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I I Programming and Organization of Training GV 34 1 .V413 C.l Sporfivny Press Livonia, Michigan

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IIProgramming and OrganizationofTrainingGV341.V4131 g e ~C.lSporfivny PressLivonia, MichiganIIIIIIITable of Con tent sAbbr e viat i on s and Definition s ............................Chapte r 1 .. oii " " 'II"" ..Theoret ico-Methodi cal Att e mpts at programmi ng andOrganizat i on of Training1.2 Training ~ s an Object o f Management .................1 .3 Sci e nti fi c Prerequisite s of Pr ogramming and Or ganiza-t fT ' lon 0 ra l nl ng .,. _ ;Io ~ .1. 4 Classi fi cation of Spor t s .Chapter 2 " " "" ' ..Regulari ti es of t he Proce ss o f Attaini ng Sport Mastery2.1 Ge nera l Regularit ies of t he Athlete's Ada ptat ion toI nt e nse Muscu lar Wor k .2.2 General Regularities of Morpho-f unct ional Speciali-zation i n the Proce ss o f Attaining Sport Mastery .2.3 Structur e of Special-Physical-Preparedne ss .2.4 Re gu l arities o f Attai ning Sport-Technical Mas t ery .Cha pter 3 I ,. " I ..Pager161115181836436782I3. 13. 2The Pr incipal Connection Between the Athl ete' s St a t eand the Train ing LoadCharact e ristics of the Tr aini ng Load and i t s Eff ectFactors and Condi tions Det e rmining the Training-83I 3.2. 13. 2. 23. 2 .33.3Effect .The Cont ents of the Loading .The Volume of the Traini ng Load .Organization o f Training Loads ....... .............The Long-Term Lag in the Training-Effect o f the909196101Loadi ng ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1083.4 General Tendencies in the Dynami cs o f the Sportsman'sState in the Year- Cyc l e; Depe nding on the Organizationo f Tr aining Loads 9 - 120Chapte r 4 1 25Principles of Programming a nd Organi zation of Training4.1 Forms of Constructing Tr aining ..... . ............... 1 26Cons t ruction 163the Year-Cyc l e ~ 1534.4 Logica l Sequence for Programming Training i n the1 27151161Organi zat ion It It .. It ..Primary Aims in Programming Training .Fundamental Model Systems of Constructing Training in4.1.1 Forms of Constructing Training with Respect toYear-Cycle 1684.5 Managing the Course of Training 1704.3.1 A Model f or Groups of Sports, Requiring the Displayof Explosive-Force 1564.3.2 A Model for Groups of Sports, Requir ing Endurance(Middle Distances} ................ ................ 1574.3.3 A Model for Groups o f Sports, Requiring Endurance(Long Distances) ................................ 1594.3.4 A Mode l for Groups of Sports, with Tri-cyclicalP . d- . .[: TerlO l zatlon O L ralnl ng ' .' ..........4.3.5 Pract ical Use o f the Principal Mode ls of Training4.24.3I Abbrevia tions used in t he Text1 . CAR: The current adaptation reserves o f the organism. Theorganism's specific, limited capability to respond to exter-nal inf l uences with adaptationa l reconstruction, in order toaccommodate the training irrit ant.2. F-rnax: The maximum f orce displayed in a specific movement.3. GPP: General Ph ysical Preparation. Conditioning exercisesdesigned to enhance the athlete's general, non-specificwork-capacity.4. I: The index of explosive-strength. Usually assessed byvert i cal jump results.5. LLTE : The long te rm lagging of t he training-effect. Anat ural increase in r esult s, following a dec rease i n thevolume of l oading in the pre -competition stage .6 . MOC: Maximum Oxygen The athlet e 's maximumoxygen util ization d ur ing loading.7. PASM; The process of attaining (literal lv, the f ormat ion,Ed .) of Sport Mastery. The e ducational-phys iological pro-cess of the athlet e 's con-inued improvement in physical,technical, tactical and psychological mastery specific t othe given sport.8. Po: Index of absolut e-st r ength . Usually assessed by themaximum force generated isomet rically (on a dynamometer).9. Q: The index of starting- strength. The ability of theorganism t o overcome the resting inertia of the body and/ora sport apparatus.10. SPP: Special-Physical-Preparation. The training that isspecific to the sport's requirement s in competition. Forinstance , multiple standing long jumps develop the samequalities necessary for the execution of the running longjQmp.11. TANE: The threshold of anaerobic exchange, that level ofoxygen consumption at which the anaerobic processes areactivate d.The changes that occur within theof training.TE: The training-effect.athlete's body as a resu lt12.IIIIIIIIIIIIIDefinitionsmonthsthe dynamicscompetitionchanges produced by a singleA training period of 3-5TheComplex-Training: The simultaneous (within one workout)work on several aspects of an athlete's preparation. Forexample, specific work on strength, speed and technique inthe same seSSlon.Conjugate-Sequence-System: An appropriate succession andstrict sequence of inculcating loading of different primaryemphasis, into training.Cumulative-Training-Effect: The changes within the organismas a result of the summed af;ects of many sessions.Displacement: of the organisn's homeostaticstate as a resu l t of training.Dynamic The conformity betweenof a sport exercise executed in training to theexercise execut ed in competition.Hetero-Chronici ty : The variabl eness of rate s of improvementin a special quality (strength, endurance, etc.) , of anorgan or system.Large-Stage o f Traini ng :duration.partial-Training-Effect:4.3 .6.7 . 9.10 means .Training-Effect: See #12 n abbreviations.Training Potential: The possible training-effectby a specific loading, exercise, etc.unidirectional-Training: workouts planned toprimarily one physical quality or aspect of anpreparation (strength; technique, etc. l.producedemphasizeathlete'sIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIntroductionProgramming is the regulation of the contents of training inaccordance with the athlete's training objectives and the speci-fic principles, determining the r ational organization of trainingloads within a specific time frame. Programming is a new, betterform of planning training, solving tasks at a higher 5cientific-methodical level and with a greater probability of achieving thegoals.The basis for programming training is acceptance of a solu-tion, which lS associated first of all with determining thegeneral strategy o f the athlet e 's preparation, and second, withselecting the optimal variant of training construction. The taskis very complicated because of he great number of possible vari-ables and combinations in the composition, volume , duration andorganization of training loads with different primary emphasis.The practical acceptance of a solut i on i n this situat i on iseffected by sorting-out