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Exploring the History and the Importance of Wildlife wildlife conservation wildlife management Wildlife Refuge Service It was not until the late 1800s that people began to recognize

Mar 13, 2020

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  • Exploring the History and the Importance of Wildlife Conservation

    WHAT WOULD the United States look like todayif wildlife conservation had not been adopted? Would there be national parks or other

    places to go to enjoy the wonders of nature? Would

    there be migratory birds or other wildlife to admire

    or hunt? We benefit from conservation efforts put

    into effect years ago.

    Objective:

    � Explain the historical events, individuals, and policies that have shaped wildlife

    conservation.

    Key Terms:

    The History of Wildlife Conservation

    When the European settlers arrived in North America in the 1600s, natural resources were

    plentiful. Nature provided people with resources to build homes and to feed and clothe them-

    selves. Eventually, need turned into want and people began to destroy wildlife for sport rather

    than necessity. This led to exploitation—the use of natural resources for profit.

    E-unit: Exploring the History and the Importance of Wildlife Conservation

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    aesthetic value

    commercial value

    domestication

    ecological value

    ecology

    Endangered Species Act

    exploitation

    Forest Service

    game value

    Lacey Act

    Migratory Bird

    Conservation Act

    Migratory Bird Hunting

    Stamp Act

    National Park Service

    Pittman-Robertson Act

    scientific value

    wildlife

    wildlife conservation

    wildlife management

    Wildlife Refuge Service

  • It was not until the late 1800s that people

    began to recognize the need for conservation of

    our natural resources. During this time, the

    Morrill Act was passed (in 1862) to establish

    colleges to teach agriculture. In 1872, Yellow-

    stone National Park was established as the first

    national park in the world. Its purpose was to

    preserve the natural resources of the area,

    including the wildlife.

    NATIONAL WILDLIFE

    CONSERVATION POLICIES

    Local, state, and federal governments are

    responsible for developing and carrying out

    wildlife conservation laws. In addition, wildlife

    conservation is important on the international

    level. For example, the World Wildlife Fund is

    an international organization that raises money

    to fund wildlife conservation. Laws enacted at

    the federal level have helped in the

    conservation of wildlife.

    The National Park Service

    In 1916, the National Park

    Service was established as the

    federal government agency

    responsible for the care of

    national parks. As of 2003, the

    National Park Service was

    responsible for 330 protected

    areas, including the Great Smoky

    Mountains in North Carolina and

    Carlsbad Caverns in New Mex-

    ico. The National Park Service is

    also responsible for certain areas

    on the U.S. Virgin Islands.

    The Lacey Act

    The Lacey Act is the 1900 law responsible for regulating the shipment of illegally killed

    animals. The act also made it illegal to trade protected wildlife on the international level.

    E-unit: Exploring the History and the Importance of Wildlife Conservation

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    FIGURE 1. Yellowstone National Park is the world’s first

    national park.

    FIGURE 2. The National Park Service is responsible for the care of areas

    such as the Great Smoky Mountains.

  • The Migratory Bird Conservation Act

    The Migratory Bird Conservation Act was passed in 1929. It did not supply money to

    help protect the animals, but it was the first step in protecting migratory birds.

    The Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act

    The Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act was passed in 1934. People who are planning

    to hunt migratory birds are required to buy these special stamps. Since 1934, these stamps have

    raised $1 billion for migratory bird protection.

    The Pittman-Robertson Act

    The Pittman-Robertson Act was passed in 1937 to raise money (in the form of taxes on

    hunting equipment and ammunition). The federal government collects the taxes and returns

    matching money to the states.

    The Endangered Species Act

    The Endangered Species Act was passed in 1966 to identify and manage rare, threat-

    ened, and endangered wildlife species.

    The Wildlife Refuge System

    The Wildlife Refuge System, established in 1966, is part of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife

    Service and provided safe havens for animals across the United States.

    The Forest Service

    The Forest Service is the part of the U.S. Department of Agriculture that manages 156

    forests throughout the United States, including more than 191 million acres of forest and

    grasslands.

    State and Local Governments

    State and local governments are also responsible for wildlife conservation. Establishing edu-

    cation programs, setting up wildlife sanctuaries, and maintaining parks and zoos are examples

    of how state and local governments can provide protection to wildlife.

    NOTABLE PEOPLE

    Many people have had an impact on the wildlife conservation movement over the past few

    centuries, such as John James Audubon, John Muir, Theodore Roosevelt, Aldo Leopold,

    Gifford Pinchot, Hugh Bennett, and Jay Darling.

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  • John James Audubon

    John James Audubon (1785 to 1851) was a bird lover. He watched and studied birds and

    eventually published a book about them. In 1905, the National Audubon Society was formed

    in his honor.

    John Muir

    John Muir (1838 to 1914) was partly responsible for the

    development of Yellowstone and Sequoia National Park. It

    was through his encouragement that President Theodore

    Roosevelt established these parks. Muir was also responsible

    for starting the Sierra Club to promote conservation. A for-

    est in California was also named for John Muir.

    Theodore Roosevelt

    Theodore Roosevelt (1858 to 1919) was responsible for

    passing legislation to help protect our natural resources. As

    a result, Roosevelt is considered the “father of the conserva-

    tion movement.”

    Aldo Leopold

    Aldo Leopold (1886 to 1948) is noted for applying ecology to wildlife. Ecology is the study

    of how organisms interact with their environment. Leopold believed that people should enjoy

    nature without destroying it. His book Game Management was used to help educate future wild-

    life biologists.

    Gifford Pinchot

    Gifford Pinchot (1865 to 1946) was the author of The Fight for Conservation. His efforts

    focused on forest conservation, and he was one of the first leaders of what eventually became

    known as the U.S. Forest Service.

    Hugh Bennett

    Hugh Bennett (1881 to 1960) was the first person to run the Soil Conservation Service, so

    he is known as the “father of soil conservation.” He promoted the use of scientific investiga-

    tion in determining soil needs.

    Jay Darling

    Jay Darling (1876 to 1962) was the designer of the first migratory bird hunting stamp. He is

    remembered for his cartoons of wildlife and natural resources. He used his cartoons to make

    the public aware of the need for natural resource conservation.

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    FIGURE 3. John Muir was able to convince

    President Roosevelt to establish

    Yellowstone and Sequoia National Park.

  • THE VALUE OF WILDLIFE

    All plants, animals, and living things that have not been domesticated are wildlife. Domes-

    tication is tameness, and it is important because that is how humans are able to use wildlife

    for consumptive purposes and non-consumptive purposes. Along with usefulness, wildlife has

    value in the lives of people. The five basic values of wildlife are commercial, game, aesthetic,

    scientific, and ecological.

    Commercial Value

    The money made from wildlife and fish is commercial value. It includes everything

    from the sale of seafood and exotic foods in restaurants to the sale of wildlife magazines and

    tours.

    Game Value

    The value of wildlife as game is

    game value. It includes the

    hunting and fishing of animals in

    the wild to the hunting and fish-

    ing of plants, such as mushrooms

    and wild berries.

    Aesthetic Value

    The value of wildlife for its

    beauty and pleasure is aesthetic

    value. National parks and forests

    exist to maintain the aesthetic

    value of all types of wildlife.

    Scientific Value

    The value placed on the study and research of wildlife is scientific value. Through scien-

    tific research, many new drugs and integrated pest management techniques have been devel-

    oped.

    Ecological Value