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Bloodborne Pathogens ENVH 451/541 November 12, 2008

Dec 19, 2015



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  • Bloodborne Pathogens ENVH 451/541 November 12, 2008
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  • Bloodborne Pathogens (BBPs) O ther P otentially I nfectious M aterials Present in Blood or
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  • Bloodborne Pathogens semen vaginal secretions body fluids such as pleural, cerebrospinal, pericardial, peritoneal, synovial, and amniotic saliva in dental procedures (if blood is present) any body fluids visibly contaminated with blood body fluid where it is difficult to differentiate any unfixed tissue or organ (other than intact skin) from a human (living or dead) HIV- or HBV- containing cultures (cell, tissue, or organ), culture medium, or other solutions blood, organs, & tissues from animals infected with HIV, HBV, or BBPs OPIM
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  • 2 Methods of Entry: Mucocutaneous Enters through mucus membranes Percutaneous Enters through some opening of the skin
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  • ) Mucocutaneous ( through a mucous membrane ) Having infected blood or other body fluids splashed into eyes, nose or mouth Modes of Transmission
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  • Percutaneous (through the skin) Being stuck with needles or other sharps Having infected blood or other body fluids splashed onto skin that is cut, scratched, has sores or rashes or other skin conditions Modes of Transmission
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  • Bloodborne Pathogen Diseases Some examples of bloodborne pathogens: Malaria Syphilis Brucellosis Leptospirosis Arboviral infections Relapsing fever Creutzfeld-Jakob Disease Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Ebola, Marburg Primary Pathogens of Concern: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
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  • HIV
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  • A global view of HIV infection 33 million people [3036 million] living with HIV, 2007
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  • HIV/AIDS in King County HIV - 2,773 AIDS - 3,532 HIV/AIDS - 6,305
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  • HIV and AIDS The CDC defines AIDS as a positive HIV test and one of the following: The development of an opportunistic infection an infection that occurs when your immune system is impaired A CD4 lymphocyte count of 200 or less a normal count ranges from 800 to 1,200 directly attack and kill invading cells
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  • Natural History of Infection
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  • Symptoms Immediately following infection Nonspecific viral illness Low grade fever, rash, muscle aches, headache, fatigue Resolve in 5-10 days Asymptomatic Immune system is cycling with CD4 cells AIDS Extreme fatigue, rapid weight loss, swollen lymph nodes, dry cough and shortness of breath, night sweats
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  • Management No cure HAART cocktail of 3 -4 AR drugs Difficult: complex regimes, severe side effects, compliance very important Diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, headache, blurred vision, dizziness, congestion, dry mouth, fatique, body ache, fever, rash, sores, feeling loss, difficulty sleeping, changing body shape, hair loss, dry skin, etc.
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  • HIV IN BLOOD SURVIVAL OUTSIDE THE BODY In dry blood the virus can survive for up to 6 days in laboratory conditions QUANTITY OF VIRUS IN BLOOD 1 mL of blood contains 200-10,000 particles of virus. RISK OF INFECTION FOLLOWING NEEDLE STICK INJURY Low - 0.3% - 3 people in 1,000. RISK OF INFECTION FOLLOWING EYE SPLASH Low - 0.09% * Updated U.S. Public Health Service Guidelines for the Management of Occupational Exposures to HBV, HCV, and HIV and Recommendations for Postexposure Prophylaxis. MMWR Recommendations and Reports, June 29, 2001 / 50(RRll);1-42. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
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  • Hepatitis C
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  • Global Burden of HCV
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  • Hepatitis C Symptoms flu-like symptoms jaundice fatigue dark urine abdominal pain loss of appetite nausea
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  • US HCV Infection Incubation periodAverage 6-7 weeks Range 2-26 weeks Acute illness (jaundice)Mild (
  • Global Patterns of Chronic HBV Infection High ( > 8%): 45% of global population lifetime risk of infection >60% early childhood infections common Intermediate (2%-7%): 43% of global population lifetime risk of infection 20%-60% infections occur in all age groups Low (
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