and assessing if not all, then many ofthe acceptable variants of training construction. They are fewerin number. the more experienced the coach, l.e., he has theexperience to permit immediately rejecting one and thinking ofanother.Consequently, the prlmary condition for correct selection ofLhe optimal solution is the substantiation for preliminaryassessment of the effectiveness of a particular variant. In thenot-tao-distant past planning was based on the personal e x p e r ~ ence of the coach; obtained by trial and error; based on hisintuition and logical principles. Now we have more objectivebasises and premises. This circumstance makes it possible toswitch to programming as a better form of planning and construct-lng training.Selection of the solution to programming training is based,first of all, on the knowledge of the specific regularities in-herent to the process of attaining sport mastery (PASM} anddetermining its systematic development over time. These regular-I .ities, as we shall show later , are revealed by the study of thepeculiarities of the long-term adaptation of the organlsm to in-tense muscular work and the principal tendencies in the changesof its state; depending on the organization of the training loadsof different primary emphasis, then volume and duration. Theelucidation of the regularities of the PASM also contributes tothe study of the peculiarities of the process of attaining sport-technical mastery and the morpho- f unctional specialization of theorganism i n the course of multi-year training.Research ln this area assures an essential enhancement ofthe objectivity of the preliminary assessment of the trainee'spotential for the prescribed l oad; and consequently, the prognos-tical probability of the training effect it can secure. Theresearch contributes to the construction o f the most rationalorganization of training loads within concrete stages, providingboth the optimal duration and rational i nterdependence of loadsof di ff erent pr i mary emphasis and their expeditious introductioninto training. Finally, research is the basis for re-understa nd ing traditional principles of training construction.Instead of the analytico-synthetic approach of examiningtraining as a recruitmen_ of separate microcycles, and its organ-ization as a lining-up of mi e ocycles of different emphasis in asequential chain; consider switching to the programmed objectiveprinciple of organizing It is based on the formulationof concrete purposeful ob jectives for any stage of training andthe construction of training programs and competitions to ensuretheir realization. Thus, the basic form of training constructionis not the micro-cycle, as has always been considered, but thelarge training stage (3-5 months); apportioned in the yearlycycle, by taking into conds ideration the competition calendar andthe regularities of the athlete's adaptation to intense muscularwork. This, 1n turn, alters the requirements for the organiza-tion of the micro-cycles; which instead of basic structuralunitsl construction of training acquires a functional form forthe regulation of those portions of the training loads to whichthey are allotted.II.IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIFurthermore, obj ectivE prerrlises concerning the regulation ofthe contents or training are formed by taking into account thequalitative specifics of the affects o f the means and methodsinvolved. Here instead of manipulation of large, medium andsmall waves of the "gross" volume o f the load, permitting onlychanges in sporting formi i t is possible to direct the influence(of the traini ng load) to the character istics of thesportsman's state, by appropriate organization of the loads withdifferent training Substantiation and deve lopment of the programmed-objectiveprinciple of constructing the t raini ng of h igh ly-qualified ath-letes is the main theme of thi s book. However, before gettinginto it, it is necessary to dwell on some pecularities of scruti-nizing it and to determine a number of limitations and the mostgeneral ideas.Training is a multi-faceted, pedagogical process, having aspecific form of o rgan "zation, that transforms it into a complexsystem of influences on a person's personal i ty and physicalstat e. Wit h respe ct to its traini ng provides activeand sys tematica lly specialized motor activities directed at thetotal educa tion of the including the acquisition of awide range of special knowledge, habits and skills; enhancementof work-capacity; the master i ng of technique and the art o f com-petitive st ruggles. Allor this acquired gradually during thecourse o f many-years training; along wi th a specific order to theresolution of stagi c tasks and a sequentialness of the masteringof neW hei ghts of sport mastery.Sport mastery is first and foremost, movement-skill. Thesportsman's education is carried-out through specialized motoractivities. Therefore, the growth of mastery is secured and atthe same time, the limit physical possibilities of the organism,1.e., the ability to display the required level of forc e and tomainta i n the training necessary for the perfectioning of thisability. Consequently, pedagogical fundamentals and methodicalprinci ples of organizing tra ining, along with the educationalemphasis, ought to be cons i dered the biological essence of theIII.PASM. This by no means lS a call to a biological theory andmethod of sport training, but to underscore the specifics ofsport pedagogics; which is an educational process conducted at alevel of limit physical and psychological tension, and is amysterious and by no means none than a pedagogical process.And here, one cannot stand for amateurishness and tolerate mis-takes, because the person's health is at stake.Thus, sport activity is a very complex socio-biological phe-nomenon. It is in essence social, having concrete pedagogicalcontents and an educational emphasis; and in phenomenologicalexpression, its form of existance and development has a biologi-cal basis. Therefore, the biological aspect should play animportant role in the scientific search directed at solving theproblem of rational construction and programming of while at the same time, it should be oriented and understood asan aspect of the pedagogical tasks, expressing the social essenceof sport activities.Hence it is obvious that the solution to the problem of pro-gramming training, in the broad sense, is only possible by com-bining the efforts of the specialists with the appropriatescientific profiles. However, this is only the nearest perspec-tive. Therefore, in taking the first step of determining