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DR. Paul Njiruh NthakanioTUK Dr. James I. Kanya UoN Dr. John M. Kimani ...KARI Mwea Dr. Raphael Wanjogu MIAD  FUNDED / COLLABORATORS

Dec 14, 2015

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DR. Paul Njiruh NthakanioTUK Dr. James I. Kanya UoN Dr. John M. Kimani ...KARI Mwea Dr. Raphael Wanjogu MIAD FUNDED / COLLABORATORS NATIONAL IRRIGATION BOARB, TUK, UoN, KARI Slide 2 Work started in 2011 under NCST funding. In 2012, we approached NIB which agreed to support the project financially. Project is being conducted in four phases Phase one: Adaptability of breeding rice lines in Kenya at KARI Mwea (In green house and natural conditions):-Done Phase Two: Breeding. Hybridization between Basmatis (370 and 217 ) as paternal parents and PGMS and TGMS rice lines (Obtained from IRRI):- On going. Phase Three: Natural sterility induction in Mombasa; On going. HYBRID RICE PROJECT Slide 3 Phase 4: Production of hybrid rice in Bunyala and Mwea. Publication Kanya J.I., Njiru P.N., Kimani J.N., Wanjogu R.K. (2013): Evaluation of Photoperiod and Thermosensitive Genic Male Sterile Lines For Hybrid Rice Seeds Production in Kenya. International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research (2223-7054 (Print) 2225-3610 (Online) http://www.innspub.net Vol. 3, No. 2, p. 21-39, 2013). Slide 4 1.1 Background : Rice production in Kenya Over 300 tonnes of rice is consumed in Kenya. About 100 tones is locally produced. In Kenya rice is mainly grown in Mwea, Ahero, Bunyala, West Kano, Yala Swamp (MoA, 2011). About 98% of Mwea rice is Basmati. By year 2030 Kenya population is expected to be 60.0million. Rice yield is expected to increase 600% to feed the population. Slide 5 Year2006201320302050 Kenya Population 38m40m60m?? Production (Tones) 64,840100,00?? Area (ha)23,106?? Table1. Source: NCPB and Department of Land, Crops Development and Management, USDA Slide 6 Global Concerns High yielding varieties (HYV) dwarf rice varieties have reached breeding plateau hence global yield. Green revolution technology now need re- innovation. Slide 7 Low yield per hectare of Basmati rice (4.1ha) (Ministry of Agriculture, 2010). Rice consumption is far above production. Rice diseases like blast continue to reduce yields (Wanjogu and Mugambi, 2001). Slide 8 Hybridization has been used to increase rice yield per hectare (Zhang, 2010). High yield is due to heterosis or hybrid vigour. Slide 9 1.5 Measuring heterosis? Mid-Parent (MP) heterosis (F1 performs better than mean of two parents): F1-MP MP X100 Better Parent (BP) heterosis (F1 performs better than better parent): Standard heterosis (F1 performs better than the check variety): F1-BP BP X100 F1-CK CK Slide 10 To make a cross Male and female parents are needed. a) Female need to have non-viable male gametes so that they can be crossed with another variety. b) Male parent: need to have viable pollen. Slide 11 Slide 12 x Female with sterile pollen but fertile ovule. Male parent with fertile pollen Hybrid plant Slide 13 Male emasculation is done to induce m ale sterility, a condition in which the pollen grains are not viable to fertilize normally to set seeds. Methods of male emasculation a) Environmental Genic Male sterility method (EGMS) PGMS photoperiod sensitive genic male sterile lines. Uses long daylight length to induce sterility TGMS - thermosentive genic male sterile lines Uses high temperature to induce sterility Slide 14 b) Cytoplasmic genetic male sterility (CMS) Male sterility is controlled by the interaction of a genetic factor (S) present in the cytoplasm and nuclear gene (s). c) Chemically induced male sterility Male sterility is induced by some chemicals (gametocides). Slide 15 . Based on the discovery of P(T)GMS mutant Male sterility controlled by 1 or 2 pairs of recessive gene(s) Fertile S-line Multiplication Critical Fertility Point Critical Sterility Point Reproductive Upper Limit Reproductive Lower Limit Sterile F1 Seed Production Partial Sterility Model of Sterility / Fertility Expression for TGMS Rice Temperature low high Slide 16 Use hybrid rice technology to raise yield i ) Introduce EGMS in Kenya and test for their adaptability. ii) Develop Basmati with EGMS gene. iii) Produce hybrids by crossing EGMS-Basmati with conventional Basmati. Slide 17 EGMS included; PGMS and TGMS LINES FROM IRRI. These are:- PGMS Lines V1 - IR-73827-23-76-15-7S V3 - IR-75589-31-27-8-33S TGMS Rice V2 - IR-77271-42-5-4-36S. Basmati370 Slide 18 Test for EGMS adaptability Sowing of EGMS in KARI Mwea. Growth at sterility conditions and spikelet fertility assessed. Growth under fertility inducing conditions and spikelet fertility assessed. Slide 19 a b Fig. a and b show EGMS and the greenhouse respectively Slide 20 a b c a). EGMS under sterility inducing conditions, b). sterile panicle and c). Pollen from sterile panicle. Slide 21 a b C a). EGMS rice plant, b). Panicles and c). Pollen from plants grown under fertility inducing conditions respectively with grains. Slide 22 Slide 23 Slide 24 V1 xb370 cross Slide 25 Lane 1: Rader, V1xB217, V1 xB370, V2xB217, V2xB370, V3xB217, VxB370) Slide 26 Ladder V1,V1xB217, B217 Slide 27 Slide 28 Slide 29 Slide 30 Sabaki river Slide 31 S/No New line being testedRemarks 1 V1B217P001 Long awns 2 V13B217P002 Long awns 3 V1B217P003 awnless 4 V1B217P004 Short awns 5 V1B217P005 Long awns 5 V1B217P006 Short awns 6 V1B217P007 Short awns Slide 32 Line IdentityNumber of lines under trial V1XB217 52 V2X21723 V3X21735 V1X37038 V2X 37055 V3X 37055 Slide 33 Slide 34 Slide 35 MIAD NATIONAL COUNCIL FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY M2U00022.MPGM2U00022.MPG Slide 36 THANK YOU