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Emu Meat Export

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SYBMS - B

Export of Emu meat

Export of Emu meat

SYBMS

B

Cover Page

Export of Emu meat

Submitted byArshad shaikh Aameen shaikh Muhammed Ibrahim Shaikh Arshad Parande Maqsood Maulvi Ekhlaque Ahmed Aaqib Sauratia Mohammad Asghar Kashif Qureshi Zargam Mirza Faisal Khokar 74 54 50 70 34 48 57 91 40 36 89

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Export of Emu meat

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTWe the aforementioned students of SYBMS Division B would like to sincerely thank Prof. Sohel Kazi for giving us the opportunity to learn, by giving us this project. We appreciate that he gave us complete freedom of choosing any company of our choice to prepare a report upon. By not imposing a specific company he gave us the opportunity to come up with something that was completely a product of our own efforts. The project has certainly helped us understand Export Procedures and its complexities better

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Export of Emu meat

Contents

What is an Emu ??? Scope for Emu meat export . Business plan.

Export procedure

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Export of Emu meat

WHAT IS AN EMU??EMU ( pronounced ee-mews), native to Australia, are the world's second-largest living members of the ratite ( ra-tight ) family of flightless birds. Others include the ostrich from Africa, rhea ( ree-ha ) from South America, cassowary ( cas-o-werry ) from Australia and New Guinea and Kiwi ( kee-wee), from New Zealand. EMU were originally imported to the United States from 1930 to 1950 as exotic zoo stock. In 1960, the EMU was designated Australia's national bird, and an Australia government ban on exporting the EMU has been in effect for over 30 years. The expanding EMU inventory in the INDIA is domestically bred. As research and sharing of knowledge increase, the INDIAN EMU is emerging as the industry standard. The INDIAN breeder market is vigorous and can be made profitable for small and large participants. EMU are curious and docile. They are about 10-inches tall at birth, with black and white stripes. As 3 months old chicks, they turn nearly solid black and change into a tan, brown and black mixture as adults, some having a bluish neck. The feathers are downy, with no stiff vein running through the center. The mature EMU is 5 to 6 feet tall and normally weighs 90 to 140 pounds. Flightless, they are strong runners and reach ground speeds of up to 40 miles per hour in short bursts, convering about nine feet in stride. EMU adapt well from temperature extremes in excess of 100 degrees/F to below zero. No diseases have yet been diagnosed as common to the species. They can exist on a simple diet and require a lot of water, drinking 2 to 4 gallons daily. They also will play in water or mud. The EMU hen can be productive for 25 to 35 years or more and may lay 20 to 50 eggs in aAnalysis and Report. Page |4

Export of Emu meatseason. A hen may lay as early as 18 months, but normally laying begins at 2 to 3 years old. Pairs normally breed from October to April, usally produce one egg every three days. Incubation time is 49 - 52 days and the percentage of eggs hatched is apporximately 70 - 80%. Chick survival rates on EMU are excellent. We cannot over emphasize the hardiness of the EMU. These birds have been traced back 80 million years. The avocado green egg normally hatches in 52 days, producing a chick which will walk within hours and run within days. The chicks achieve rapid growth, gaining their height by one year of age. After six months, the birds have shed most of their feathers for the fluffy, elegant feathers of the adult. For most climate comditions, the birds need shelter during the first few months. The birds are a very hardy and adaptable bird. For today's INDIA farmers/rancher/homesteader, EMU farming offers an alternative cash crop. With minimal investment in facilities and land area, excellent feed conversion ratio, and an established worldwide market, the EMU will provide a stable cash return to it's owner now and in the years to come.

Ecology and behaviourEmus live in most habitats across India, although they are most common in forest and Emus predominately travel in pairs] and while they can form enormous flocks, this is an a typical social behaviour that arises from the common need to move towards food sources. Emus have been shown to travel long distances to reach abundant feeding areas. Emu movements follow a distinct seasonal pattern north in summer and south in winter. On the east coast their wanderings do not appear to follow a pattern.] Emus are also able to swim when necessary, although they rarely do so unless the area is flooded or they need to cross a river. They are also known to be inquisitive animals, and are known to approach humans if they see movement of a limb or a piece of clothing. They are also known to follow and observe humans in the wild. Sometimes they also poke other animals and then run away after drawing a reaction, as though they are playing a game. An Emu spends much of its time preening its plumage with its beak. Emus sleep during the night, and begin to settle down at sunset, although it does not sleep continuously throughout the night. It can awake and arise up to eight times per night in order to feed or defecate. Before going into a deep sleep, the emu squats on its tarsus and begins to enter a drowsy state. However, it is alert enough to react to visual or aural stimuli and return to an awakend state. During this time, the neck descends closer to the body and the eyelids begin to lower. If there are no aural of visual disturbances, it will go into a deep form of sleep after 20 minutes. During this time the body is lowered until it is touching the ground and its legs areAnalysis and Report. Page |5

Export of Emu meatfolded. The feathers direct any rain downwards along the mound-like body into the ground, and it has been surmised that the sleeping position is a type of camouflage similar to a small hill. The neck is brought down very low and the beak turned down so that the whole neck becomes S-shaped and folding onto itself. An Emu will typically awake from the deep sleep one every 90 120 minutes and stand in a tarsal position to eat or defecate. This lasts for 10 20 minutes and the cycle is repeated 4 6 times during most nights. Overall, an Emu sleeps for around seven hours every day. Young Emus are known to sleep with their neck flat and stretching forward along the ground surface.