generaltheories and principles of programming training We are concernedonly with those parts which chiefly concern the physical perfec-tioning of the sportsman and his skill to effectively realize hismotor potentials in training and competition.The concentration primarily on highly-qualified athletes isdictated by practical necessity. Experience has shown that thepreparation of middle and high class athletes is significantlydifferent. In the first case, the traditional principles of con-structing training, which have taken form in the past ten years,fully ensuring the progress of mastery, are already not so effec-tive for the second. And what is more, by not taking intoaccount the modern specifics of training, high-class athletesoften do the opposite activities they should, inhibiting the pro-gress of mastery.IV.IIIIIIIIIITherefore, the urgent necessity arlSes to reveal the speci-fic peculiarities of preparing qualified athletes, reinterpre ta-tion and development o f traditional principles; and to devise ne wmethodical ways and appropriate forms of training them.Finally, it is necessary to define the fundamental conceptsof principal significance, such as programming, organization andmanagement of training. In works conce rnlng the management ofcompl ex systems' dynamics, these concepts are usually usedsynonomously. However, applicable to sport trai ning , each hastheir own fully specific and concrete meaning.Training is not an ar t if i cial creation a material systemor a phenomenon existing independently in nature; which can be-come object ively managed influences, in conformity with somecriteria of effectiveness or expediency. It is necessary, firstof all, to reconstruct the training ideally, creative ly re-thinking its course and based on the special objectives, dete r-mlne its contents. Then, one should implement the practicalrealization of the program adopted; and finally control thecourse of it s execution and make the necessary corrections.So, the preliminary determination o f t hestrategy, contents and form of training; organization is thepractical implementation of the program, tak ' ng into account the conditions and real potentials of the athlete; andmanagement is the control and regulation of the course of train-ing according to the predetermined criteria of its effectiveness.A number of problems of constructing training, examined 1nthis book are discussed repeatedly in the literature and areresolved in accordance with today's theoretico-experimentalknowledge, when these problems are placed before the specialists.Therefore, let's turn to those problems, which are not raised fornovelty's sake.v.IIIIIChapter 1Theoretico-Methodical Attempts atProgramming and Organization of TrainingProgramming and organization of training requires multi-faceted and in-depth knowledge of the essence of training; itscontents and structure: the regularities determining its Con-struction and changes 1n its emphasis with the growth of sportmastery. Such knowledge should, first, include the achievementsof practical experience and the entire complex of scientific datadealing with the affects of training on the athl ete 's body andpersonality; and second, be systematized such that it secures theworking-out and reasoning of those methodical principles andtenets which directly determine the practical resolution of theproblem of programming and organization of training. This re-qUlres an objective assessment of the peculiarities of the modernstage of sport development and a determination of those knottyproblems around which the accumulation of knowledge should beconcentrated.1.1 Pecularities of the Present Stage of Sport Developmen tA number of peculiariti es are inherent to the present stageof sport development. They have a significant affect on theorganization of athletes' training and confronts coaches and ath-letes with very complex tasks and requirements which compel themto search for appropriate forms of training organization.1. Raising further the high level of achievements of modernathletes requires cardinal perfectioning of both the system ofpreparing highly-qualified athletes and the entire organizations-methodical system of multi-year preparation.2. The exceptionally high stress of competition is associ-ated with the increasing compactness of the achievements of par-ticipants at crucial competitions; the extraordinarily highrequirements for quality, stability and reliability of technicaland tactical mastery, moral-volitional preparedness and the psy-chological stability of athletes under conditions of frequent andcrucial competitiohS.1 3. Qualified-sportsmen achieved such high levels of spe-cial-physical-preparedness, that raising it further becomes avery complex task. It is necessary to find reserves for r ais ingthe effectiveness of special-physical-preparation and associatedwith this, to rationalize the system o f training construct i on asa whole.4. The significant l ncrease in the volume of training ac-centuates the problem of its rational distribution during theyearly cycle and its separate stages . Furthermore , there is theobvious necessity to r e gard critically the "mechanical" raisingof the volume as a way of incre asing the effective ness of train-ing. It became necessary to search, fi rst, for the most effec-tive ratio of loads of d iffer e nt emphasis; and s e cond, for newforms of organizing training, providing optima l c ondit ions forthe fu ll realization of the sportsman's adaptational pot ent ial ;based on the r ational interdependence between t he expenditur e andrestoration of energy resources.5. The growing role of sci ence in the methodics of trai n-~ n g . The training of highly-qualifi ed sportsmen is associ atedwith very substantial influences on the life- preserv ing functionso f the organi sm's syst ems and the introduction of these 1n-fluences at such a high worki ng-level, that without scientificknowledge (relyi ng only on common sense and inti ution}, it 1Salready i mposs i ble to solve the complex probl em of mode rn trai n-ing.If we were to rely on traditional pr i nciples and forms oftraining construction, established many years ago, then it is ob-vious that they have lost their (in the old days) progressivesignificance and do not meet the requirements of preparingtoday's qualified athletes. progressive coaches understand thiswell, and, in collaboration with their pupils find new ways ofperfecting and raising the effectiveness of training; along withthe potential for perfectioning of traditional principl es andforms of training construction. That this search is fruitful, isindicated by the