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  • State of the Art Technologyfor Decontamination

    and Dismantlingof Nuclear Facilities

    INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, VIENNA, 1999

    TTEECCHHNNIICCAALL RREEPPOORRTTSS SSEERRIIEESS NNoo.. 395

    ISBN 9201024991ISSN 00741914

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  • STATE OF THE ART TECHNOLOGY FOR

    DECONTAMINATION AND DISMANTLING

    OF NUCLEAR FACILITIES

  • The following States are Members of the International Atomic Energy Agency:

    AFGHANISTANALBANIAALGERIAARGENTINAARMENIAAUSTRALIAAUSTRIABANGLADESHBELARUSBELGIUMBENINBOLIVIABOSNIA AND

    HERZEGOVINABRAZILBULGARIABURKINA FASOCAMBODIACAMEROONCANADACHILECHINACOLOMBIACOSTA RICACOTE DIVOIRECROATIACUBACYPRUSCZECH REPUBLICDEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC

    OF THE CONGODENMARKDOMINICAN REPUBLICECUADOREGYPTEL SALVADORESTONIAETHIOPIAFINLANDFRANCEGABONGEORGIAGERMANYGHANAGREECE

    GUATEMALAHAITIHOLY SEEHUNGARYICELANDINDIAINDONESIAIRAN, ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF IRAQIRELANDISRAELITALYJAMAICAJAPANJORDANKAZAKHSTANKENYAKOREA, REPUBLIC OFKUWAITLATVIALEBANONLIBERIALIBYAN ARAB JAMAHIRIYALIECHTENSTEINLITHUANIALUXEMBOURGMADAGASCARMALAYSIAMALIMALTAMARSHALL ISLANDSMAURITIUSMEXICOMONACOMONGOLIAMOROCCOMYANMARNAMIBIANETHERLANDSNEW ZEALANDNICARAGUANIGERNIGERIANORWAYPAKISTAN

    PANAMAPARAGUAYPERUPHILIPPINESPOLANDPORTUGALQATARREPUBLIC OF MOLDOVAROMANIARUSSIAN FEDERATIONSAUDI ARABIASENEGALSIERRA LEONESINGAPORESLOVAKIASLOVENIASOUTH AFRICASPAINSRI LANKASUDANSWEDENSWITZERLANDSYRIAN ARAB REPUBLICTHAILANDTHE FORMER YUGOSLAV

    REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIATUNISIATURKEYUGANDAUKRAINEUNITED ARAB EMIRATESUNITED KINGDOM OF

    GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND

    UNITED REPUBLICOF TANZANIA

    UNITED STATES OF AMERICAURUGUAYUZBEKISTANVENEZUELAVIET NAMYEMENYUGOSLAVIAZAMBIAZIMBABWE

    The Agencys Statute was approved on 23 October 1956 by the Conference on the Statute of theIAEA held at United Nations Headquarters, New York; it entered into force on 29 July 1957. TheHeadquarters of the Agency are situated in Vienna. Its principal objective is to accelerate and enlarge thecontribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world.

    IAEA, 1999

    Permission to reproduce or translate the information contained in this publication may beobtained by writing to the International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, P.O. Box 100,A-1400 Vienna, Austria.

    Printed by the IAEA in AustriaOctober 1999

    STI/DOC/010/395

  • STATE OF THE ART TECHNOLOGY FOR

    DECONTAMINATION ANDDISMANTLING

    OF NUCLEAR FACILITIES

    TECHNICAL REPORTS SERIES No. 395

    INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCYVIENNA, 1999

  • VIC Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

    State of the art technology for decontamination and dismantling of nuclearfacilities. Vienna : International Atomic Energy Agency, 1999.

    p. ; 24 cm. (Technical reports series, ISSN 00741914 ; no. 395) STI/DOC/010/395ISBN 9201024991Includes bibliographical references.

    1. Nuclear facilitiesDecommissioning. I. International Atomic EnergyAgency. II. Series: Technical reports series (International Atomic EnergyAgency); 395

    VICL 9900230

  • FOREWORD

    The decommissioning of nuclear facilities is a topic of great interest to manyMember States of the IAEA as a result of the large number of older nuclear facilitieswhich are or soon will be retired from service. The first IAEA document in the fieldof decommissioning was published in 1975. Since then, some 30 technicaldocuments, conference proceedings, technical reports and safety series documentshave been published, covering specific aspects of decommissioning such astechnologies, safety and environmental protection, national policies and regulations,characterization of shut down facilities, and design and construction features tofacilitate decommissioning. The majority of reports addressing decommissioningtechnologies were prepared in the early or mid-1990s and mainly reflectedexperiences on small research reactors or pilot facilities.

    After more than a decade of major decommissioning activity, technology hasadvanced considerably and has benefited from parallel development in otherindustrial fields such as electronics, robotics and computing. New decommissioningtechnologies have emerged and are ready to face the challenge of the year 2000 andbeyond, when a number of large commercial facilities will reach the end of theiroperational lifetime and become candidates for decommissioning.

    This report is a review of the current state of the art in decontamination anddismantling technology, including waste management and remote systemstechnology. International input was mainly provided at a Technical CommitteeMeeting held on 1014 November 1997 with the participation of eighteen expertsfrom twelve Member States and one international organization. Further informationwas made available by consultants who met in 1997, 1998 and 1999. The ScientificSecretary throughout the preparation of the report was M. Laraia, Division of NuclearFuel Cycle and Waste Technology.

  • EDITORIAL NOTE

    Although great care has been taken to maintain the accuracy of information containedin this publication, neither the IAEA nor its Member States assume any responsibility forconsequences which may arise from its use.

    The use of particular designations of countries or territories does not imply anyjudgement by the publisher, the IAEA, as to the legal status of such countries or territories, oftheir authorities and institutions or of the delimitation of their boundaries.

    The mention of names of specific companies or products (whether or not indicated asregistered) does not imply any intention to infringe proprietary rights, nor should it beconstrued as an endorsement or recommendation on the part of the IAEA.

  • CONTENTS

    1. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

    2. PURPOSE AND SCOPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

    3. STRUCTURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

    4. FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE SELECTION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A DECOMMISSIONING STRATEGY . . . . . 4

    4.1. National policies and regulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54.2. Cost estimation and funding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104.3. Planning and management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124.4. Long term integrity of buildings and systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164.5. Waste classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174.6. Facilitation of decommissioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

    5. SAFETY AND RADIATION PROTECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

    5.1. International recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195.2. Release criteria for materials, buildings and sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205.3. Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215.4. Typical safety issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

    6. METHODS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR DECOMMISSIONING . . . . 25

    6.1. Radiological and non-radiological characterization . . . . . . . . . . . . 266.2. Decontamination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286.3. Disassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 606.4. Waste management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 936.5. Robotics and remote operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1006.6. Miscellaneous techniques and operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1146.7. Software tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129

    7. GENERAL LESSONS LEARNED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130

    7.1. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1307.2. Characterization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1317.3. Decontamination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131

  • 7.4. Disassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1327.5. Waste management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1327.6. Robotics and remote operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1337.7. Long term integrity of buildings and systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133

    8. CONCLUSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134

    APPENDIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

    REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155

    CONTRIBUTORS TO DRAFTING AND REVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207

  • 1

    1. INTRODUCTION

    The first IAEA document in the field of decommissioning of nuclear facilitieswas published in 1975 [1]. Since then, some 30 technical documents, conferenceproceedings, reports and safety series documents have been published, coveringspecific aspects of decommissioning such as technologies, safety and environmentalprotection, national policies and regulations, monitoring progr

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