporate office is located at Ballard

Estate, Mumbai. As the name suggests, its interests are in downstream petroleum sector. It is

involved in the refining and retailing of petroleum products.

Bharat Petroleum is considered to be a pioneer in Indian petroleum industry with various path-

breaking initiatives such as Pure for Sure campaign, Petro card, Fleet card etc.

BPCL's growth post-nationalisation (in 1976) has been phenomenal. One of the single

digit Indian representatives in the Fortune 500 & Forbes 2000 listings, BPCL is often

referred to as an “MNC in PSU garb”. It is considered a pioneer in marketing initiatives,

and employs “Best in Class” practices.



Page 11: Goa IV Report

1   History

o 1.1   From Burmah Shell to Bharat Petroleum

2   Products

3   Refineries

4   Brand ambassador

5   International rankings

6   External links


The 1860s saw vast industrial development. A lot of petroleum refineries came up. An important

player in the South Asian market then was the Burmah Oil Company Ltd. Though incorporated in

Scotland in 1886, the company grew out of the enterprises of the Rangoon Oil Company, which

had been formed in 1871 to refine crude oil produced from primitive hand dug wells in Upper


The search for oil in India began in 1886, when Mr. Goodenough of McKillop Stewart

Company[1] drilled a well near Jaypore in upper Assam and struck oil. In 1889, the Assam

Railway and Trading Company (ARTC)[2] struck oil at Digboi marking the beginning of oil

production in India.

While discoveries were made and industries expanded, John D Rockefeller together with his

business associates acquired control of numerous refineries and pipelines to later form the giant

Standard Oil Trust. The largest rivals of Standard Oil - Royal Dutch, Shell, Rothschilds - came

together to form a single organisation: Asiatic Petroleum Company to market petroleum products

in South Asia.

In 1928, Asiatic Petroleum (India) joined hands with Burmah Oil Company - an active producer,

refiner and distributor of petroleum products, particularly in Indian and Burmese markets. This

alliance led to the formation of Burmah-Shell Oil Storage and Distributing Company of India

Limited. A pioneer in more ways than one, Burmah Shell began its operations with import and

marketing of Kerosene. This was imported in bulk and transported in 4 gallon and 1 gallon tins

through rail, road and country craft all over India. With motor cars, came canned Petrol, followed

by service stations. In the 1930s, retail sales points were built with driveways set back from the

road; service stations began to appear and became accepted as a part of road development.

After the war Burmah Shell established efficient and up-to-date service and filling stations to give

the customers the highest possible standard of service facilities.

Page 12: Goa IV Report

[edit]From Burmah Shell to Bharat Petroleum

On 24 January 1976, the Burmah Shell Group of Companies was taken over by the Government

of India to form Bharat Refineries Limited. On 1 August 1977, it was renamed Bharat Petroleum

Corporation Limited. It was also the first refinery to process newly found indigenous

crude Bombay High, in the country.


Bharat Petroleum produces a diverse range of products, from petrochemicals and solvents to

aircraft fuel and speciality lubricants and markets them through its wide network of Petrol

Stations, Kerosene Dealers, LPG Distributors, Lube Shoppes, besides supplying fuel directly to

hundreds of industries, and several international and domestic airlines.


BPCL has refineries at Mumbai and Kochi (Kochi Refineries) with a capacity of 12 Million Metric

Tonnes (MMT) and 9.5 MMTPA respectively for refining crude oil. BPCL's subsidiary

at Numaligarh has a capacity of 3 MMT. One more refinery i.e. Bina Refinery is coming up and is

expected to get commissioned in the current financial year. It would operate at 6 MMTPA for the

first year.

[edit]Brand ambassador

Mahendra Singh Dhoni signed on as the Brand Ambassador for BPCL in 2006. Narain

Karthikeyan is one other Brand Ambassador for BPCL.

Dona PaulaFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Dona Paula is a former village, and tourist destination, in the suburbs of Panaji, Goa, India. It is

today home to the National Institute of Oceanography, and just alongside it lie the Goa

University and the International Centre Goa. It is also home to a number of hotels, small and

large, and the luxury Cidade de Goa is situated in the area.

[edit]History of Dona Paula

Named after Dona Paula de Menezes, the daughter of a viceroy (in Portuguese India), who threw

herself off the cliff, when refused permission to marry a local fisherman, Gaspar Dias. Dona Paula

Beach is informally also referred to as Lovers Paradise.[1]

Page 13: Goa IV Report

The Dona Paula Beach is also a major tourist attraction due to a myth attached to the place.

According to this, Dona Paula is entombed in the Cabo Chapel, the residence of the Governor of

Goa and is supposed to be seen emerging from the moonlit waves wearing only a pearl necklace.

