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Creative Industries and Creative Communities: Policy Futures? Creative Industries and Creative Communities Institute for Environment, Sustainability and Regeneration Staffordshire University, 11 th November 2009 Calvin Taylor Chair in Cultural Industries

Creative Industries and Creative Communities: Policy Futures?

Dec 30, 2015



Creative Industries and Creative Communities: Policy Futures?. Creative Industries and Creative Communities Institute for Environment, Sustainability and Regeneration Staffordshire University, 11 th November 2009 Calvin Taylor Chair in Cultural Industries - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
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  • Creative Industries and Creative Communities:Policy Futures?Creative Industries and Creative Communities

    Institute for Environment, Sustainability and RegenerationStaffordshire University, 11th November 2009

    Calvin TaylorChair in Cultural

  • Calvin TaylorAcademicHuddersfield Creative Town Initiative (1998-2000)Creative Yorkshire (2000-2002)40+ strategic and practical projects in UK and abroad (RDAs, DCMS, British Council, UNESCO, WIPO)Director, Creative Industries Development Agency (2000-present).From Huddersfield to the world- Design and deliver programs of mentoring, network development, skills and leadership development to business, community, citizens and artistsNew focus creativity and innovation in service deliveryCRECE, Manizales, Colombia 2005

  • The Creative Industries: Are we becoming sceptical?

    Questions about the availability of robust and appropriate evidence

    Questions about the instrumentalisation of culture

    Questions about the social value of creative industries employment

    Are we in danger of throwing out the baby withthe bath-water? Do we need a new stand-point?

    Where might one come from?

  • Four propositions:

    1. Whether we like it or not, mobilising culture and creativity for regeneration or development is an inherently political process and the politics have gone awry

    2. There is a lot to be learned from the UK experience, despite valid critiques of some of the arguments

    3. The arguments about the value of culture and creativity are not dependent on data reality moves faster than data

    4. The future of creative industries, creative communities depends on: knowledge, experience, some data but most important of all - getting the right mix of intervention at the right level

  • Lessons

    So, where have we come from?

  • A growing global industry.late 1990s-early noughties

    Country% GDP/GVA% Employment% GDP Growth paAustralia3.33.85.7Canada5.4-6.5Great Britain7.98.09.0Hungary4.51.25-Latvia4.04.4-New Zealand3.13.6-Taiwan5.93.610.1USA7.85.97.0Sources: DCMS, WIPO, NZ Institute of Economic Research, Stephen Siwek, Allen Consulting Group, Taiwan Institute of Economic Research.

  • Until....A reminder of where we came from?

  • Municipal socialism

    Greater London CouncilGreater London Enterprise BoardPromotion of co-operative enterpriseApplication to arts and cultureSocial democratic cultural policyConnecting culture to enterpriseCommunity development objectives

  • Local cultural production strategies: Sheffield, Red Tape Studios and the Cultural Industries QuarterInfra-structure strategiesAttention to working environmentsBasic clustering modelCulture intrinsic to urban development

  • This cultural policy is also an economic policy. Culture creates wealth. Broadly defined, our cultural industries generate 13 billion dollars a year. Culture employs. Around 336,000 Australians are employed in culture-related industries. Culture adds value, it makes an essential contribution to innovation, marketing and design. It is a badge of our industry. The level of our creativity substantially determines our ability to adapt to new economic imperatives. It is a valuable export in itself and an essential accompaniment to the export of other commodities. It attracts tourists and students. It is essential to our economic success

    Creative Nation: A Commonwealth Cultural Policy, Australia, 1994

    Available at: need to be shy about connecting culture to wealth creation

  • Creative entrepreneurship: Richard Caves: 7 economic properties

    The nobody knows anything principleThe art for art sake principle (craft, skill, virtuosity)The motley crew principle (project orientated with flexible, inter-changeable staff (Film industry one of the earliest, advertising, but also now more traditional art-forms)Product infinite variety the batch principle, short production runs, customisation, personalisation flexible-specialisation (Piore and Sabel)A List/B List principle personalised branding, small differences in skill mean big differences in economic returnThe time flies principle time does literally mean moneyThe ars longa principle some works achieve/maintain value long after their production allowing economic rents to be derived from them.

    See Richard Caves (2000) Contracts between art and commerce.

    Also see Henry, C (2007) Entrepreneurship in the creative industries: international perspectives (especially Chapters 4 and 7)

    1. Encouraged focused attention on need for intelligence and knowledge

  • The creative, or is it creative economy..?1. Importance of definitions and data

  • Cycle of Creativity: Wood, P & Taylor, C Big ideas for a small town: the Huddersfield creative town initiative, Local economy, Vol. 19 (4)Models I1. Understand the value of a localities cultural and creative attributes

  • Huddersfields creative industries: a swot analysis (2002)

  • Models II: The Creative Industries ClusterInter-linkagesEmbeddednessPolicy levers

  • Levels of policy leverageSource: Anamaria Wills, Creative Industries Development Agency

  • Simple and transformational Shanghai (2006)Workspace expansion programmeExternal marketing created in ChinaLocal production clusters

    NB: Long-term!

  • Simple and transformational: Ciclovia, Bogota, Colombia1. The most impressive exercise in urban creativity

  • Tactical and practical: Tanzania (2005)1. Recognising fragility, delicacy

  • Tactical and Practical:

    WorkspacesRegenerationCreative skillsCultural expressionEnterpriseEconomic developmentSocial inclusionCity marketing

    The Storey Creative Industries CentreLancaster (2009)

  • Complex and InvisibleFactory 798, Beijing, China, 20071. The beginnings of a grassroots culture of creative production

  • Complex and Invisible: Access-space

    Free media labOpen access learning communityFrom e-consumers to digital producers

    Sheffield1. Re-designing creative economics

  • Creativity re-discovering culture?Beijing, 2007

  • Some referencesCunningham, S. (2004) The creative industries after cultural policy: a genealogy and some possible preferred futures. International journal of cultural studies, Vol 7(1), 105-115.Henry, C. (ed.) (2007). Entrepreneurship in the creative industries: An international perspective. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Kong, L. & OConnor, J. (eds.) (2009) Creative economies, creative cities: Asian-european perspectives. Dordrecht: Springer.Oakley, K. (2004) Not so cool britannia: the role of the creative industries in economic development. International journal of cultural studies, Vol7(1) 67-77.Scott, A.J. (2005). Creative cities: conceptual issues and policy questions. Paper presented at OECD International Conference on City Competitiveness, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain 3-4 March 2005.Wood, P. and Taylor, C. (2004). Big ideas for a small town: the Huddersfield creative town initiative. Local economy, Vol. 19 (4).

  • Thank you!