DietEmus forage in a diurnal pattern. They eat a variety of native and introduced plant species; the type of plants eaten depends on seasonal availability. They also eat insects, including grasshoppers and crickets, lady birds, soldier and saltbush caterpillars, Bogong and cotton-boll moth larvae and ants. This forms a large part of its protein requirements and intake. In Western Australia, food preferences have been observed in travelling Emus: they eat seeds from Acacia aneura until it rains, after which they eat fresh grass shoots and caterpillars; in winter they feed on the leaves and pods of Cassia]; in spring, they feed on grasshoppers and the fruit of Santalum acuminatum: a sort of quandong. They are also known to eat wheat crops and any fruit or other crops that it can access, easily climbing over high fences if required. Emus serve as an important agent for the dispersal of large viable seeds, which contributes to floral biodiversity. One undesirable effect of this occurred in Queensland in the 1930s and 1940s when Emus ate cactus in the outback there. They defecated the seeds in various places as they moved around, spreading the unwanted plant. This led of constant hunting campaigns to stop the cactus from being spread. Emus also require pebbles and stones to assist in the digestion of the plant material. Individual stones may weigh 45 g (1.6 oz) and they may have as much as 745 g (1.64 lb) in their gizzard at one time. They also eat charcoal, however scientists still have not ascertained why. Emus in captivity are also known to eat shards of glass, marbles, car keys, jewellery and nuts and bolts. Emus drink at infrequent intervals, but ingest large amounts when they do so. They typically inspect the water body in groups for a period before kneeling down at the edge of the water and drinking. They are observed to prefer kneeling on solid earth while drinking, rather than in rocks or mud, presumably due to a fear of sinking. They often drink continuously for 10 minutes, unless disturbed by danger, in which case they interrupt themselves to deal with the threat before resuming. Due to the arid environment, they often go one or two days without finding a source of water and drinking. They typically drink once per day or night, but can do so several times daily if supply is abundant. In the wild, they often share water sources with kangaroos, birds and wild camels and donkeys that were let loose by European settlers. Emus are suspicious of these other species and tend to wait in bushes and wait for other types of animals to leave; they choose to drink separately to the other animals. If an Emu sense abnormal circumstances or a threat, it drinks while standing.Analysis and Report. Page |6

Export of Emu meat

Breeding

Emu EggEmus form breeding pairs during the summer months of December and January, and may remain together for about five months. During this time they wander around in an area a few miles in diameter. It is believed they guard or find territory during this time. Both males and females increase in weight during this time and the female is slightly heavier at between 45 and 58 kg. This weight is lost during the incubation period, the males losing around 9 kg. Mating occurs in the cooler months of May and June, and the exact timing is determined by the climate, as the birds nest during the coldest part of the year. During the breeding season, males experience hormonal changes, including an increase in luteinizing hormone and testosterone levels, and their testicles double in size. It is the females that court the males, and during the mating season, they become physically more attractive. The female's plumage darkens slightly and the small patches of bare, hairless skin just below the eyes and near the beaks turn turqoise-blue, although this is a subtle change. The female strides around confidently, often circling the male, and pulls its neck back while puffing out her feathers and crying out a low, monosyllabic sound that has been compared to human drums. This calling can occur when the males are not in view and more than 50 metres (160 ft) away and when the male's attention has been gained, the female can circle in a radius of 10 40 m. As the female circles its prospective mate, it continues to look towards him byAnalysis and Report. Page |7

