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Chapter 24 Lecture Outline See PowerPoint Image Slides

Dec 31, 2015

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Chapter 24 Lecture Outline See PowerPoint Image Slides for all figures and tables pre-inserted into PowerPoint without notes. Exchanging Materials: Basic Principles. Large, multicellular organisms need a way to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the cells deep within tissues. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Chapter 24

    Lecture Outline

    See PowerPoint Image Slidesfor all figures and tables pre-inserted intoPowerPoint without notes.

    Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

  • Exchanging Materials: Basic PrinciplesLarge, multicellular organisms need a way to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the cells deep within tissues.Several organ systems help deliver oxygen, nutrients to and remove wastes from cells.Circulatory, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, and excretory systems

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  • The Cardiovascular SystemPumps blood around the bodyConsists ofBloodFluid tissue that transports materials and heatThe heartA muscular pump that forces fluid through the bodyVesselsPipes that move blood through the bodyArteries carry blood from the heart to the tissues.Capillaries are small vessels that carry blood through tissues.Veins carry blood from the tissues to the heart.

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  • The Nature of BloodConsists of Several types of cellsCalled the formed elementsPlasmaContains different kinds of dissolved molecules

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  • Formed ElementsRed blood cellsLack a nucleusContain hemoglobinTransport oxygen and carbon dioxideCarbonic anhydrase converts carbon dioxide to bicarbonate that can be dissolved in the blood.Anemia is a lack of oxygen resulting from a lack of red blood cells.

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  • Formed ElementsWhite blood cellsAlso called leukocytesLack hemoglobinHave a nucleusInclude basophils, eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytesDefend the body against microorganisms, damaging chemicals, and cancer

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  • Formed ElementsPlateletsNot whole cellsFragments of white blood cellsImportant in blood clottingCollect at the site of a woundRelease clotting factorsInitiate a sequence of reactions that trap blood cells to form a clotEventually the clots (scabs) are replaced by healthy, living tissue.

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  • PlasmaLiquid part of the bloodContainsSalts that serve to Buffer and maintain blood pHMaintain osmotic balanceKeeps the tissue fluid between cells at the right solute concentration so that it flows into the capillaries, maintaining blood pressure

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  • PlasmaProteinsAntibodies and other immune proteinsAlbumin to maintain osmotic balanceTransports bilirubin from degraded RBCs to the liverAccumulated bilirubin can cause jaundiceNutrientsAmino acidsSugarsLipoproteins carry fats and cholesterolHormones

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  • Composition of Blood

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  • Functions of BloodTransports molecules, cells Oxygen, carbon dioxideNutrientsWaste productsImmune cells and antibodiesHormonesRegulates temperatureIf body temperature is too high, blood will be shunted to the body surface to radiate heat.If body temperature is too low, blood will be shunted to the body core to conserve heat.

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  • The HeartPumps the bloodGenerates the pressure necessary to move blood through vesselsBlood must flow to move nutrients to tissues and waste away from tissues.Heart must repeatedly contract in order to keep blood moving.

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  • Mammalian HeartHas four chambers with four valvesTwo atria and two ventriclesVentricles Are larger and more muscularForce blood through the arteries to the bodyThe aorta and pulmonary artery flow out of the ventricles.AtriaAre smaller with thinner wallsPump blood into the ventricles

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  • Mammalian HeartAtria and ventricles are separated by atrioventricular valves. Valves ensure that the blood only flows in one direction.Semilunar valves in the aorta and pulmonary arteriesAct as check valves to prevent blood from flowing back into the ventricles when they relaxDamaged valves causes inefficient pumping.Detected as heart murmurs because some of the blood is being pushed backward

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  • The Anatomy of the Heart

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  • Mammalian HeartTwo different sides have different jobsThe right atrium receives blood from the body.The right ventricle pumps the blood to the lungs.Called pulmonary circulationAllows for the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the lungsThe left atrium receives blood from the lungs.The left ventricle pumps blood to all other parts of the body.Called systemic circulationAllows for the delivery of oxygen, nutrient, and waste exchange in the tissues

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  • Pulmonary and Systemic Circulation

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  • Blood VesselsThe tubes that transport blood from one place to another in the bodyTypes of blood vesselsArteriesVeinsCapillaries

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  • ArteriesCarry blood away from the heartContraction of the ventricles increases the pressure in the arteries.Called systolic blood pressureRelaxation of the ventricles decreases the pressure in the arteries.Called diastolic blood pressure

