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Ecosystems and Biodiversity Definitions: Define ecosystem: Define biodiversity:
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  • Slide 1
  • Ecosystems and Biodiversity Definitions: Define ecosystem: Define biodiversity:
  • Slide 2
  • Ecosystems and Biodiversity Definitions: Define ecosystem: a biological community of interacting organisms (biotic) and their physical environment (abiotic) Define biodiversity: the variety of life in a particular habitat or ecosystem
  • Slide 3
  • Ecosystems and Biodiversity Definitions: Define ecosystem: a biological community of interacting organisms (biotic) and their physical environment (abiotic) Define biodiversity: the variety of life in a particular habitat or ecosystem Not necessarily just number of types, but evenness of those types as well!
  • Slide 4
  • Ecosystems and Biodiversity: Leading Questions How might ecosystems vary in abiotic (non-living) properties or conditions? How can abiotic conditions affect biodiversity? How can abiotic conditions be altered?
  • Slide 5
  • Ecosystems and Biodiversity: Leading Questions How might ecosystems vary in abiotic (non-living) properties or conditions? How can abiotic conditions affect biodiversity? How can abiotic conditions be altered? Water availability, windiness, soil types, temperature, precipitation patterns
  • Slide 6
  • Ecosystems and Biodiversity: Leading Questions How might ecosystems vary in abiotic (non-living) properties or conditions? How can abiotic conditions affect biodiversity? How can abiotic conditions be altered? Water availability, windiness, soil types, temperature, precipitation patterns, etc Nutrient limitation for some organisms, harsh weather conditions affect some populations, etc
  • Slide 7
  • Ecosystems and Biodiversity: Leading Questions How might ecosystems vary in abiotic (non-living) properties or conditions? How can abiotic conditions affect biodiversity? How can abiotic conditions be altered? Water availability, windiness, soil types, temperature, precipitation patterns, etc Nutrient limitation for some organisms, harsh weather conditions affect some populations, etc Deforestation, severe weather events, carbon emissions, etc
  • Slide 8
  • Ecosystems and Biodiversity: Leading Questions Why might biodiversity be important?
  • Slide 9
  • Ecosystems and Biodiversity: Leading Questions Why might biodiversity be important? Ecosystem functions food, fiber, energy Air and water purification Pollination and seed dispersal Ecotourism and recreation The insurance hypothesis With more species or groups, ecosystems are more likely to maintain function even if some fail due to disturbance, disease, invasion, etc Resilience to change Stability
  • Slide 10
  • Making this a classroom activity Use the habitat types (ecosystems) surrounding your own schools to sample for biodiversity of invertebrates, and specifically insects. The BEST plots can also work here!
  • Slide 11
  • Making this a classroom activity Modify number of different habitat types and sampling methods to your choosing Incorporate concepts of randomization, replication, etc
  • Slide 12
  • Sampling for Biodiversity Use different habitat or ecosystem types near your school to sample for biodiversity Potential habitat types: forests (primary vs. successional), yard, parking lot, wetland, grassland or prairie Encourage students to make hypotheses beforehand Which habitat type do you expect to see the most insects overall? In which habitat type do you expects to see the greatest number of orders?
  • Slide 13
  • Sampling Method: Sticky Traps Refer to BEST plot protocols http://kbsgk12project.kbs.msu.edu/blog/2011 /09/14/biomass-and-biodiversity-protocols/ http://kbsgk12project.kbs.msu.edu/blog/2011 /09/14/biomass-and-biodiversity-protocols/
  • Slide 14
  • Sampling Method: Pit Traps Refer to BEST plot protocols http://kbsgk12project.kbs.msu.edu/blog/2011 /09/14/biomass-and-biodiversity-protocols/ http://kbsgk12project.kbs.msu.edu/blog/2011 /09/14/biomass-and-biodiversity-protocols/
  • Slide 15
  • Sampling Method: Sweepnetting Refer to optional BEST plot protocols http://kbsgk12project.kbs.msu.edu/blog/2011 /09/14/biomass-and-biodiversity-protocols/ http://kbsgk12project.kbs.msu.edu/blog/2011 /09/14/biomass-and-biodiversity-protocols/
  • Slide 16
  • Sampling Method: Pan traps (pollinator cups) Meant to simulate the colors of flowers Paint bowls or cups different colors to encourage pollinators to visit Red, yellow, blue, white Fills bowls or cups with soapy water to trap insects Set out (randomly) in habitat patch Collect after one day
  • Slide 17
  • Sampling Method: Berlese Funnels Useful for sampling insects from litter (leaves) and top layer or soil Use a hand trowel to remove litter and top inch of soil from a predefined area (5 in x 5 in, for example, but adjust to fit funnels) Place into a modified Berlese funnel (leaves first) and shine light directly over leaves to drive insects into container of ethanol
  • Slide 18
  • Invertebrate ID Resources What Bug Is That? poster KBS GK-12 Invertebrate Guide powerpoint Click herehere Bugguide.net Dichotomous Key for Winged Insects Click herehere Dichotomous Key for Wingless (or Tiny- Winged) Insects Click herehere Image from bugguide.net
  • Slide 19
  • Working with the data Shannon-Weaver diversity index Takes counts and relative abundance into consideration Can be done by hand Excel sheet can be used to calculate Shannon- Weaver diversity index using student-generated data
  • Slide 20
  • Working with the data Shannon-Weaver diversity index Takes counts and relative abundance into consideration Can be done by hand Excel sheet can be used to calculate Shannon- Weaver diversity index using student-generated data
  • Slide 21
  • Working with the data Graphing Activities Students can choose to graph an interesting pattern of their choosing Examples: Graph abundance of one order across multiple habitat types Graph abundances of various orders within one habitat type Graph Shannon-Weaver diversity index across habitat types
  • Slide 22
  • Follow-up Questions 1.Human activities can deliberately or inadvertently alter the equilibrium in ecosystems. How did human activity affect the different ecosystems that we measured? 2.Your data shows a difference in carrying capacities for the differing ecosystems. Describe the factors that affect carrying capacity in each of the habitats that you measured insect diversity in. 3.In general, what are the benefits of having high levels of biodiversity in any ecosystem? 4.How do highly diverse insect populations and communities benefit humans? 5. Was there a difference in the types of insect orders found in the various types of traps? What trends did you notice?