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Sep 12, 2019
The Danube is the river crossing Central and Eastern Europe classified as international waterway, through ten countries: Germany (7.0% of basin area), Austria (10.0%), Slovakia (5.9%), Hungary (11.6%), Croatia (4.4%), Serbia (10.2%), Bulgaria (5.9%), Romania (29.0%), Moldova (1.6%) and Ukraine (3.8%). The river has three main sections: (1) from spring to Devin Gate (Upper Section), (2) from Devin Gate to Iron Gate (Middle Section), and (3) from Iron Gate to Sulina (Lower Section).
Over the time this river was either the barrier, either travel way for pathogens.
The last twenty years raised geopolitical changes in the area, the open borders and free movement of goods and people have led in countries bordering the river to the emergence or re-emergence of serious diseases in humans and animals.
Tick-borne viral and bacterial diseases which could
emerge in the Danube River’s lower section Stelian Baraitareanu1, Doina Danes1, Alexandru Vladimirescu2, Gabriela Victoria Dumitrescu3, Marius
Necsulescu4, Rodica Maria Gurau1, Lucia Elena Ionescu4, Mihai Danes5 1University of Agronomical Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Campus, Splaiul Independentei 105, 5th District, Bucharest,
ROMANIA 2 National Institute of Research and Development for Microbiology and Immunology „Cantacuzino” Splaiul Independentei 103, 5th District, Bucharest, ROMANIA
3University of Bucharest, Faculty of Biology, Splaiul Independentei 91-95, 5th District, Bucharest, ROMANIA 4Center for Military Medical Research, Str. C.A.Rosetti 37, 2th District, Bucharest, ROMANIA
5University of Agronomical Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest, Agronomy Campus, Marasti 59, 1th District, Bucharest, ROMANIA
[email protected] http://www.fmvb.ro
This work was funded by MEN-UEFISCDI PN II “Partnerships in priority areas” program, Grant No. 295/2014
Map’s design that shows where they were reported emerging or re-emerging diseases is one of the primary data requested to build-up strategies for the prevention of trans- boundary diseases transmission.
• The CCHFv infection emerged or re-emerged in southeastern Europe, at least in Bulgaria, Albania, Kosovo, Greece and Turkey.
• The TBEv infection is endemic in western and central European countries and is estimated with high risk of emergence in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovinia, Bulgaria, Greece, Kazakhstan, Serbia and Montenegro, Moldova and Romania.
• New Francisella tularensis spp. isolates emerged or re-emerged in Austria, Germany, Hungary, Italy, and Romania; and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato began making new victims in Romania.
• That for we strongly support the setting-up/improvement of active surveillance programs of previously CCHFv, TBEv, Francisella tularensis and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in the area of the Danube River’s lower section.
SELECTIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Epidemiological situation of tick-borne encephalitis in the European Union and European Free Trade Association countries. Stockholm: ECDC; 2012 2. EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) and ECDC (European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control), 2014. The European Union Summary Report on Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Food-
borne Outbreaks in 2012. EFSA Journal 2014;12(2):3547, 312 pp. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2014.3547 Trade Association countries. Stockholm: ECDC; 2012. 3. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Annual Epidemiological Report 2013. Reporting on 2011 surveillance data and 2012 epidemic intelligence data. Stockholm: ECDC; 2013.
CCHF virus has been found among ticks in Africa, Asia,
the Middle East, and eastern and south-western Europe.
European human infection cases of CCHF : Albania,
Armenia, Bulgaria, Kazakhstan, Kosovoi, Russia,
Serbia, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and
European human infection cases of tularaemia reported
in EU/EEA countries (2007–2011): Austria, Bulgaria,
Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany,
Hungary, Italy, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia,
Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Norway.
European human infection cases of TBE reported in
EU/EEA countries (2000–2010): Austria, Czech Republic,
Estonia, Finland, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,
Poland, Romania, Slovakia,Sweden, Norway.
Dermacentor reticulatus Hyalomma marginatum Ixodes persulcatus Ixodes ricinus
In tick-borne diseases the natural barriers play their role, as the Danube did, in limiting the dissemination of diseases such as those caused by Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFv), Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEv) or Francisella tularensis and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.