athletes' high achievements.Let's look at some characteristic (for the modern stage)2.IIIIIIIIIIIIItendencies in the organization o f training, which as yet are notprinciples, b ut are definitely known and are well recommended.The search for ways of intensifying training and enhancing compe-tition mastery was conditioned by the e xped i ency to utilize amethod extensively, which can be characteri zed as "modeling thecompetition activities under training conditions."The essence o f this me thod consists of the integralexecution of the fundamental sport exercise lin training) at ahigh intensity and t aking into account the conditions and rulesof competition. This method adequately prepares the organism forcompetition and enables one to effectively prepare the athletefunctionally, technically, t actically and psycholog i cally. Inthe not-tao-distant past it was considered inappropriate to exe-cute the fundamental sport exer c i se at f ull strength in training,for results or with competition emphasis . Thi s was explained asan extraordi nary expe nd i ture of nervouS energy, a negative infl u-ence on technique, unnecessary fatigue, etc . Therefore, inspeed-strength types of sports they recommended the use of a widerange of spec i al exercises, in cyclic sports -- distance s shorteror longer than the competition; and o ver coming them f aster orslower than the competiti on.However, the latest data shows t hat there is nothing mor especial than the fundamental sport exercises , executed under con-ditions close to the competi tion conditions . For example, theresults of three groups o f cyclists doing experimental trainingon a stationary bike at 1 krn in the competition period (May-August). The group that utilized the method of modeling competi-tion (I), showed the largest improvement (2.5 sec); displayedlesser displacement in cardio-respiratory systems during standar-dized loads and had higher functional indicators during maximumloads (figure 1). The groups that trained according totraditional methods (2 and 3) made leS5 improvement (2.1 and 0.3sec respectively). Group 3 having sma ller competition loadingthan group 2, displayed lowered functional indicators.Separate workouts for skiers, middle distance runners,kayakers and canoeists devoted to the regime of energy-securing3 maximum 02acidic (V) that IS nearest to competition conditions has been demon-strated to be quite appropriate (T. M. Budykho, etal, 1978: A.Yakimov, 1980j N. P. Chagovyets, eta1, 1980). The effectivenessof increasing the volume of training work for perfectioningtechnical mastery under conditions closest to competition linspeed-strength types of sports), has been corroborat ed; forexample, executing long jumps, pole vaults or triple jumps with afull run-up (Y . V. Verkhoshansky, 1967: V. M. Yagodin, 1975) orhurdling at high speed or distances close to the competition (Z.s. Struchkova, V. V. Ba1akhnichev, 1982).I n boxing, the most intense aerobic exchange is broughtabout by special training means, close to competition conditions,-- shadow boxing and sparring (P. N. Repnikov, 1977). Thus, noselection of special and assistance exercises can theFigure 1. Changes in maximum consumption of 02 (II,pulse (II), alact i c IIII), lactic IIV) and generaldebt i n groups of cyclists (5. S. Semashko, 1972).IIIIIIIathlete for competition as effectively as the fundamental sportexercise. One should not confuse ways of modeling competitionactivities ~ n training with previously accepted courses,estimates, control of training, etc. The latter were intended asthe main way of controlling technical mastery and checking on thesportsman's preparedness for competition. However, theY were notregarded as a specialized form of preparing athletes for competi-tion.In speaking of the advantages of modeling competition, 1ntraining, it should be emphasized that this is only one method ofpreparation and one of the ways of intensifying training . It lSimpossible to overestimate its role, but one can only utilize itwhen working with highly-qualified athletes and without losingone's sense of proportion, only when the athlete has good techni-cal and special physical-preparedness.Lately, a tendency to increase the portion of uni-direc-tional training loads has been observed in the training ofhighly-qualified athletes. In this case, the training programstipulates the means and methods or i ented to resolving primarily,one concrete task. For example, this task is the perfectioningof technical mastery or the development of a certain motor abil-ity.Uni-directional training loads as a methodical way of tra i n-~ n g organization, previously did not further the traditionalcomplex preparation principle; in accordance with which, it 15considered appropriate to resolve simultaneously (parallel) anumber of training tasks in one workout as well as in the long-term stages of training. However, with all of its advantages,which have been demonstrated in the training of middle and highclassification, the complex method (traditional meaning} isalready unsatisfactory.There is a noticeable tendency, lO practice, to concentrateuni-directional training loads in certain stages of the yearlycycle. This indicates that coaches, in searching for ways ofr a ~ s l n g the effectiveness of training are overcoming establishedtraditions (especially, based on a formal understanding of the5.principle of complex preparation) and are finding more rationalvariants of training organization. There are as yet stillobvious errors 1n the organization of training of highly-qualified sportsmen. The reasons for these errors are associatedwith a lack of extensive, general, practical experience; andcoaches who are insufficiently informed as to the achievements ofsport science.1.2 Training as an Object of ManagementAs already emphasizedl programming and organization oftraining require in-depth and comprehensive knowledge of theessence of training. It is appropriate, there ore to examlneprog.ramming from the stand-point of management categories.In the most general terms, the essence of management 15 ex-pressed 1n the changes of state of the managed object lsystems,processes) in accordance with SOme tasks; the criterion of e f ec-tiveness is its functioning or development. Consequently, rorpractical realization of the idea of management, it is first ofall necessary to concretize notions about the structure of themanaged object and about the regularities of transferring it fromone state to another. Satisfying this requirement depends on thescientific, just proportion of the theory of management: con-creteness; a sense of the strictness of the