Export of Emu meatturning its neck, while keeping its rump facing him. During this time, the female's cervical air sac may remain inflated as it calls outs. The passive male retains the same colour hair, although the bare patches of skin also turn a light blue. The female has more black hairs on its head but gender differentiation can be difficult for humans. If the male shows interest in the parading female, he will move closer; the female continues to tantalise its target by shuffling further away and continuing to circle him as before. Females are more aggressive than males during the courting period, often fighting one another for access to mates. Fights among females accounted for more than half of the violent incidents in one mating season study. If a female tried to woo a male that already had a partner, the incumbent female will try and repel the competitor by walking towards her challenger and staring in a stern way. If the male showed interest in the second female by erecting his feathers and swaying from side to side, the incumbent female will attack the challenger, usually resulting in a backdown by the new female. Some female-female competitions can last up to five hours, especially when the target male is single and neither female has the advantage of incumbency. In these cases, the animals typically intensify their mating calls and displays, which increase in extravagance. This is often accompanied by chasing and kicking by the competing females. Males lose their appetite and construct a rough nest in a semi-sheltered hollow on the ground from bark, grass, sticks, and leaves. The nest almost a flat surface rather than a segment of a sphere, and although in cold conditions the nest is taller, up to 7 cm tall, and more spherical to provide more insulation. When other material is lacking, it can also use spinifex grass bushes more than a metre across, despite the prickly nature. The nest can be placed in open ground or near scrubs and rocks, although thick grass is usually present if the emu takes the former option. The nests are usually placed in an area where the emu has a clear view of the surrounds and can detect predators. If a male is interested, he will stretch his neck and erect his feathers and bend over and peck at the ground. He will then sidle up to the female, swaying his body and neck from side to side, and rubbing his breast against his partner's rump, usually without calling out. The female would accept by sitting down and raising her rump. The pair mates every day or two, and every second or third day the female lays one of an average of 11 (and as many as 20) very large, thick-shelled, dark-green eggs. The shell is around 1 mm thick The number of eggs varies with rainfall. The eggs are on average 134 by 89 millimetres (5.3 3.5 in) and weigh between 700 and 900 grams (1.5 and 2.0 lb), which is roughly equivalent to 10 12 chicken eggs in volume and weight. The first verified occurrence of genetically identical avian twins was demonstrated in the Emu. The egg surface is granulated and pale green. During the incubation period, the egg turns dark green, although if the egg never hatches, it will turn white from the bleaching effect of the sun.

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Export of Emu meat

Emu chicks have longitudinal stripes that help to camouflage them The male becomes broody after his mate starts laying, and begins to incubate the eggs before the laying period is complete. From this time on, he does not eat, drink, or defecate, and stands only to turn the eggs, which he does about 10 times a day. Sometimes he will walk away at night; he chooses such a time as most predators of emu eggs are not nocturnal. Over eight weeks of incubation, he will lose a third of his weight and will survive only on stored body-fat and on any morning dew that he can reach from the nest. As with many other Australian birds, such as the Superb Fairy-wren, infidelity is the norm for Emus, despite the initial pair-bond: once the male starts brooding, the female mates with other males and may lay in multiple clutches; thus, as many as half the chicks in a brood may be fathered by others, or by neither parent as Emus also exhibit brood parasitism. Some females stay and defend the nest until the chicks start hatching, but most leave the nesting area completely to nest again; in a good season, a female Emu may nest three times. If the parents stay together during the incubation period, they will take turns standing guard over the eggs while the other drinks and feeds within earshot. If it perceives a threat during this period, it will lie down on top of the nest and try to blend in with the similar-looking surrounds, and suddenly stand up and confront and scare the other party if it comes close. Incubation takes 56 days, and the male stops incubating the eggs shortly before they hatch. The male also increases the temperature of the nest during the eight-week period. Although the eggs are laid sequentially with days of separation, they tend to hatch within two days within one another, as the eggs that were laid later were subject to higher temperatures and developed more quickly. During the process, the precocial emu chicks need to develop a capacity for thermoregulation. During incubation, the embryos are ectothermic but need to develop endothermic behaviour by the time it is hatched.

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Export of Emu meat

Emu with juveniles past their striped state Newly hatched chicks are active and can leave the nest within a few days. They stand about 12 centimetres (5 in) tall, weigh .5 kg (18 oz), and have distinctive brown and cream stripes for camouflage, which fade after three months or so. The male stays with the growing chicks for up to 7 months, defending them and teaching them how to find food. Chicks grow very quickly and are full-grown in 5 6 months; they may remain with their family group for another six months or so before they split up to breed in their second season. During their early life, the young Emus are defended by their father, who adopts a belligerent and standoffish stance towards other Emus, even including the mother. The father does to by ruffling his feathers, emitting sharp grunts, and kicking his legs to shoo off other animals. He can also bend his knees to shield his smaller children. At night, he envelops his young with his feathers. As the young Emus cannot travel far, the parents must choose an area with plentiful food in which to breed. In the wild, Emus live between 10 to 20 years; captive birds can live longer than those in the wild. Emus are predated by a few animals, including dingos, eagles and hawks. Foxes try and steal incubating eggs, while the other three also attack adults. Birds of prey and the dingo try to kill the Emu by attacking the head. The Emu tries to repel the dingo by jumping into the air and kicking or stamping the dingo on its way down. The Emu jumps as the dingo barely has a the capacity to jump high enough to threaten its neck, so a correctly timed leap to coincide with the dingo's lunge can keep its head and neck out of danger. Wedge-tailed eagles and hawks attack Emus by swooping downwards rapidly and at high speed and aiming for the head and neck. In this case, the Emu's jumping technique as employed against the dingo is not useful. The birds try to target the Emu in open ground so that it cannot hide behind obstacles. Under such circumstances, the Emu can only run in a chaotic manner and change directions frequently to try and evade its predator.

