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Computer Programs and Programming Languages

Jan 05, 2016

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Computer Programs and Programming Languages. What is a computer program ?. Set of instructions that directs computer to perform tasks. Programming language —used to write instructions. Computer Programs and Programming Languages. What are low-level languages and high-level languages?. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Computer Programs and Programming LanguagesWhat is a computer program?Set of instructions that directs computer to perform tasksProgramming languageused to write instructions

  • Computer Programs and Programming LanguagesWhat are low-level languages and high-level languages?High-level languageLow-level languageMachine-dependent runs only on one type of computerOften machine-independent can run on many different types of computersMachine and assembly languages are low-level

  • Low-Level LanguagesWhat is machine language?Only language computer directly recognizes

  • Low-Level LanguagesWhat is assembly language?Instructions made up of symbolic instruction codes, meaningful abbreviations and codesSource program contains code to be converted to machine language

  • Procedural LanguagesWhat is a procedural language?Most widely used are BASIC, COBOL, and CUses series of English-like words to write instructionsOften called third-generation language (3GL)Programmer writes instructions that tell computer what to accomplish and how to do it

  • Procedural LanguagesWhat is a compiler?Program that converts entire source program into machine language before executing it

  • Procedural LanguagesWhat is an interpreter?Program that translates and executes one program code statement at a timeDoes not produce object program

  • Procedural LanguagesWhat is BASIC?Designed for use as simple, interactive problem-solving languageBeginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code

  • Procedural LanguagesWhat is COBOL?Designed for business applicationsEnglish-like statements make code easy to read, write, and maintainCOmmon Business-Oriented Language

  • Procedural LanguagesWhat is C?Powerful language originally designed to write system softwareRequires professional programming skills

  • Object-Oriented Programming LanguagesWhat is an object-oriented programming (OOP) language?Used to implement object-oriented designMajor benefit is ability to reuse existing objectsEvent-drivenchecks for and responds to set of events

    C++ and Java are complete object-oriented languagesObject is item that contains data and procedures that act on dataEvent is action to which program responds

  • Object-Oriented Programming LanguagesWhat is C++?Includes all elements of C, plus additional features for working with object-oriented conceptsUsed to develop database and Web applications

  • Object-Oriented Programming LanguagesWhat is Java?Developed by Sun MicrosystemsSimilar to C++ but uses just-in-time (JIT) compiler to convert source code into machine code

  • Object-Oriented Programming LanguagesWhat is a visual programming language?Often used in RAD (rapid application development) environmentSometimes called fifth-generation languageProvides visual or graphical interface for creating source code

  • Object-Oriented Programming LanguagesWhat is Visual Studio 2005?Suite of visual programming languages and RAD tools.NET is set of technologies that allows program to run on InternetVisual Basic 2005 is used to build complex object-based programs

  • Object-Oriented Programming LanguagesWhat is Delphi?Powerful visual programming toolIdeal for large-scale enterprise and Web applications

  • Object-Oriented Programming LanguagesWhat is PowerBuilder?Another powerful visual programming toolBest suited for Web-based and large-scale object-oriented applications

  • Nonprocedural Languages and Program Development ToolsWhat are nonprocedural languages and program development tools?Nonprocedural Language The programmer writes English-like instructions or interacts with a visual environment to retrieve data from files or a databaseProgram Development Tools User-friendly programs designed to assist both programmers and users in creating programs

  • Nonprocedural Languages and Program Development ToolsWhat is RPG (Report Program Generator)?Nonprocedural language used for generating reports, performing computations, and updating files

  • Nonprocedural Languages and Program Development ToolsWhat is a fourth-generation language (4GL)?Nonprocedural language that allows access to data in databasePopular 4GL is SQL, query language that allows users to manage data in relational DBMS

  • Nonprocedural Languages and Program Development ToolsWhat is an application generator?Program that creates source code or machine code from specificationConsists of report writer, form, and menu generatorForm provides areas for entering data

  • Nonprocedural Languages and Program Development ToolsWhat is Visual Basic for Applications (VBA)?Macro programming languageMacroseries of statements used to automate tasks

  • Web Page DevelopmentWhat is HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)?Used to create Web pages

  • Web Page DevelopmentHow are special effects and interactive elements added to a Web page?