conceptual apparatus,and finally, its practical effectiveness.Let's look at the logical scheme of training organizationfor classifying and characterizing the object of management 1nsports (figure 2). Training is organized in accordance withspecific, purposeful tasks, which are concretely expressed by aset increase in sport results; and are conditioned by thenecessity for their realization tn the training program. Thus,the amount of improvement in sport results is the criterion ofthe effectivenss of training. Sport results are the product ofthe organization of the complex of the sportsmen's external Ln-fluences. In other words, this is the product of such an organi-zation of movements and displacements of the athlete, whichsecures for him the effective utilization of his strength andmotor potential for resolution of the specific motor tasks.6.Improvement ofResultsThe Athlete 's,----------..:,) Externa1 Interactions----------Model 1Character- istjcs1----T-h-e.... s Trai n i ng Effect.v---- State the Loading . Potential ofLoads ) of the Loading ) the Effect (Training,,< --_1Tralnlng ObjectivesIFigure 2. A logical Scheme of Training OrganizationIIAn ordering of the ext erna l influences and an increase 1nthe portion of those forces which directly contribute to theresolution of the motor tasks is an important condition for theprogress of sport mastery ; realized within the confines oftechnical and tactical preparation. Therefore, the complex ofthe athlete's external influences inherent to competition, shouldbe classified as the first object of management in the system ofsport training.The higher the sportsman's motor potential, the more ef fec-tively the complex o f external interactions can be organized.That is to say, over a period of many-years training, athleteswork at perfectioning their motor potential and increase theirspecific work-capacity. Therefore , the athlete's state, as acurrent characteristic of his motor potential, should be classi-fied as the second obj ect of management in the system of sporttraining.'"The complex of external interactions and the sportsman'sstate are established in the necessary direction, as a result ofthe systematic specialization of the motor activities. The lat-ter provides a number of specific training i n fluences , organized*Footnote: It is recommended that state be understood as theathlete's morpho-functional qualities; determining his potentialto demonstrate sport achievements (V. M. Zatsiorsky, 1979).7.In such a way as to secure the required alterations in the com-plex of external influences and the sportsman's state. Conse-quently, motor activities, or as it is customary tosay, the training l oad, is the third object of management in thesystem of sport training _ the aforementioned objects intheir aggregate represent an hierarchia11y organizedc omplex of objects, undergoing directed changes in the process ofsport training. In training, the ordered influences address allthree components of the management of a complex object simultane-ously. However, the basis for changes of state i n the course oftraining is a specific, cyclical sequence of events. The dosageof the training load is assigned, under the infl uence of which,changes in the sportsman's state occur; which in turn, entailschanges in the complex of external interact ion s of the athleteand a corresponding increase i n sport results.When the planned results are achi eved , the subs e quent magni-tude of increase and new, higher characteristics of t he sports-man's state are set. Based on this , the program and theorganization of the loading are determi ned for the next stage oftr aini ng; and, the sequential execution of the aforementionedconditions are repeated at higher qualitative an d quantitativelevels. The cyclicalness of this process in accordance with ac-ceptable (in each type of sport) periodization, makes-up the con-tents of the sportsman's preparation.Completion of the tasks, executed at the separate componentsof the complex object of management level, gives rise to anintricate dynamic complex of cause-effect r elati ons between them;which ought to be considered the structure of the managed object;securing its functional integri ty. Thus, the aggregate of thecomponents of the complex object of management, with the cause-effect connections inherent to it, is represented as a managedsystem (i.e., as a phenomenon, possessing all of the features ofthe existing and changing as a whole).As management begins -- the system which is the key to itsdevelopment is the training progra.m; consisting of all of thetasks of training, motivation, direction of the athletels perSOQ-8.IIIIIIIIIIIIality and social factor s , e xpr essing (and unifying) the i nt e r e st sof the at hlete, coach, sport collective , as we l l as the practicalexpe rience and theoretical knowledge refracted in the princ iples,methods and for ms of training constructi on . In orient ing t hecourse of trai ni ng concretely, mode l characterist ics \ ,I ./ \ .. '7 ' 1--+-',..;1' \ J \" ... '" /. ," '. \ '" 11:." .J( \ ........\ I If" ... .. .. X ...0... .... -0-- 1010IQ--Q-- -1....,; ....--., .... -.. ..' ... -.. .. --",.. " P.... , .,--,._____ . 0. -- ..... . ..-' . - rt/Af':ilhl 0/c V "!IXc Mlc......... 4.15 10.e/" 4.10 ", 4.05 .. 10.4...... '" .... ..... 4.00 10.3.... ,,; 3.95 '0..2__--::.....- '_/ UO 10.10" 1\ Ie)I \zo I \I \I'0 I0 --..-IX Xl J(ll II m IV v VI VB VIII IX 10no"1.tQ .13010"140 '20110100 .120Figure 60. Dynamics of the volumes of loading andcontrol indicators during a year-cycle, of highly-qualitied sprinters (A.V. Levc nenKo)167 .at some partial but impor-technique of programmingl e t's look By way 0 - conclusion,tant ques t ions, associated with thetraining.When programming training in the year-cycle one should turnattention first and foremost (from amongst the other factors andconditions) to the competition calendar and the adaptationalregularities of the organism 0 intense muscular work. Thesefactors can be in opposition; usually because of the competitioncalendar. For example, the dates of the main competitions maychange significantly, while the dat e s of traditional competitionsremaln the same. In a worse s ' tuation, the competition seasoncan be extended and the length of the preparatory stages shorten-end; \oJhich complicates significant ly r the programming and organi-zation of traini ng .Under similar circumstances one should find the optimalme t hod, being guided by the fo l lowing principles.1. Orga nization of training s h o ~ l d provide favorable condi-tions for the r e alization of the adaptational regul ariLies of