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Community-based breeding programs for adapted sheep breeds in Ethiopia

Jan 19, 2015

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Presented by Mirkena, T., Duguma, G., Haile, A., Tibbo, M., Okeyo, A.M., Rischkowsky, B. Wurzinger, M. and Sölkner, J. at the ILRI-EIAR-SLU Workshop on Sharing Research Results on Trypanotolerance in Indigenous Cattle Breeds and Experiences of Community Based Breed Improvement of Indigenous Sheep in Ethiopia—A Road Map for Implementation and Future R4D, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 15-16 November 2011.

  • 1. Community-based Breeding Programs for Adapted Sheep Breeds in Ethiopia Mirkena, T., Duguma, G.,Haile, A., Tibbo, M., Okeyo, A.M., Rischkowsky, B. Wurzinger, M., Slkner,J.ILRI-EIAR-SLU Workshop on Sharing Research Results on Trypanotolerance in Indigenous Cattle Breeds and Experiences of Community Based Breed Improvement of Indigenous Sheep in EthiopiaA Road Map for Implementation and Future R4D Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 15-16 November 2011

2. Ethiopia

  • Human population:
    • 73.9 million(2.6%/yr)
  • Area:1,221,480 km 2(density ~ 71 persons/km 2 )
  • AEZs: ~18 major types
    • Highly contrasting
    • Influenced by altitude (126 m.b.s.l. to 4620 m.a.s.l.)
  • Huge biodiversity

SpeciesMillion heads Breeds Cattle47.57 26 Sheep 26.12 9 Goats 21.71 12 3. Introduction

  • Limitations to genetic improvement:
    • No breeding policy
    • No working breeding plans
    • Small flock size per household
    • Mobility (pastoral areas)
    • Illiteracy
    • Lack of identification & recording schemes
    • Poor infrastructure
    • Ill-functioning public institutions

4. Objectives

  • General:
    • To improve productivity and income of smallholder and pastoral sheep producers
  • Specific:
    • To identify sheep breeding objective traits of smallholder farmers and pastoralists
    • To model alternative breeding plans (schemes) for four indigenous sheep breeds
    • To facilitate implementation of selected schemes
    • To develop methodological framework for community-based breeding programs
    • Identify constraints to marketing
    • Assess impact of genetic improvement on the environment

5. Study areas, breeds and communities

  • Four location in different States:
    • Afar, Bonga, Horro, Menz
    • 4 indigenous sheep breeds
    • 2 communities per location each with 60 households

1 2 3 4 1 = Afar 2 = Bonga 3 = Horro 4 = Menz 6. Afar

  • Altitude: 565-1542 m.a.s.l
  • Hot to warm arid plains
  • Pastoral/agro-pastoral
      • Large herd/flock sizes
      • Species mix
      • Communal rangelands no private land
      • Seasonal feed shortage
      • Controlled breeding
  • Utility: Milk, meat

7. Bonga

  • Altitude:1070-3323 m.a.s.l
  • Wet, humid
  • Mixed crop-livestock
      • Animals mostly tethered (private grazing land; no communal grazing)
      • Breeding somewhat controlled
      • Ample feed resources
  • Utility: Meat

8. Horro

  • Altitude: 1450-3210 m.a.s.l
  • Wet, humid
  • Mixed crop-livestock
    • Ample feed (if crop residues & aftermaths are utilized)
    • Grazing area:communal + private
  • Utility: meat

9. Menz

  • Altitude:2500-3563m.a.s.l
  • Tepid, cool highland
    • Heavy ecological degradation
    • Shift in production system
    • Sheep-barley
  • Utility: meat, wool

10. Steps to design & implement community based BP 11. 11/21/11 Afar Bonga Horro Menz Scheme 2 Scheme 1 12. Implementation

  • June July, 2009
    • Base line information: flock census live weight, dentition
    • Animal identification: 7097 animals
    • Preparation of recording formats & record books
    • Enumerators & household training

Number of initial registration& births (up to August 2011) Afar Bonga Horro Menz Total Initial 1364 1074 2248 2411 7097 Births ?? 957 2574 2805 6336 Total 1364+ 2031 4822 5216 13433 13. Young rams selection procedures

  • Performance records:
    • weight (birth, weaning, 6 and 12 months) all breeds
    • milk yield (Afar),
    • wool yield(Menz) by households and technicians
    • Number weaned (all breeds); twinning (Bonga & Horro)
  • Ram selection:
    • candidates are ranked based recorded information
    • physical soundness (tail type, coat color, horns, conformation and general appearance)
  • A research team and a community committee jointly screen the candidates