Several tourists as well as locals guided by this myth visit the beach for a glimpse of Dona Paula.

[1] The Cabo Raj Bhavan is situated at a scenic spot of Dona Paula. It is also home of a historic

British war-graves cemetery. After the end of Portuguese rule in Goa in 1961, Dona Paula

became a fashionable residential area and address.


Dona Paula, today, is home to some of the top Industrialists of the state. Across the river is

zuarinagar which is not considered a good living area due to Industries & a slum located there.

The best area & also the most expensive area within donapaula is MACHADO COVE, where

Cidade is located as well.

Old GoaFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about the UNESCO World Heritage Site. For the town in North Goa, see Goa


Coordinates:  15.50238°N 73.911746°E

Churches and Convents of Goa*

UNESCO World Heritage Site

State Party  India

Type Cultural

Criteria ii, iv, vi

Page 14: Goa IV Report

Reference 234


Inscription history

Inscription1986  (10th Session)

* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.

** Region as classified by UNESCO.

Old Goa (Konkani: Goem/ गु�य/ Adlem Gõi/ Pornnem Gõi/ Saibachem Goem) or Velha

Goa ("Velha" means old in Portuguese) is a historical city in North Goa district in

the Indian state of Goa. The city was constructed by the Bijapur Sultanate in the 15th century,

and served as capital of Portuguese India from the 16th century until its abandonment in the 18th

century due to plague. The remains of the city are aUNESCO World Heritage Site.



1   Name

2   History

3   Churches of Old Goa

4   References

5   See also

6   External links


Page 15: Goa IV Report

Statue dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus erected opposite the Cathedral of the Archdiocese of Goa e

Damão, on the occasion of 400 years of the establishment of theArchdiocese in 1957

Cathedral of the Archdiocese of Goa e Damão

The name Old Goa was first used in the 1960s in the address of the Konkani monthly magazine,

dedicated to spread the devotion of the Sacred Heart, Dor Mhoineachi Rotti which was shifted to

the Basilica de Bom Jesus in 1964. Postal letters were returned back to the sender, as the name

"Old Goa" was unknown then, according to then and long time editor of the monthly, the great

Goan historian late Padre Moreno de Souza, SJ.

The village panchayat uses the name Sé-Old Goa, while the post office, Archaeological Survey of

India use the name Velha Goa. The place is called as Saibachem Goem (referring to St. Francis

Xavier as Saib i.e. Master), Pornem Goem, Adlem Goem or just Goem in Konkani. The name

Velha Goa should not be confused with another former Goan capital Goa Velha, lying some

villages away in the south. The names Vhoddlem Goem and Thorlem Goem [1] refers to Goa

Page 16: Goa IV Report

Velha, while Goem besides referring to Velha Goa i.e. Old Goa also refers to the whole state of

Goa in some contexts.


The city was founded in the 15th century as a port on the banks of the Mandovi river by the rulers

of theBijapur Sultanate. The city was built to replace Govapuri, which lay a few kilometres to the

south and had been used as a port by the Kadamba and Vijayanagar kings. Old Goa was the

second capital of Bijapur under the rule of Adil Shah. It was surrounded by a moat and contained

the Shah's palace, and his mosques andtemples. The city was captured by the Portuguese, and

was under Portuguese rule from 1510 as the administrative seat of Portuguese India. The

Viceroy's residence was transferred in 1759 to the future capital, Panaji (then Pangim), at the

time a village about 9 kilometres to its west.

The population was roughly 200,000 by 1543. Malaria and cholera epidemics ravaged the city in

the 17th century and it was largely abandoned, only having a remaining population of 1,500 in

1775. It was then that the viceroy moved to Pangim. It continued to be the de jure capital of Gôa

until 1843, when the capital was then shifted to Pangim (Ponnjê in Konkani, Nova Goa in

Portuguese and Panjim in English). The abandoned city came to be known as "Velha Goa" (in

Portuguese, 'Old Goa'), to distinguish it from the new capital Nova Goa (Panjim) and probably

also Goa Velha (also meaning "Old Goa"), which was the Portuguese name for the town located

on the old site of Govapuri.

Velha Goa was incorporated into the Republic of India in 1961, together with the rest of Goa.

[edit]Churches of Old Goa

Church of Saint Cajetan in Old Goa.

Old Goa contains churches affiliated to various congregations, including the Se Cathedral (the

seat of theArchbishop of Goa), the Church of St. Francis of Assisi, the Church of S. Caetano, and

notably, the Basilica of Bom Jesus which contains the relics of Saint Francis Xavier, which is

celebrated every year on 3 December with novenas beginning on 24 November.

Page 17: Goa IV Report