theorganism, while taking into account the actual competition calen-dar. The cal e ndar should be co-ordinated with the periods andduration o f the large traini ng stages. The contents of thesestages ar e determined so as to realize the CAR of the organism.2. It has already been ment ' oned that the optimal CAR real-ization period (about 20 weeks) is the mean-statistical figure,with respect to the optimal loading of highly-qualified athletes.However, the CAR realization period can be increased or reducedwithin an insignificant range; this requires an appropriate in-crease or decrease in the concentration of loading. It 1Simportant in this case not to exceed the optimal time limit,since excessive intensification of training Can disrupt adapta-tion. Shorter large-stages, which have their place, for examplein tri-cyclical periodization (see figure 57), should not shiftthe objective of the full realization of the organism"s CAR tothe next stage.3. To determine the boundar i es of the large-stages, oneshou ld be guided only by the dates of the main competitions, forwhich tile a thlete is pre par i ng all year. This rule should not bebroken (i ncl uding the des i re to d emonstrate high results a t thebeg inning of the season) for any reason.4. There is SOme d ifferen ce between the contents o f the twolarge-stages 1n the year-cycl e . The loading of the preparatorymicro-stage 1S more specia l ize d and intense i n the second stage,than the first. Therefore, the first large-stage should alwaysbe considered the fundamenta l base for the second. The interestsof intermediat e competitions shou ld not alter this obj e ctive.5. When p lanning the year-cycle one s hould be aware of thenegative aff ect tha t compe ti .ion loadi ng (associated with thesignificant exhaustion of nervous e nergy ) has on the sportsman'sstate. Therefore, during the switch to the next large-stage , it1S necessary to stipul ate a rehabili tational pause, the durationo f which is de termined individually, depend i ng on the difficultyo f t he competition s t ag e .4 .4 Logical Sequence for Programmi ng Trai ning 1n the Year-CycleThe technology of traini ng is a complex proce- i nvolving a s ff icient ly large number of determinations, itscomplexity, however, consists not so much of the quantity ofdet e rmina t ions, as in t he insuffi c i e nt ba s is f or choosing themain logical and se ect ing the determination f or eachof tham. Theref ore in practice, even experienced coaches need to an uncer tain determination, with a low probability of a cor-r ect prognosls.By taking into consideration t he material of the precedingchapters, i t is possible to regulate the mak ing of a determina-tion wh e n to recommend a definite sequencenecessary for this l ogical operation and at the same time to showan object i ve basis for making the determination. So, when facedwith the task of programmi ng training, it is appropriate toadhere to the following sequence of logical operations (eachd eterminati o n is made by taki ng into account the determinationmade in the preceding operat i on).168.1 . Determining the Increase In Sport Results and the Dateof Achievement. This is t he pr i mary obj e ctive of training; theconcrete requ irements of programoing conditioning the necessary, parameters of the training contents. Here, a multi-sided objective assessment of the sportsman's potential and thecompetition calendar are the basis for making the determination.One take s into the athletets preparation in theprecedi ng training stages and those displaceme nts, at h i s levelof mastery, which can actually occur in the year. Thedeterminat i on 15 expressed by a prognostical model of thedynamics o f the sport r e sult s , r e ative to the competition cal e n-dar.2. Deter mination of the nisplacements i n Special Physica lPreparedness and the Te chnical-Tact ical Mas t ery of the Athlete : isnece ssar y for e nsur i ng the t a rget -i ncr e ase in sport results. Thedet e rm - nati on 1 S based on an object i ve assessme nt o f thes port s ffidn' s s pecial pre par e dness, a nalys i s of the rate ofimprove ment in functiona) in t he prece ding stagesand i dentlf ication of t h o se ca pabilit ies which need to beenhanced. The d e termination is express e d by the concre te tar-gets, rel a t i ve t o the f unct i o nal indicator s and charact e risticsof technica l mas tery, wh i ch need to b e achieved at the instant ofpe rforma n ce in important compe t i tions.3. Qua ntitat ive Mode ls OC the Dynamics of the Sportsman'sState in the Ye ar-Cycle. The competition calendar, the level ofspe c i al-physical-pr epa r edne ss and the dates of the main competi-tion are the basis f or maki ng the de termination. The determina-tion is reflected in the graphic t e ndenc i es of the dynamics ofeS5entia l 1 f unctional indicators; such that these indicators areat their peak at the ins t ant of the ma i n competition.4. Det e rmination of the Composition of the Means and Meth-ods: lS the mode of stipu lating the required increase inspecial-physical-preparedness and techni cal-tactical mastery.The det e rmina tion is made based on the assessment of the trainingpotent i al of the me ans and method s, as well as the desiredincr ease in special-physicaJ- prepare dness.169.5. Determination of the General Volume of Loading, withRespect to all of the Training Means, is ne cessary for selectingthe object"ves, associated with the physica l , technical-tacticaland compet i tion preparatioll of athletes. The actual assimilationof the loading in the pr e c e ding stages and the conjectural formsof loading organization, of different primary emphasis, is thebasis for making a determinat i on. The concrete volume ofloading, relat i ve to the fundamen a1 of means, character-lze the de t erm i nation.6. The Di visiop. of the Year-Cycle into Large Stages, lS by the structure ana stra t egic objective s of the peri-odization o f traini ng. The de ter mi nat i on is made by taking into the compet ition ca l endar and the optimal dates, necessaryfor complete realization of the organi smts CAR.7. The Distribution of 1,oading in the Year-Cycle, is inconformity with a l l of t he means securing realization of thetarget dynamics of the sportsman 's state . The determination isbased on careful analysis o f the training stages,principa l models of training c onstruct:on, for the specific typeof sport, and the principal objectives o f programmlng training.The det ermination is e xpressed by the quantitative dynamics ofthe loading, relaLive to the fundamental means of training in theyear-cycle.8. Spe cifying the Organ i zation