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Export of Emu meat

Relationship with humansConservation status

Aboriginal Emu caller, used to arouse the curiosity of Emus. Emus were used as a source of food by indigenous Australians and early European settlers. Aborigines used a variety of techniques to catch the bird, including spearing them while they drank at waterholes, poisoning waterholes, catching Emus in nets, and attracting Emus by imitating their calls or with a ball of feathers and rags dangled from a tree. The indigenous Australians used pituri or other poisonous plants to contaminate water supplies and were easily able to catch disoriented Emus that drank the water. They also sometimes disguised themselves using the skins of Emus they had previously killed. Emus were also lured into capture in camouflaged pits using rags or imitation calls. Aborigines did not kill the animals except to eat them, and frowned on peers who hunted the Emus but then left the meat unused. They also used almost every part of the carcass for some purpose. Aside from the meat, the fat was harvested for oil used for polishing their weapons, and the bones and tendon were used as makeshift knives and tools, and for tying, respectively. Europeans killed Emus to provide food and to remove them if they interfered with farming or invaded settlements in search of water during drought. An extreme example of this was the Emu War in Western Australia in 1932, when Emus that flocked to Campion during a hot summer scared the town s inhabitants and an unsuccessful attempt to drive them off was mounted, with the army called in to dispatch them in the so-called Emu War. There were two phases, the second of which started on 12 November with mixed results. There have been two documented cases of humans being attacked by Emus. The early white settlers also used Emu fat for fuelling lamps. In the 1930s, Emu killings in Western Australia peaked at 57,000 per year, and culls were also plentiful in Queensland at the same time due to rampant crop damage. Even in the 1960s, bounties were still paid in Western Australia for killing Emus. In John Gould's Handbook to the Birds of Australia, first published in 1865, he laments the loss of the Emu from Tasmania, where it had become rare and has since become extinct; he notes that Emus were no longer common in the vicinity of Sydney andAnalysis and Report. P a g e | 11

Export of Emu meatproposes that the species be given protected status. Wild Emus are formally protected in Australia under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999. The IUCN rates their status as Least Concern. Their occurrence range is between 4,240,000 6,730,000 km2 (1,640,000 2,600,000 sq mi), and a 1992 population estimate was between 630,000 and 725,000. Although the population of Emus on mainland Australia is thought to be higher now than before European settlement, some wild populations are at risk of local extinction due to small population size. Threats to small populations include the clearance and fragmentation of areas of habitat; deliberate slaughter; collisions with vehicles; and predation of the young and eggs by foxes, feral and domestic dogs, and feral pigs. The isolated Emu population of the New South Wales North Coast Bioregion and Port Stephens is listed as endangered by the New South Wales Government.

Economic valueThe Emu was an important source of meat to the Aborigines in the areas to which it was endemic. Emu fat was used as bush medicine, and was rubbed on the skin. It also served as a valuable lubricant. It was mixed with ochre to make the traditional paint for ceremonial body adornment, as well as to oil wooden tools and utensils such as the coolamon.[56]

: "Emus are around all the time, in green times and dry times. You pluck the feathers out first, then pull out the crop from the stomach, and put in the feathers you've pulled out, and then singe it on the fire. You wrap the milk guts that you've pulled out into something [such as] gum leaves and cook them. When you've got the fat off, you cut the meat up and cook it on fire made from river red gum wood. Commercial Emu farming started in Western Australia in 1987 and the first slaughtering occurred in 1990. In Australia, the commercial industry is based on stock bred in captivity and all states except Tasmania have licensing requirements to protect wild Emus. Outside Australia, Emus are farmed on a large scale in North America, with about 1 million birds in the US, India and China, and to a lesser extent in some other countries. Emus breed well in captivity, and are kept in large open pens to avoid leg and digestive problems that arise with inactivity. They areAnalysis and Report. P a g e | 12

Export of Emu meattypically fed on grain supplemented by grazing, and are slaughtered at 50 70 weeks of age. They eat two times a day and prefer 2.25 kilograms (5 lb) of leaves each meal. Emus are farmed primarily for their meat, leather, and oil. Emu meat is a low-fat meat (less than 1.5% fat), and with cholesterol at 85 mg/100 g, it is comparable to other lean meats. Most of the usable portions (the best cuts come from the thigh and the larger muscles of the drum or lower leg) are, like other poultry, dark meat; Emu meat is considered for cooking purposes by the USDA to be a red meat because its red colour and pH value approximate that of beef, but for inspection purposes it is considered poultry. Emu fat is rendered to produce oil for cosmetics, dietary supplements, and therapeutic products The oil is harvested from the subcutaneous and retroperitoneal fat from the macerated adipose tissue, and filtering the liquefied fat to get the oil, and has been used by indigenous Australians and the early white settlers for purported healing benefits. The oil consists mainly of fatty acids; oleic acid (42%), linoleic and palmitic acids (21% each) are the most prominent components. It also contains various anti-oxidants, notablly carotenoids and flavones.

