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Chapter 1 - Introduction.ppt

Nov 02, 2015

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  • BKC3533 OSH IN CHEMICAL INDUSTRIESazizanramli2010fkksa

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  • azizanramli2010fkksaPHILOSOPHY OF ACCIDENT PREVENTIONProper SelectionProper AttitudeReporting unsafe conditionSafe work practices

    Use of PPE

    First aid

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  • azizanramli2010fkksaPHILOSOPHY OF ACCIDENT PREVENTIONManagementPersonal & job factorsSubstandard practicesPermit the existence ofPermit the existence ofPermit the existence of

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  • azizanramli2010fkksaAt the end of this topic, it is expected that students will be able to:Identify the importance of safety programs

    Explain the terms used in OSH e.g. hazards, accident, risk etc.

    Explain the importance of accident and loss statistics and calculate the number of accidents and/or fatalities using OSHA incidence rate, FAR and fatality rate.

    Explain the definition and importance of responsible care

    Describe the four most cited disasters and identify its impact to the standard in the practice of safety

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  • azizanramli2010fkksaUsing knowledge & skill for enhancement of human welfareHonest and impartial and serving with fidelity the public, their employers and clientsStriving to increase the competence and prestige of the engineering profession

    Engineers shall hold paramount the safety, health and welfare of the public in the performance of their professional dutiesEngineers shall perform services only in areas of their competenceEngineer shall issues public statement only in an objective and truthful mannerEngineers shall act in professional matters for each employer or client as faithful agents or trustees, and shall avoid conflict of interestEngineer shall build their professional reputations on the merits of their servicesEngineers shall act in such a manner as to uphold and enhance the honor, integrity, and dignity of the engineering professionEngineers shall continue their professional development throughout their careers and shall provide opportunities for the professional development of those engineers under their supervision.

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  • azizanramli2010fkksaEconomic growth = technological advance Change the molecular structure or create new products from chemicals, the possibility exists for fires, explosions or releases of flammable or toxic liquids, vapors, gases or process chemicals.Today, safety = technological advances; becoming a scientific discipline

    Chemical industry is entering an era of more complex processes thus more complex safety and health technologyExample of technology of safety:Hydrodynamic models representing two-phase flow through a vessel relief.Dispersion models representing the spread of toxic vapor through a plant after a release. Mathematical techniques to determine the various ways that processes can fail and the probability of failure.

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  • azizanramli2010fkksaTHENNOWAccident preventionEmphasis on workers safety hard hats, safety shoes, rules and regulations.= Loss preventionIncludes hazard identification, technical evaluation & design of new engineering features to prevent loss

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  • azizanramli2010fkksaThe importance of safety & health are:Prevents the valuable equipments from totally damaged and losing a large amount of investment. Assures the prolonged human resource contribution to profit the chemical plant.To avoid other indirect cost

    Safety deals with acute effects of hazards, whereas health deals with chronic effects of hazards.

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  • azizanramli2010fkksaIt is a measure of effectiveness of safety programs

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  • azizanramli2010fkksaGood safety & health program identifies and eliminates existing hazards. Excellent one has management system to prevent existence of hazards

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  • Inherent safety is to select a process or equipment which is by nature a safer process by applying;-

    The essence of the inherently safer approach to plant design is the avoidance of hazards rather than their control by added-on protective equipment [T. A. Kletz, Plant Design for Safety: A User-Friendly Approach, 1991]

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  • - Most of accident follow a three-step-sequenceazizanramli2010fkksaAn effective approach is to ensure that accident, once initiated, do not propagate and will terminate as quickly as possible

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  • azizanramli2010fkksaChemical plant accidents follow typical pattern. Fires are the most common, followed by explosion and toxic release

    With respect to fatalities, the order reverses, with toxic release having the greatest potential of fatalities

    Economic loss is consistently high for accident involving explosions

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  • Type of loss [Hydrocarbon Chemical Plant Accidents]azizanramli2010fkksaVapor cloud explosion account for the largest percentage of these large losses