  • Web Page DevelopmentWhat is the common gateway interface (CGI)?Communications standard that defines how Web server communicates with outside sourcesStep 3. When the user submits a request, it is sent to the CGI program. The CGI program contacts the database and requests information for the user. In this case, it looks for a movie titled The Wizard of Oz.CGI scriptprogram that manages sending and receiving across CGI

  • Web Page DevelopmentWhat is a scripting language?Typically easy to learn and useJavaScriptadds dynamic content and interactive elements to Web pageVBScript (Visual Basic, Scripting Edition)adds intelligence and interactivity to Web pagePerl (Practical Extraction and Report Language)has powerful text processing capabilities

  • Web Page DevelopmentWhat is dynamic HTML (DHTML)?Allows developers to include more graphical interest and interactivity in Web page

  • Web Page DevelopmentWhat are XHTML, XML, and WML?XHTML (Extensible HTML) enables Web sites to be displayed more easily on microbrowsersXML (Extensible Markup Language) allows developers to create customized tagsWML (Wireless Markup Language) allows developers to design pages specifically for microbrowsersIncludes features of HTML and XMLUses wireless application protocol (WAP), standard that specifies how wireless devices communicate with WebServer sends entire record to client, enabling client to do much of processing without going back to server

  • Web Page DevelopmentWhat is Web page authoring software?Creates sophisticated Web pages without using HTMLGenerates HTML

  • Multimedia Program DevelopmentWhat is multimedia authoring software?Combines text, graphics, animation, audio, and video into interactive presentationUsed for computer-based training (CBT) and Web-based training (WBT)Software includes Toolbook, Authorware, and Director

  • Other Programming LanguagesWhat are other available programming languages?ALGOLADAAPLFORTHLISPHYPERTALKFORTRANLOGOPASCALMODULA-2PILOTSMALLTALKPROLOGPL/I

  • The Program Development CycleWhat is the program development cycle?Steps programmers use to build computer programsProgramming teamGroup of programmers working on program

  • Step 1 Analyze RequirementsWhat is involved in analyzing the requirements?Review requirementsMeet with systems analyst and usersIdentify input, output, processing, and data componentsIPO chartIdentifies programs inputs, outputs, and processing steps

  • Step 2 Design SolutionWhat is involved in designing the solution?Two approachesDevise solution algorithm, step-by-step procedure to solve problem

  • Step 2 Design SolutionWhat is a hierarchy chart?Shows program modules graphicallyAlso called structure chart

  • Step 2 Design SolutionWhat is object-oriented (OO) design?Programmer packages data and procedure into single unit, an objectObjects are grouped into classesClass diagram represents hierarchical relationships of classes graphically

  • Step 2 Design SolutionWhat is a sequence control structure?Control structure that shows actions following each other in orderControl structure depicts logical order of program instructions

  • Step 2 Design SolutionWhat is a selection control structure?Tells program which action to take, based on a certain conditionTwo typesCase control structureIf-then-else control structureyields one of two possibilities: true or false

  • Step 2 Design SolutionWhat is a case control structure?Yields one of three or more possibilities

  • Step 2 Design SolutionWhat is a repetition control structure?Enables program to perform one or more actions repeatedlyDo-while control structurerepeats as long as condition is trueDo-until control structurerepeats until condition is true

  • Step 2 Design SolutionWhat is a program flowchart?Graphically shows logic in solution algorithm

  • Step 2 Design SolutionWhat is an example of a flowchart?

  • Step 2 Design SolutionWhat is flowcharting software?Used by programmers to develop flowcharts

  • Step 2 Design SolutionWhat is pseudocode?Uses condensed form of English to convey program logic

  • Step 3 Validate DesignWhat is involved in validating the design?Check program design for accuracyLogic error design flaw that causes inaccurate resultsTest data sample data that mimics real data that program will processProgrammer checks logic for correctness and attempts to uncover logic errorsDesk check programmers use test data to step through logicStructured walkthrough programmer explains logic of algorithm while programming team steps through program logic

  • Step 4 Implement DesignWhat is implementation?Writing the code that translates the design into a program