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Export of Emu meat

SCOPE FOR EMU MEAT EXPORTMeat of Emu bird is reddish in colour, soft and with less of cholesterol 98% fat free. Emu meat is lower in fat than Chicken. Turkey, Pork & Beef It is the Super Food of the New Millennium . The price commands higher price than that of meat from Other birds/animal and is reported at Rs. 300-450 per Kg. The American Heart Association has included Emu meant in its listing of heart healthy meats. EMU MEAT: 98% FAT FREE - 100% NATURAL THE HEALTHY RED MEAT EMU MEAT IS A VERY LEAN (98% FAT FREE) RED MEAT SIMILAR TO BEEF IN BOTH TASTE AND APPEARANCE. EMU ARE HIGHER IN PROTEIN, VITAMIN C AND IRON COMPARED TO BEEF; LOWER IN CHOLESTEROL COMPARED TO CHICKEN. EMU GIVES RED MEAT LOVERS WHAT THEY WANT AND HEALTH CONSCIOUS CONSUMERS WHAT THEY NEED. IN FACT, THE AMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATION RECOGNIZES EMU MEAT AS A HEALTHY ALTERNATIVE TO BEEF.

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Export of Emu meat

COMPARING EMU MEAT WITH OTHER MEAT

Emu

Chicken

Lean Pork

Lamb

Fats (g)

1.7

3.5

25.0

23.4gr

Protein (%)

23.3

20.1

20.2

16.6

Energy (ki)

446.5

125.0

147.0

-----

Calories

109

125.0

147

282.0

Iron(mg)

3.0

1.0

1.0

1.55

Cholesterol (mg)

57.5

80.0

65.0

73

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Export of Emu meat

EMU

CATFISH

CHICKEN

BEEF

PROTEIN

23.3G

18.2G

23.1G

19.9G

CALORIES

109

113

110

225

CHOLESTROL

57.5MG

58MG

64MG

65MG

FAT

1.7G

4.3G

1.2G

15.8G

SATURATED FAT

0.06G

1.0G

O.3G

6.5G

MONO-UNSATURATED FAT

0.7G

1.6G

0.3G

7.2G

PLOY-UNSATURATED FAT

0.4G

1.0G

0.3G

0.6G

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Export of Emu meat

Business planFirstly we will aquire the raw material . i.e the emu bird from local emu farmers , and part of it will be supplied by our own emu farm. The birds will be then slaughtered at the advanced slaughter machine at the processing room. After the processing and cutting , the meat will be packed in different packages as requires by the importer . these packages will be then stored at our cold storage plant until a sufficient quantity is ready for shipping ( min 4 tons) . The various costs and expenses are explained below, particularscapital invested( fixed cost) Land m/c 1 m/c 2 Building Total floating capital 9 birds per day (8000 per bird avg 18 kgs) 225 birds per month Freight cost Other expenses Total 21,00,000 Returns 650 per kg Profit break even 12 months

In rupees

20,00,000 28,00,000 8,00,000 9,00,000 65,00,000

72,000 18,00,000 1,00,000

26,30,500 5,30,500

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Export of Emu meat

conclusion Firstly , a land measuring 20 acres is purchased at 1,00,000 rs per acre. Then a n automatic slaughter and defeathering m/c is purchased at rs 28,00,000. Another m/c for cutting and packing is purchased at 8,00,000. Then a building comprising the cold storage is constructed at the cost of rs 9,00,000. This totals up the fixed capital to rs 65,00,000. As the raw material is live emu birds , the birds are purchased on live weight at rs 300 to 350 per kg . 80% of the birds are purchased from the local emu farmers and the rest 20% birds are supplied by our own emu farm. The average weight of an emu bird ready for slaughter is 18kgs. We require 9 birds every day at rate of rs 8000 nper bird. So the raw material cost is rs 72000 per day. The slaughtering process is carried out for 25 days a month. This makes the total raw material cost 18,00,000. The cost of exporting the meat(4050 kg) in refrigerated containers is rs 1,00,000. Other expenses such as electricity and labour cost total up to rs 2,00,000. Thus the total input cost per month is rs 21,00,000. 225 birds will be slaughtered every month giving out 4050 kg of meat( avg meat from each bird is 18 kgs). This meat is packed and exported to the impoter at rs 650 per kg. this 4050 kg of meat will bring an income of rs 26,32,500. Thus a profit of rs 5,63,500 is expected every month. The total capital invested . i.e . 65,00,000 will be recovered in approximate 12 months. ooking at the figures ,this business plan seems to be feasible .

