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deform 3d labratory experiment

Apr 16, 2015



its a laboratory experiment for analysis of square ring using deform 3d
analysis of stress and starin for deforming a material.the weaker section identification and meas8res to be taken

4. SQUARE RING4.1. Introduction 4.2. Creating a New Problem 4.3. Creating New Objects 4.4. Meshing the Billet 4.5. Setting Boundary Conditions 4.6. Inter-Object Relationships 4.7. Finishing Setup and Running Simulation 4.8. Post Processing

DEFORM-3D labs

4. SQUARE RING4.1. IntroductionSymmetry should be taken advantage of whenever possible in simulations. Doing so saves computational time and can increase solution accuracy. Furthermore, the smallest possible section that adequately describes the problem should be modeled. In this lab, we will simulate the upsetting of a square ring. The square ring has quite a bit of symmetry that can be taken advantage of. This lab will show you that the deformation of the entire ring can be determined by only modeling 1/16 of its full geometry.

4.2. Creating a New ProblemOn a unix machine, type DEFORM3 to open DEFORM-3D. On a Windows machine, go to the button and select DEFORM-3D from the menu. The DEFORM-3D MAIN window will appear.



Create a new problem by clicking the New Problem

icon. Accept the default setting of . Click

opening a new problem using the DEFORM-3D pre-processor by clicking

to define the location of the new problem 'Under problem home directory'.

In the field for Problem Name, call the problem SquareRing and click DEFORM-3D Pre-processor will open.

. The

4.3. Creating New ObjectsTo simulate the forging of this square ring, only a workpiece and a top die are required - the bottom die is not needed due to symmetry. If Object 1 does not exist, click 1 and 2. If Object 1 does exist, click once to add Object 2. twice to add Objects

Highlight Object 1 in the Object Tree. Click on the

button and change the Object Name and

to Billet and the Object Type to Plastic. Define the billet's geometry by clicking then

. The geometry is located in the file SquareRing_Billet.STL in the and buttons to

DEFORM3D\V6_1\Labs directory. . Use the check the geometry.

Highlight Object 2 in the Object Tree. Click on the to Top Die. Click

button and change the Object Name

and import the file SquareRing_TopDie.STL in the and buttons to

DEFORM3D\V6_1\Labs directory. . Use the check the geometry. View Fit

can be used to fit both objects in the DISPLAY window.

4.4. Meshing the BilletHighlight the Billet in the Object Tree, and then click the Controls. Click on the button to bring up the Meshing

button to see what the surface mesh looks like when using

the default mesh settings. The surface mesh that is created looks good, so click the


DEFORM-3D labs

button to finish the meshing process. When the meshing is complete, the object should have around 5000 elements.

4.5. Setting Symmetry Boundary ConditionsSymmetry is being taken advantage of in this simulation and only 1/16 of the square ring is being modeled. Boundary conditions have to be used on all of the symmetry planes to enforce the correct deformation.

Click on the button to look at the Boundary Condition options. Select the Symmetry plane option and then select the surface that is normal to the X-axis (shown below). The nodes on the surface will get highlighted, and the Plane Information will be listed in the Boundary Condition area.



Click the button to add these boundary conditions. This symmetry plane will now be listed in the BCC list as (1,0,0) which is the normal to the plane. Add the boundary conditions for the other two symmetry planes in the same manner. First select the planes so that the nodes get highlighted and then use the button to add them. When all three symmetry planes have been added, the Boundary Condition area should look like the following:


DEFORM-3D labs

4.6. Inter-Object RelationshipsThe relationship between the Billet and the Top Die needs to be defined. Click the icon to open the INTER-OBJECT window. When asked whether you want to add the default inter-object relationships, click . button. Use the pull-down

Define the friction for the relationship by clicking the menu to select the friction suitable for Cold forming (steel dies).

Back in the INTER-OBJECT window, use the

icon to determine a suitable contact tolerance

(a value of about 0.002" will be calculated) and then click the button to generate contact. If you rotate the objects around, you will see that contact was generated between the two objects. Click to exit the INTER-OBJECT window.

4.7. Finishing Setup and Running SimulationTo finish the problem setup, the following still needs to be done:

1) Highlight the Top Die in the Object Tree and then click the of 1 in/sec in the -Z direction.

button. Define a speed



2) Click the icon in the General page, to define a material for the Billet. Select the material 'AISI-1045, COLD' from the Steel Category. Assign this material to the Billet. 3) Click the icon to open the SIMULATION CONTROL window. Change the Simulation

Title to Square Ring. Click the button and set the Number of Simulation Steps to 30 and set the Step Increment to Save to 2. Set the Primary Die to Top Die. To determine an appropriate step size, select the icon and measure the edge length of a few of the smaller elements in the Billet. An average length of a short edge is around 0.06. Use a Constant Die Displacement per step of 0.02 in/step, which is 1/3 of this small edge length. Click to close the SIMULATION CONTROL window.

Save a keyword file for the problem by clicking the


Click the icon to open the DATABASE GENERATION window. Click to check the problem. The only should deal with Volume Compensation - ignore this for this lab. Generate a database by clicking .

Once the database has been generated, and then use list.

the DATABASE GENERATION window, in the

to return to the MAIN window. Start the simulation by clicking

Monitor the progress of the simulation by looking at the Message file, making sure that the option is checked.

4.8. Post ProcessingWhen the simulation is complete, review the results by clicking the button. In reality this part is a full square ring, so it would be useful to be able to view the entire part in the Post-processor. To create the entire object, the small 1/16 section has to be mirrored about the symmetry planes. Clicking the icon opens the SYMMETRY DEFINITION window.

Use the mouse to click on the symmetry planes on the Billet. Each time this is done a mirror image of the billet will be displayed. Repeat the process until the entire billet is shown. This procedure is illustrated below.


DEFORM-3D labs

Once the complete part is displayed in the DISPLAY window, close the SYMMETRY DEFINITION window. Play through the steps to observe how the square ring deforms as it is compressed. Experiment with viewing the different state variables such as effective strain.

When finished viewing the results of the simulation, use the

icon to return to the MAIN .

window. When you are back in the MAIN window, exit DEFORM-3D by selecting


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