of Traini ng Loads in theLarge-Stages of Preparation. The determination is based on theprinciples of large-stage the pecul i arities of theLLTE of concentrated strength-loading and the forms of the orga-nization of loading of differ e nt primary emphasis. The deter-mination is expressed by a detai l ed training program with aspecific distribution of loading in all of the micro-cycles, pre-ceding the large stage.4.5 Managing the Course of TrainingMaterial which has been present e d (see 4.3, figures 59 and50} clearly characterizes the objectives and technique ofmanag l ng training. Management is the control over the course oftraining and its (if nEcessary), in accordance with170.its effectiveness. Management is based on a of thereal dynamics of training from previous target standards. Sportresults and the indicators which r eflect the changes technicalmastery, the sportsman's state unde r the influence of trainingand competition loading, can serve as the previous target stand-ards. One corrects the course of training by alteration of the'appropriate parameters of the So, t he technique of man2ging trai ning is extraordinarilysimple and obvious . It still heing deve loped. In our timemanagement of training is distinguished from it s prototype onlyby more objective ways of assessing the ath1ete 1s special pre-paredness .For Bxample, two individual cases of training management arecited in f i gur e 61; they arc bas e d on a comparison of the actualdynamics of explosive-strength (1) i ndicators from an earliermodel .The training program (for Triple Jump, II was well con-strucLco and did not require correction. The actuall explosive-strength of the leaping muscles exceeded the standard of thesecond competition stage (May-August); and i n July, the athleteexecut e d the norm for master of sport. The sportwoman's (LongJ ump , II) program was not we ll constructed. He r volume of load-ing in he first strengtll "block" IOc_obeY-December) proved to be and included an 0xcessive portion of strength11 proper" e xerci ses . Theref Ot-e, in ordGr to reach the targetexplosive-strength dynamics, corrections in the training weremade In January by increasing the portion of intense speed-strength means. The quantity of depth-jumps were increased inthe s econd "block" of strength-loading (March-April). As aresult, the explosive-strength indicators were successfully"pulled up" to the model; however, technique suffered. Thesportswoman's results at the winter competitions were low becauseof the loss of technique. The intensification of the second"block" of strength-training raised slightlyabove the models; however, it was not stable. The spor t resultswere dis_ingui shed by stability in the second competition stage,171.'40.-'120FiGur e 6 &. Man a gement o f tra ining t o a mod elo f the b ut o n who le, we re s c c e s sful . I n July the spo rtswoman exe-cuted the no rm for eMS for Mas ter of Ed. l.So , t he technique of ma na g i ng i nvolves assessmentand c on t rol of the s portsman ' s s t ate, careful calcu lat i on o f theloadi ng exe c uted and anal y s i s of the i nt e rdependenci e s betweenthem. Ther ef ore, it i s n ece ssary to be guided b y t he followingprinci p les.1 . Fi rst of a1 _ one shou l d s e l e c t the mos t essent i al andinformat i ve characterist i c s ln ord e r to objectively assessspecial-physical and techn i cal-pr e paredne ss; as well as t he stateof the spor t sman's "psychic sphere s". These characteristics canbe obtai ned by emp loy ing special i nst r ume nta l methods or controlexercises (pe dagogical t e sts } , On e shou l d s e e k all possible waysof o bt a i ning such charact e rist i cs, t o be f o und in the specialliterat ure.2. Control over the course o f training can only be effec-tive if one ca rr ies-out r e gular observations of t he dynamic s o fthe s portsman ' s state. When doi ng this: a) t e sting should bedone wi th a strict periodicity of 1-2 ti mes per month, indepen-dent of the periodization and s tructur e of the training b) the t e sti ng procedure shoul d not be excessive, burdonsome orrequire much Lime and energy from t he athlete; c) it is necessaryto keep the testing conditio.s constant, to exc lude t he possi-bi lity o f cha nce f actors affecting t he resu lts.3. Ma nageme nt r e q uires a systematic (wit hi n a month ly peri-odicit y) compa r ison of the real a nd target charact eri stics of thetraining. I f the re is a d iscrepency, i t i s necessar y to c are-f ull y ana l y ze t he situat ion, determine cause f o s uch adiscr cpency and make a to correct t he tra i ning pro-gram.One s houl d consider yet ano t her l mportant c ircumstanceassoci ated t he technique of managl ng tral n lng. Fir s t . thisis an exceptiona ll y s imp l e th i ng a nd the efore it 's astonishingthat c oa ches !lave not . aken i t u p t i ll now. second ,t his i s only one , pur e l y aspe c t of a coach's job.However, employin? of t he simplest techni ques of management is asource of un iaue material the accumlJ]ation of which can make ani nva lua b le contribution to further e xtending t he theories andme thods of tra i ning; and, in he probl e m of program-ming. If the coach accepts this, he has taken the first steptoward es senti ally augme nting his methodical exper ience and pro-f ession a l e r ud ition; raises hi s l a bor to the level of cre ativeact ivi ty; and then -- t o a scientific-practical exper i ment .Th e coach's p lann i ng, calculation and doc umenta t ion is ex-t raord i na rily important for programming trai ning. Un f or t unatelya totally unpe rmissible, scornf u l atti t ude has developed, in boththeory and practice, towards documentation. However, documenta-tion is not si mpl y an auxiliary responsibility, indicative of thecoac h's ef fic iency, bu an irnpor cant att r ibut e o f h i s profes-sional mastery; upon which tile SUCCeSS of hi s students'preparation i s pr imari ly dependent .173 Planning docume nta lS , [irst of all, a formalization oft he ideas upon whic h t he strategies of the sportsman's prepara-tion uye based, an ideal recons tr uction of the f orthcoming train-lng, requ iring a spec ific, simple response to the infinitenumber of questions o f both a and partial nature. The p lan of the docume nta t ion is a stimulus to the coach'slogic, mobil izat ion of his creAtive possiblilities: and finally,a way of insuff"cient k nowl e dgp, necessary first of allfor prognosis, adduced as an outcome of a certain variant oftraini ng construction . reflecting the ac ual para-me ters of craining and act i ng as an objective basis for ass e ssing significance, is