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Export of Emu meat

PROCESS --- FROM EGG TO PACKED MEATEmu processing begins at the hatchery where hens lay eggs. The eggs are collected and incubated until they begin to hatch in about 52 days. The chicks live in large, growout houses where they are fed a diet of emu feed. After growout, the birds are conveyored through a stun cabinet. The mild electrical current in the water stuns or paralyses the birds. Next, the birds are conveyed to an automatic neck cutter. The carcasses hang until all the blood has drained and then they are defeathered. Next, they are washed, cleaned, and immersed in cooled, chlorinated water for 40-50 minutes.

SLAUGHTERy

5 At the processing plant, workers take the birds from their boxes and hang them by their feet on a conveyor belt. In a typical process, the birds on the conveyor are first passed through a vat of electrified salt water called a stun cabinet. About 20 birds occupy the stun cabinet at one time, and they remain in the water for about seven seconds. The mild electrical current in the water stuns or paralyses the birds. Next, the birds are conveyed to an automatic neck cutter rotating blades that sever the two carotid arteries.This makes the bird halal and fit for cpnsumption in Islamic nations. The birds' carcasses hang until all the blood has drained.

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Export of Emu meat

DEFEATHERING AND EVISCERATIONy

6 The carcasses are then briefly immersed in hot water to scald the skins. This makes removal of the feathers easier. The carcasses move to automatic feather pickers, which are moving rubber fingers that rub off most of the feathers. Then the carcasses are scalded a second time and run through another feather picker. Lastly, a specialized machine removes the wing feathers. The defeathered carcasses next pass to a washer, which scrubs the outside of the body. The feet and head are cut off, and the carcass is conveyed to the evisceration area. Next, the carcass is suspended in shackles by the feet and neck, cut open, and the viscera (internal organs) are removed. When the carcass is empty, it is washed again inside and out by a multiple-nozzled sprayer.

CHILLING AND CUTTINGy

7 The cleaned carcasses are sent down a / chute and immersed in a "chiller" of cooled, chlorinated water for 40-50 minutes. The entire slaughter process takes only about an hour, and the bulk of that time is taken up by the chilling. The internal temperature of the emu must be brought down to 40 F (4.4 C) or lower before further processing. The chilled carcasses are then passed to a cutting room, where workers cut them into parts, unless they are to be packaged whole. Some carcasses may be cooked and the cooked meat removed and diced for foods such as emu pot pie or soups. Meat from backs, necks, and wings may be processed separately for sale in other meat products such as hot dogs or cold cuts. In whatever format, the meat is packaged by workers at the processing plant, loaded into cases, and stored in a temperature-controlled warehouse.

QUALITY CONTROLQuality control is a particularly important issue in poultry farming because the end product is raw meat, which has the potential to carry disease-causing microorganisms. To prevent diseases in the emus themselves, the chicks are vaccinated for common avian diseases. Veterinarians visit the growing-out farms and tend to any sick birds. Corporations that contract with the growing-out farms also typically send a service technician out on a weekly visit to each farm to monitor conditions.

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Export of Emu meatQuality control at emu-processing plants is done by the company and also by inspectors from the U.S. Department of Agriculture. A USDA inspector is required to be in the plant whenever emus are being slaughtered. The government inspector examines the birds both before and after slaughter for obvious signs of disease and for injury, such as broken wings. The meat from injured parts is not usable. In a typical process, there are two critical control points where the company continually monitors conditions. There may be additional control points as well. The first critical control point is just before the cleaned carcass goes to the chiller. An inspector pulls carcasses at random and visually inspects them under bright light. No fecal matter is allowed on the carcass at this point. If any is found in the random check, the production line must be stopped and all the birds that have gone through the chiller since the last inspection must be rewashed and chilled. The second critical control point is when the birds come out of the chiller. The internal temperature of the carcass must be 40 F (4.4 C) or lower at this stage. Inspectors make random sample checks to verify internal temperatures. Though these are the most important control points, each plant designs its own quality control program, and inspectors may also periodically verify the temperature of the scalding water, check the automatic equipment, and whatever else the company deems necessary. Until 1998, USDA inspectors at emu processing plants were required to do only what is called an organaleptic test of the emus before and after slaughter. This translates to looking and smelling; that is, inspectors verified that the birds were disease-free and healthy by looking them over and perhaps giving the carcass a quick sniff. In 1998, the USDA instituted a new quality control program for all meat processors known as Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points, or HACCP. Under HACCP, in addition to the organaleptic method, inspectors are also required to take periodic microbiological tests to look for dangerous bacteria. The most problematic bacteria in emu meat are salmonella. Though this organism is killed with proper cooking of the meat, it can cause illness if the consumer does not handle the meat properly. In the 1980s, 50% of all emu in the United States was purported to be infected with salmonella. The industry altered its quality control procedures, and broughtAnalysis and Report. P a g e | 21

Export of Emu meatthe incidence down to 16% in 1996, and to below 10% in 1998, according to the USDA. Under HACCP, emu must be randomly tested for salmonella at the production plant, and the rate of infection must be lower than 20%. Also under HACCP, USDA inspectors have the authority to shut down plants that they deem dirty or unsafe. The plant is not allowed to re-open until it comes up with a plan for remedying the situation. Some incidents that caused emu processing plants to be shut in 1998 included carcasses falling on the floor, rodent infestation of the facility, and most commonly, failure to prevent fecal contamination.