    Toxic release typically result in little damage to equipment

    Hardware associated with largest lossesPiping system failure represents the bulk of accident, followed by storage tank and reactor

    Most complicated mechanical components are minimally responsible for large losses

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  • azizanramli2010fkksaAccidents & Loss StatisticsThere are 3 systems considered:Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) incidence rateFatal accident rate (FAR)Fatality rate or deaths per person per year

    These methods report the number of accidents and/or fatalities for a fixed number of workers during a specific period

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  • azizanramli2010fkksaOccupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) incidence rate

    Based on cases per 100 worker per yearA worker year is assumed to contain 2,000 hoursThe OSHA incidence rate is therefore based on 200,000 hours of worker exposure to a hazardTwo types of calculations (1) based on injuries and illness (2) based on lost workdays

    (Fatal Accident Rate) FARBased on 1000 employees working their lifetimeThe employees are assumed to work a total of 50 yearsUsed mostly by British chemical industry

    Fatality RateIndependent of the number of hours.Based on the number of fatalities per year and total number of people in applicable population

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  • azizanramli2010fkksaResponsible CareIt is an initiative of the chemical industry and adopted by chemical companies to improve continuous HSE performance of their operations and products in manner responsible to the concern of the public

    Started in Canada in 1985, and 1994 in Malaysia by Chemical Industries Council of Malaysia (CICM)

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  • azizanramli2010fkksaResponsible CareWhy RC?To respond to public concerns about manufacture, transport, use and disposal of chemicalsCommunity awareness and involvement are key features to initiativeAim of RC;Improve chemical industry performance in HSEImprove public perception in the chemical industryWhat does it mean?

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  • azizanramli2010fkksaCodes of Management Practices;

    Distribution Code [adopted in 1995]Focuses on reducing the potential for harm posed by the distribution of chemicals to the general public, employees and environment. Community Awareness and Emergency Response Code [adopted in 1996]Promotes emergency response planning and encourages dialogues with nearby communities to understand their concerns.Pollution Prevention Code [adopted in 1997]Commits industry to the save management and reduction in the amount of all pollutants released into the environment. Process Safety Code [adopted in 1999]To prevent fires, explosion and accidental chemical releases at the plant sites.

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  • azizanramli2010fkksaCodes of Management Practices;

    Employee Health and Safety Code [adopted in 1999]Protects and promotes the health and safety of employees and visitors at plant site.Product Stewardship Code [adopted in 1999]To make health, safety and environment protection a priority in all stages of a chemical products life, from design to disposal. Security Code [adopted in 2002 by ACC]which addresses facility, cyber and transportation security - requires companies to conduct comprehensive security vulnerability assessments (SVAs) of their facilities, and implement security enhancementsThe Code also requires companies to create security management systems, which are documented to provide quality control and assurances.

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  • Q & Aazizanramli2010fkksa

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  • azizanramli2010fkksaFor the next class (tutorial)..Below are some of the most cited industrial disasters to be read ahead and discussed in the group.;Flixborough, England, 1974 [caprolactam, raw material for the production of nylon]Bhopal, India, 1984 [ production of pesticides- methyl isocyanate or MIC]Seveso, Italy, 1976 [production of hexachlorophene, a bactericide]Pasadena, Texas, 1989 [polyethylene plant]PEMEX LPG Terminal explosion and fire, Mexico City, Mexico, 1984 BP Texas City Refinery explosion and fire, 2005Bright Sparkler Fireworks explosion and fire, Sg. Buloh, Malaysia,1991 [explosion]

    Prepare a presentation of any of above chemical plant disasters. [MAX: 6 presentation slides inclusive of presentation title]

    The presentation should includeHow did it happened? (story-telling time)Why did it happened? (errors/mistakes)What were the consequences? (fatalities/injuries)What can be done to avoid the same disaster from happening? (recommendations)

    A series of questions will be asked and points will be awarded accordingly.

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