o f no less significance .The form of the plays a significant role inraising the informativeness, the significance and is ofscientific-me thodical value for Lhe coach. The form should pro-vide clear and accessible cont en ts f0r its material; and chiefly,this mate rial should che pr i! ci pal strategic features of The :ollowing basic forms of lon [or programming and of training can be recommended.1. A Principa l Model of the System of Training ConstructionLn the Ye ar-Cycle. The model cl ea r l y and laconicallyreflect t he general stYnte g y and the principal organization ofthe training. Ther e for e , 1 ShOL] d be constructed in graphicfor m; for example, likv that pres e ntee in figures 54-57. Theprincipal model lS a good school [or the coach's professionalthinking. At the same time the graphic form of the model oftra ining cons ructi on is expressive and makes it e asy for thecoach to convey his ideas to the pupils. The extent to whichthey understand his ideas, wi ll for the most part, det ermine thesucce ss of the training.2. A Quantitative Mode l of the Training Cons t ruction System(group or individual). It l5 worked-out on the basis of theprincipal model and i ncl udes a q uantitat i ve model of the dynamicsof the most eSsen ial inaicat ors of special-physical and techni-cal-preparedness; taking into account the competition ca lendar.17 4 .It stipulates the general year - volume of loading all of thetraining me ans and its distr ibution by months; orient ed towardsrealiza t ion of the target -model dyanmics of special-preparedness .The year- cycle of training for q ualified athl e tes (long jumping,see figure 58) can serve as an example of the aforementionedmodel of training construction .3. A p rogram for the large-stage of preparation is worked-out with a wee kly per i odicity In the organizati on of the l oading.Th e s tipulated, concrete distribution of mea ns o f differentpr ima r y emphasis (according to micro-cy c les ), takes into accountthe objectives of the large- stage anti t he individual peculiari-ties uf the athlete's preparacion. These arc the fundamentalworking documents , in accordance with which , the coach organIzesand controls the training.4. The sportsman's i ndividual ized chart includes thedynamics o f the tra in ing lead act \lall y executed. with respect tothe f undamental mea ns, as well as the cor responding alterations1n the control the dynamic s of thesportsma n' s state and his sport re SUl ts . The e xamp les i n figures59 and 6 0 i ll us '.rates the conLen t s a nd f orm of such a chart. Thecomposi t ion of the an i mportant condit ion Ear the con-trol and md n agement of traini ng, and chi e fly, f or the subsequentanalysi s of i ts effective ness and conc l usions as to what folloWS.CONCLUSIONProgramming is a new and fonn of planning trai ning.The necessity for programming i s an outgrowth of today's require-men t s; i ts potent ial for cu ltivation has been made possible bythe entire course o the development of science and the practiceof sport. Howeve r, only Lhe first step has been taken in thisdir ect ion. We hope that i t serves a practical prupose, and atthe same t i me, points special is t s in the direction of furtherscientific search.Consider i ng the novelty of the problem, it 15 natural, thatfar from all of the questions (eve n t he limi ted ones st ipulated)175.wil l recelve exhQistive elucidation. Those directions ofsc ientif ic search , in which one should seek the answe rs to thesequest ions, ha ve been ascer t ained. With respect to this the mostprospective aroas arc study o[ the regularities of l ong-termand the organism's so-called adaptation to intensemuscular work; and obser vation of tte pri nc ipal tendencies in thedynamics of the sporLsman's s tate during prolonged trainingstagGs , de pending on Lhe aSS "gnec loading (its content s, volumeana o rgan izat ion).It's obvious that furLher s ea r ch In these directions 15impos sibl e wi thout activo o f sport physiologistsand biochemisLs. It i s necessary for them to oVercome the tradi-tional na rrow-mL nd ed descript ive ana explanatory functions bywhich t hey hav0 been guided up ti ll now; to see the t rainingprocess I n a l l o f the comple xit y of its contents and organiza-tion, and to understand its role in solving the problems emana-t i ng f rom this. It is very jmport un t a point out that it isi mpossibl e to solve the s e by observa tion o f onl y physio-logical ana biochernicul nl ':ch21nisms . It. is impos sible to separ-a t e . as IS cus toma ry , the i ndustrious apparat us from themechanisms and sourCe of for muscu l ar and to exami ne them "in general", outside of the i r i nter-condi-tional f unct i o na l perfec ' ioning; under spe c ifi c conditions ofs ystematic special ized tra ining. 1he pitfalls of such a separa- become apparent when one at tempts to extract some practicalrecommendat ions, eve n from interes ting experimental ma ter ial.Further elaboration of the programming quest ion should becarried-out by taking into its gene ral pedagogi cal prin-cipl es , and based on a special experimental search. It is impor-tant to point-out wj th r e spect to this, t hat it is unacceptableto understand programming as the followi ng of some instructions,prescr i bing a rigid order In the organization of trai n ing. Fur-the rmore it's also senseless to view it as the cre ation of ana l gorhythm for chess. Programming in sport is an art, which 15based on specif ic pr inciples , a llowing the coach creative initi-atives in making the final dec i s ions.17 5 .In th i s book such principles arc most clearly expressed bythe models of training constr uction In the year-cycle. However,practiced ut iIi zati on of the se pr inc i pI es for programmingregtnres further elaboration of numerous "partial" methodicalque stions. The latt e r concerns the ordering of loading in thelarge training stages and their composition in the micro-cycles;as well as rational ways of combining the contents of thesemicro-cycles into a system, taking into account the specific typeof sport, the assigned loading. the period of training, theathlete's qualification and his indi vidual peculiarities .It is the coach's role to solve such questions . His pedago-gical mastery and methodical expe rIence should, in this case,have .... h'" dec i sive voicel but on I},' i ~ he has sufficient knowledge L ~of sport physiology. This I S important for the practicalutilization and the further p e rf e ct i o n ing of the pr i nciples ofprogramnll ng \:.raining formulat :- d in the book and for the very samecoach's professional preparation.177.