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Compilation of Drug Abuse 1

Sep 06, 2014

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Table of ContentsIntroduction .................................................................................................................................................. 2 1.1 What is a Drug? ................................................................................................................................... 3 1.2 Usage of Drugs .................................................................................................................................... 3 1.3 Drug Addiction .................................................................................................................................... 4 Factors Influencing the Drug-taking Behaviors ............................................................................................. 5 2.1 Why Some Individuals Use Drugs while Some Do Not?...................................................................... 5 2.2 Risk Factors ......................................................................................................................................... 6 Effects of Drug Abuse.................................................................................................................................... 8 3.1 On Individual ....................................................................................................................................... 8 3.2 On Family and Friends....................................................................................................................... 10 3.3 Society ............................................................................................................................................... 12 Situation in Malaysia ................................................................................................................................... 13 4.1 Statistics of Drug Users in Malaysia .................................................................................................. 16 4.2 Drug User Profile ............................................................................................................................... 16 4.3 Type Of Drugs Used 2006 ............................................................................................................... 16 4.4 Number of Drug Users Detected According to States: (2006 and 2005) .......................................... 17 Drug Abuse Prevention in Malaysia ............................................................................................................ 18 5.1 Recent Changes in Prevention of Drug Abuse .................................................................................. 18 5.2 Education .......................................................................................................................................... 19 5.3 Mass Media Campaign ...................................................................................................................... 19 5.4 Enforcement of Law .......................................................................................................................... 20 Conclusion ................................................................................................................................................... 20 Reference List.............................................................................................................................................. 22

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IntroductionMalaysia, with its symbolic figure of skyscrapers such as Kuala Lumpur City Center (KLCC) and being a multi-racial country that has been living harmoniously despite having different skin colors and of course in terms or religious beliefs, have often claims to be a welldeveloped Muslim country. According to Abdar Rahman Koya (2004), of all Muslim countries, it is the most developed in terms of standard of living and health and to a certain extent has had a home grown industrialization not matched by any other Muslim-governed nation state. Yet, it has also faced the same problem that comes with the Western-style development. One of its same problems is drug abuse among its young people, the younger generation between the ages of 15 to 39. Today, in our modern globalised world, drugs more than ever are affecting our lives. No matter where you are, the presence of drug abuse is there at all times as we are surrounded by mass media such as television and newspapers. We are continuously being bombarded with news about drug-related areas whereby illegal drug dealers are being arrested, involvement of drugs with the celebrities and the athletes, drugs being found at our borders and of course in the town and within the country itself. Try walking to a dark alley and you might find a spot where all the drug addicts will be gathered to do their illegal activities.

The abuse of illicit drugs remains a serious problem in Malaysia. Over the decade there has been a drastic increase in illegal drugs used. In order to save our younger generations from this entire crisis, first we need to understand it all and from there, only we can find a solution and take actions. In this research report, the issue of drug abuse in Malaysia will be analyzed and the purpose is to develop a further understanding of the issue and then find a possible solution so that this crisis will be solved before it is too late.

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1.1 What is a Drug?Well, first of all, what is a drug? A chemical substance that, when taken into the body alters the structure or functioning of the body in some way, excluding those nutrients considered to be related to normal functioning. (Charles F.Levinthal, 2010) Drugs are chemicals that change the way a person's body works. Some drugs help you feel better, but drugs also can harm you. (What you Should Know about Drugs, 2010) In pharmacology, a drug is "a chemical substance used in the treatment, cure, prevention, or diagnosis of disease or used to otherwise enhance physical or mental well-being." (Drug, 2007) A drug, broadly speaking, is any substance that, when absorbed into the body of a living organism, alters normal bodily function. (World Health Organization (WHO) Expert committee on Drug Dependence, Sixteenth report, 1969)

1.2 Usage of DrugsDrugs can be used for many reasons. It all depends on their attitude towards drugs and also drug-taking behavior across cultures and societies. Depending on the intention of an individual towards drugs, it can be classified into instrumental and recreational use. By instrumental use, it means that a person is taking a drug with a specific socially approved goal in mind. It also refers to the motivation of a drug user who takes drug for a specific purpose other than getting high. The user may be taking drugs in order to stay awake longer, fall asleep faster or perhaps even recover from an illness. Recovery from an illness an achieving some reduction in pain is usually goals that are being unquestioned as it is considered as legitimate in our society. (Charles F.Levinthal, 2010) On the other hand, recreational use is the use of a drug with the intention of creating or enhancing recreational experience. (Siegel, Ronald K, 2005) It also means that the person is taking the drug for the purpose of acquiring the effect of the drug itself and the main motivation is to enjoy a pleasurable feeling or positive state of mind or in order words to get high. (Charles F.Levinthal, 2010)

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Drug abuse is typically applied to cases in which a licit or illicit drug is used in ways that produce some form of physical, mental or social impairment and the main motivational for individuals involved in drug abuse is for recreational usage. (Charles F.Levinthal, 2010) Drug abuse can also be defined as compulsive, excessive and worst, self damaging usage of habit forming drugs or substances. It may also lead to an addiction or dependence and thus serious physiological injury such as damage to kidneys, liver or psychological harm such as hallucinations, dysfunctional behavior patterns and last but not least death. Drug abuse can also be called substance abuse. (Drugs Rehab Org, 2002)

1.3 Drug AddictionDrug abuse can also lead to drug addiction. According to the latest evidence from human and animal studies (yes, even animals can become addicted to drugs) through Malaysian Psychiatric Association, addiction is a chronic disease, just like diabetes or hypertension. Drug addiction is a dependence on an illegal drug or a medication. When a person is addicted, he or she will not have the ability to control the usage of drug and will be determined to continue using the drug despite knowing and realizing that it caused a lot more harm to the body. Drug addiction can also cause an intense or extreme craving for the drug. Quitting is an option that the person may want to take but unfortunately, it will not be an easy process when it is being done all alone. Something that is started as a casual activity leads to drug addiction and thus causes serious, long term consequences including problems with physical and mental health, relationships, employment and the law. (Mayo Clinic, Drug Addiction, 2011)

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Factors Influencing the Drug-taking BehaviorsUnder the pressure of the cares and sorrows of our mortal condition, men have at all times, and in all countries, called in some physical aid to their moral consolations -- wine, beer, opium, brandy, or tobacco. Edmund Burke Substances such as drugs, alcohol and tobacco are being abused by people for varied and complicated reasons and it is now clear enough that our society is paying a significant cost. The results of all these actions can be seen clearly in our hospitals and emergency departments through direct damage to health by involving with the crisis that we are all facing which are substance abuse and its link to physical trauma. Jails and prisons also face the strong connection betw