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  • ArteriesBlood pressure readings include both types of blood pressure.Systolic/diastolic120/80Have thick, muscular, and elastic wallsCan stretch when pressure increasesBranch into arterioles to take blood throughout the body

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  • VeinsCollect blood from the capillaries and return it to the heartHave very low pressureWalls not very muscular

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  • VeinsHave valves to prevent backflowDysfunctional valves cause varicose veins.Contraction of leg muscles aids in pushing blood through veins.Sitting or standing for a long time can cause pooling of blood in the feet.Causes swellingCan cause fainting because the brain doesnt get enough blood

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  • The Structure of Arteries, Veins, and Capillaries

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  • CapillariesTiny vessels, one-cell thickRBC go through capillaries single fileHave thin wallsOnly one-cell thickAllows materials to diffuse into and out of the bloodAllows liquid to be exchanged between the blood and tissue fluidAre numerousAll cells in the body have a capillary nearby.Flow of blood through capillaries is slowAllows time for diffusion and fluid exchange

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  • Capillaries

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  • The Lymphatic SystemA second circulatory systemA collection of thin-walled vesselsCalled lymph vesselsBranch throughout body and lymph organsFunctionsMoves fat from digestive system to blood streamTransports excess fluid back to cardiovascular systemCarries immune cells

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  • The Lymphatic System

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  • The Lymphatic SystemLymphFluid tissue that is moved through the lymph organs via lymph vesselsEmptied into large veins near the heartMoved through lymph vessels by muscle contractionEdemaAccumulation of fluid in tissues

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  • Lymph OrgansLymph nodesFilter lymphContain large numbers of white blood cellsRemove microorganisms and foreign particles from the lymphWhen an infection is active, the lymph nodes enlargeTonsilsNear the throatContain the tonsils and the adenoidsFilter pathogens that enter through the mouth and nose

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  • Lymph OrgansSpleenContains a large number of white blood cellsFilters the bloodCleans out pathogens and dying RBCsLocated just below the diaphragmThymusProduces WBCs called T-lymphocytesMost active in childrenShrinks as one ages

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  • Lymph OrgansRed bone marrowFound in childrens bonesReduced in adult bonesProduces RBCs, WBCs, and platelets

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  • The Respiratory SystemMoves air into and out of the bodyLungsAllow gas exchange between air and bloodTracheaA tube that carries air into and out of the lungBranches into bronchi then into bronchiolesBronchioles end in alveoliAlveoli are small sacs where gas exchange takes placeAir-transport pathwayIncludes the nose, mouth, and throatPulls air into the trachea

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  • Respiratory Anatomy

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  • Breathing System RegulationBreathing is the process of moving air into and out of the lungs.Involves the diaphragmA large muscle that separates the chest cavity (containing lungs) from the abdominal cavityWhen contracted, the diaphragm moves downCreates negative pressure in the chest cavityPulls air into the lungsWhen relaxed, the diaphragm resumes its normal positionGenerates positive pressure in the chest cavityPushes air out of the lungs

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  • Breathing Movements

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  • Breathing During ExerciseExercise increases the bodys demand for oxygen.Requires faster gas exchange in lungsAccomplished by Increased breathing rateCan involve greater diaphragm contraction to pull in more air

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  • Breathing During ExerciseCan also involve contraction of abdominal muscles to fully empty the lungsThis happens when carbon dioxide concentration increases in the blood and blood pH.Sensed by brain, then brain causes increased contraction of the diaphragm and intercostal musclesIncreased air exchange volume in each breath

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  • The Control of Breathing Rate

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  • Lung FunctionLungs are specialized so that blood and air can come very close together.This facilitates gas exchange between them.Blood flows through capillaries in the lungs that come very close to the air in the alveoli.Oxygen and carbon dioxide cross the alveoli and capillary walls.Therefore, the surface area of the alveoli must be very large (collectively).This is why there are so many alveoli.

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  • The Association of Capillaries with Alveoli

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  • Lung FunctionGas exchange is facilitated by blood and air movement.Blood enters the lungs high in carbon dioxide and low in oxygen.Air enters the lungs high in oxygen and low in carbon dioxide.Therefore, carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood to the air and oxygen diffuses from the air to the blood.

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  • Disrupting Lung FunctionInterfering with blood flow or gas exchange will reduce the efficiency of the organism.A poorly pumping heart reduces the amount of blood that is sent to the lungs.Constriction of bronchioles (asthma) reduc