14. Young rams selectionRound of selection Afar Bonga Horro Menz 1&2 25 29 27 50 Grand total 3 16 24 16 26 4 not done 33 25 42 5 - - 18 - Total 41 86 86 118 331 15. PRELIMINARY RESULTS parameter Bonga Horro Mehal Meda Molale Sex N Mean SD N Mean SD N Mean SD N Mean SD BWt (kg) M 521 3.600.75 899 3.161.02 821 2.260.45 506 2.340.51 F 452 3.450.75 901 3.131.01 835 2.200.44 423 2.330.52 3Wt (kg) M 295 16.483.39 474 13.152.55 679 11.732.42 483 9.092.09 F 265 15.143.30 469 12.812.55 668 11.462.34 400 9.102.07 6Wt (kg) M 61 21.453.92 122 18.342.97 576 14.253.45 400 11.822.46 F 76 19.734.47 102 16.812.64 581 13.793.09 324 11.612.32 12Wt (kg) M - - - - 211 19.212.20 197 15.642.32 F - - - - 581 19.132.46 169 15.232.28 PreADG (g) M 284 14040 405 10727 679 10629 482 7423 F 247 12838 392 10126 666 10328 399 7524 PostADG (g) M 56 30278 110 6751 576 2625 399 3025 F 65 6380 87 5740 581 2625 321 2722 6GFW (g) M - - - - 70 881427 - - F - - - - 64 717481 - - LI (days) - 197 27372 490 26061 532 26571 382 26265 16. Preliminary results trends (male lambs) Parameter Year Horro (Lakku) Bonga (Boqa) Menz (Molale) N Mean SD N Mean SD N Mean SD 3Wt (kg) 2009 66 14.132.35 82 16.433.88 159 9.532.23 2010 187 12.192.16 82 16.672.94 318 8.912.03 2011 32 15.511.82 15 16.404.64 11 9.25 6Wt (kg) 2009 30 19.432.96 28 23.21 143 11.62.53 2010 59 18.162.06 19 20.21 263 11.972.15 2011 - - - 12Wt (kg) 2009 - - 114 15.212.35 2010 - - 85 16.212.10 2011 - - - 17. Preliminary results trends (female lambs) Parameter Year Horro (Lakku) Bonga (Boqa) Menz (Molale) N Mean SD N Mean SD N Mean SD 3Wt (kg) 2009 59 13.842.21 81 14.553.97 134 9.602.21 2010 203 12.132.20 93 15.912.60 264 8.911.96 2011 43 15.951.81 8 17.373.11 5 6.941.39 6Wt (kg) 2009 25 15.202.73 36 19.814.88 116 11.402.38 2010 47 16.921.73 22 21.362.98 211 11.762.28 2011 - - - - - - 12Wt (kg) 2009 - - - - 102 14.822.39 2010 - - - - 69 15.911.95 2011 - - - - - - 18. Related interventions

  • Animal health: vaccination and treatment
  • Forage development forage seeds and seedlings
  • Farmers training in animal health & feed management
  • Breeders association/cooperatives formation
  • Distribution of seedlings of high-value highland fruits to interested members (Horro & Menz)
  • Culled rams fattening demo (Menz + Horro)

19. Challenges

  • Illiteracy and lack of awareness
    • e.g. ear tagging problem in Afar & Bonga
      • Afar: traditional animal identification (branding of unique pattern) that is specific to each clan and households within a clan
      • Bonga: there was very limited interaction with research system

20. Challenges

  • Early disposal of fast growing lambs
  • Record quality
  • Follow-up by research teams
  • Feedback mechanisms to farmers
  • Sheep holding/weighing structures
      • Holding yards
      • portable tripods

21. Challenges

  • Problems associated with pasture lands :
      • No protection/ improvement activities
      • dwindling from time to time
      • Invaded byProsopis juliflorain Afar
  • Recurrent droughts- in Afar and Menz
  • Mobility of pastoral flocks making monitoring and recording unachievable

22. Future plans Sheep Meat Value Chain (CRP3.7) 23.

  • Proposal submitted to ADA for 2 ndphase funding
    • Optimization and out-scaling of community based breeding programs
    • Assessment of socio-economic feasibility of community based bre
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