BYPRODUCTS/WASTEMany of the byproducts of emu slaughter can be used. Emu feet are removed at the processing plant because they are not considered edible in the United States. However, emu feet are a delicacy in Asia, and so large amounts of them are exported. The feathers can be ground up and used as a protein supplement in animal feed. Substandard meat is also commonly sold to pet food makers. However, many emus die before slaughter, either at the growing-out farm or en route to the processing plant. These birds are disposed of in landfills. Sick or deformed chicks are culled taken from the flock and killed (usually by wringing the neck) after hatching, and these bodies must also be disposed. Unused viscera and parts also produce waste in emu processing

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Export of Emu meat

Countries importing Emu meat from India1) 2) 3) 4) 5) UNITED ARAB EMIRATES CHINA SINGAPORE MALAYSIA NORTH AMERICAN COUNTRIES

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Export of Emu meat

Export procedures The emu meat will be exported under the category of poultry meat export.Quality Control Proper quality control measures/sampling plan shall be established by the processor, documented and implemented to ensure the wholesomeness of the products processed. a) Primary Production: The establishment shall exercise proper controls over the identified poultry farms from which poultry are being procured. The establishment shall conduct periodic farm audit for verification of requirements for GMP, GHP, food safety, animal health, animal welfare, water, feed and

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Export of Emu meatfeed additives, etc. as specified at Annexure IC. The verification also includes testing of samples drawn from the farms, ante-mortem inspection, post-mortem inspections, etc. The approved veterinarian of the establishment shall conduct ante-mortem and post-mortem inspections of the poultry, and animal health, animal diseases, etc. regularly. The approved veterinarian of the establishment shall carry out regular monitoring and control of zoonoses and zoonotic agents. Regular monitoring of diseases specified in list A or where appropriate in list B of the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) shall also be carried out by the approved veterinarian . b) Residual parameters Approved establishments shall ensure that the identified poultry farms from where the poultry are being procured, shall test the compounded feed, water, tissues, body fluid, excreta, etc. for prohibited pharmacological substances environmental contaminants, etc. given at Annexure IE at least once in a year. The establishment shall have Self Residue Monitoring Plan in place and addressed in HACCP. Moreover, the consignments meant for export may also be tested for residual parameters as per the requirements of the importing country, whenever required. c) Food chain information and Ante-mortem and post-mortem inspections The ante-mortem and post-mortem inspections shall be carried out by the approved veterinarian as specified in the Annexure IXD. Every lot of poultry shall be accepted for slaughtering only if accompanied by the food chain information or animal health attestation from the approved veterinarian. d) Microbiological Checks All batches of fresh poultry meat and poultry meat products must be tested for relevant microbiological parameters as specified in the Annexure IF and as per the laid down frequency. e) Sanitation and hygiene control samples Sanitation and hygiene control samples from food contact surfaces and workers hand shall be tested for TPC, Coliforms and Staph. aureus at least once in fifteen days to ascertain the effectiveness of cleaning and sanitisation. f) Water and iceAnalysis and Report. P a g e | 25

Export of Emu meatEstablishments shall exercise proper quality control on water and ice used in their factory. They shall check the microbiological parameters such as TPC and Coliform in their in-house lab at least once in a fortnight. Moreover, EU approved establishment shall test water used in the factory for all parameters as per EC Directive No.98/83/EC at least once in two years or whenever the source of water is changed. Water shall also be tested for parameters [Table-A(1) of EC Directive No.98/83/EC] as mentioned in Annexure XVI once in a year. Document No. EIC/PM/Ex. Inst./ September 2007 / Issue 215 However, establishments approved for export to countries other than EU shall test water used in the factory as per IS 4251 on yearly basis except for radiological parameters. g) Additives If additives are being used in the factory it shall be of food grade quality, as acceptable to the importing country. h) Calcium content The calcium content of Mechanically separated meat (MSM) shall not exceed 0.1% (or 1000ppm or 100mg/100g) of fresh meat as determined by a standard international method

EXPORT CERTIFICATION 16.1 Certificate for Export (CFE) 16.1.1 ProcedureDocument No. EIC/PM/Ex. Inst./ September 2007 / Issue 224 Since all the consignments of fresh poultry meat and poultry meat products meant for export should undergo quality control and inspection prior to shipment and should be accompanied by a Certificate for Export (CFE), the approved processing units shall issue a Certificate for Export (validity for which shall be fifteen days from the date of issue) for every export consignment. Certificate blanks shall be obtained from the EIA concerned by payment of charges as per clause 17. Each set of certificate blank will consist of original (in white) intended for Indian Customs; duplicate (in pink) to be forwarded to the local office of EIA and the last two copies (in green and blue) for the use of the processing unit. EIAs shall maintain proper records of issuance of blank CFEs and their utilisation by the establishments.Analysis and Report. P a g e | 26

Export of Emu meatThe responsibility for the maintenance and proper utilisation of the CFEs issued to them lies with the approved establishment. They shall issue CFEs only for those fresh poultry meat and poultry meat products that are processed in their approved establishment and have undergone all the quality checks/ tests specified. The establishment is liable for penal action for the misuse of CFEs issued to them. Only persons authorised by the establishment shall be allowed to sign the CFEs and the list of persons authorised to sign CFEs shall be made available to the EIA. If the validity of CFE is expired, then the same can be revalidated upto another fiteen days and the monitoring fee will not be charged again, if there is no upward revision in FOB value. However no refund will be given in case of downward revision in FOB value. In case of cancellation or damage of CFE, the establishment has to submit the original of the cancelled CFE to EIA, with other three copies (full set) and original Health Certificate (HC) (if already issued) pertaining to the CFE.

16.1 .2 Issuance of Certificate for Export16.1.2.1 Books of CFE blanks shall be issued on request from the approved processing establishment only after the approval of DD In-charge of the scheme/ officer in-charge and after the previous CFEs issued have been accounted for and paid for. However exporters may have up to 5 sets remaining so as not to cause any operational problems. 16.1.2.2 Every approved processing unit must have a Pass Book account system operating with the controlling office of EIA. The processor shall ensure that adequate balance is always maintained in their deposit account with EIA for the payment of monitoring fee and other certification fee. No CFE blanks shall be issued unless there is adequate balance in their account. 16.1.2.3 In case of lost certificates, exporter shall submit an indemnity bond to that effect to the EIA concerned as per the format given at Annexure-XXII. EIA, in turn, shall inform the Customs to check that those numbers have not been presented to them. Further, Customs shall be informed not to accept those specific certificates in future. 16.1.3 Statement of Certificates for Export issued 16.1.3.1 Every approved establishment shall submit periodic statement of Certificate for Export issued, enclosing the pink copy of CFE on fortnightly basis for the export of fresh poultry meat and poultry meat products in the pro-forma given at Annexure XXI. Nil statement shall be submitted in case of no exports during the period. Based on the statement submitted by theAnalysis and Report. P a g e | 27

Export of Emu meatapproved establishments, local EIA office shall debit monitoring fee from the deposit account of the establishment as per clause 17. 16.1.3.2 The pink copy of every CFE issued along with the related production batch details, product/variety wise packing list and invoice copy shall be attached to the statement. In case, the pink copy of the CFE has already been submitted to EIA for obtaining Health Certificate or any other purpose, this may be indicated in the remarks column. 16.1.3.3 if the approved establishments are not submitting the statements even after fifteen days, no further CFE blanks shall be issued to them. Moreover, a show-cause notice may be issued to the Document No. EIC/PM/Ex. Inst./ September 2007 / Issue 225 establishment as to why the production and export may not be suspended by the Competent Authority. 16.2 Health Certificate Issuance 16.2.1 General All consignment of Indian fresh poultry meat and poultry meat products exported to the EU are required to be accompanied by a numbered original health certificate, comprising a single sheet in accordance with the model Annexure XXA duly completed, signed and dated. The model health certificate meant for the Non-EU approved establishments is placed at Annexure XXB. The original of the health certificate is required for customs clearance at the destination and shall be madeavailable to the customs authorities at the destination before the arrival of the consignment. The consignments cannot be cleared on the basis of a copy of the original or on the basis of a fax copy of the original. Health Certificate should be issued before or on the day of shipment and cannot be issued retrospectively. Note: 1. If Health Certificate is lost in transit or otherwise, the establishment may request for issuance of a duplicate health certificate by submitting an indemnity bond (Annexure XXII) in a non judicial stamp paper stating clearly that if found later, the same will not be reused for any further export but shall be surrendered to EIA for further action. Under such circumstances a new health certificate may be issued in lieu of the lost health certificate and the establishment shall pay charges as per Clause No.17. 2. The EIA may issue corrigendum or addendum or clarification to the health certificate already issued after examination of the request from the approved establishment for the purpose of ascertaining its genuineness. In such cases, prescribed fee for issuance of corrigendum or addendum or clarification shall be charged as per clause 17.

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Export of Emu meat

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