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8/11/2019 Anthropocentrism Critique - CDL 2014.doc 1/24 CDL Core Files 2014/2015 Index  Anthropocentrism Critique NE  Anthropocentrism Critique Negative  Anthropocentrism Critique Negative 1  Anthropocentrism 1NC [1/6]................................................................................................... 2  Anthropocentrism 1NC [2/6]................................................................................................... 3  Anthropocentrism 1NC [3/6]................................................................................................... 5  Anthropocentrism 1NC [4/6]................................................................................................... 6  Anthropocentrism 1NC [5/6]................................................................................................... 7  Anthropocentrism 1NC [6/6]................................................................................................... 8 2NC / 1NR Extensions: A/ !1 " #No $in%&............................................................................' 2NC / 1NR Extensions: A !2 " #Anthropocentrism (ne)it*+,e& [1/1].................................1- 2NC / 1NR Extensions: A/ !3 " #ermt*tion& [1/1]...........................................................11 2NC / 1NR Extensions: A/ !4 " #No Root C*se& [1/1].......................................................12 2NC / 1NR Extensions: A/ !5 " #No (mp*ct& [1/1]..............................................................13 2NC / 1NR Extensions: A/ !6 " #A,tern*ti)e 0*i,s& [1/1]....................................................14 ,*npeciic $in%: A*c,tre [1/1]....................................................................................15 ,*npeciic $in%: shore in [1/1]................................................................................16 ,*npeciic $in%: i, Exp,or*tion [1/1]................................................................................17 ,*npeciic $in%: Ree Exp,or*tion [1/2]............................................................................18 ,*npeciic $in%: Ree Exp,or*tion [2/2]............................................................................1'  Ansers o,,o in the s*me i,e.

Anthropocentrism Critique - CDL 2014.doc

Jun 02, 2018



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CDL Core Files 2014/2015 Index Anthropocentrism Critique NE

 Anthropocentrism Critique Negative

 Anthropocentrism Critique Negative 1

 Anthropocentrism 1NC [1/6]...................................................................................................2 Anthropocentrism 1NC [2/6]................................................................................................... 3

 Anthropocentrism 1NC [3/6]...................................................................................................5

 Anthropocentrism 1NC [4/6]...................................................................................................6

 Anthropocentrism 1NC [5/6]................................................................................................... 7

 Anthropocentrism 1NC [6/6]...................................................................................................8

2NC / 1NR Extensions: A/ !1 " #No $in%&............................................................................'

2NC / 1NR Extensions: A !2 " #Anthropocentrism (ne)it*+,e& [1/1].................................1-

2NC / 1NR Extensions: A/ !3 " #ermt*tion& [1/1]...........................................................11

2NC / 1NR Extensions: A/ !4 " #No Root C*se& [1/1].......................................................12

2NC / 1NR Extensions: A/ !5 " #No (mp*ct& [1/1]..............................................................13

2NC / 1NR Extensions: A/ !6 " #A,tern*ti)e 0*i,s& [1/1]....................................................14

,*npeciic $in%: A*c,tre [1/1]....................................................................................15

,*npeciic $in%: shore in [1/1]................................................................................16

,*npeciic $in%: i, Exp,or*tion [1/1]................................................................................17

,*npeciic $in%: Ree Exp,or*tion [1/2]............................................................................18

,*npeciic $in%: Ree Exp,or*tion [2/2]............................................................................1'

 Ansers o,,o in the s*me i,e.

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 A. Link – the affirmative has approached the ocean as something to e explored and developed for the purpose of human expansion. !his is fundamentallyanthropocentric and risks e"tinction

#ivi$ %&&%k[Rich*r i)i, stie *t the 9ni)ersit o ;r+*n est)i,,e< *n *t the 9ni)ersit o N*t*,< ;r+*n. =e h*s +een,ectrin> phi,osoph since 1''6. #=? E NEE; A NE E=(C 0R =E EN@(RNEN&< 2---<http://.cr)p.or>/+oo%/eries-2/((7/ch*pterB)ii.htm]

hree most si>niic*nt *n pressin> *ctors contri+tin> to the en)ironment*, crisis *re the e)erincre*sin> hm*n pop,*tion< the ener> crisis< *n the *+se *n po,,tion o the e*rths n*tr*,sstems. hese *n other *ctors contri+tin> to the en)ironment*, crisis c*n +e irect, ,in%e to*nthropocentric )ies o the or,. he perception th*t )*,e is ,oc*te in< *n em*n*tes rom< hm*nith*s res,te in nerst*nin> hm*n ,ie *s *n ,tim*te )*,e< sperior to *,, other +ein>s. his h*sri)en inno)*tors in meicine *n techno,o> to e)er impro)e or meic*, *n m*teri*, conitions< in *n*ttempt to preser)e hm*n ,ie< res,tin> in more peop,e +ein> +orn *n ,i)in> ,on>er. (n *chie)in> this*im< the h*)e inirect, contri+te to incre*sin> the hm*n pop,*tion. erceptions o speriorit<cop,e ith e)e,opin> techno,o>ies h*)e res,te in * soci*, ot,oo% th*t >ener*,, oes not rest content

 ith the +*sic necessities o ,ie. ;em*ns or more meic*, *n soci*, *i< more entert*inment *n morecomort tr*ns,*te into em*ns or impro)e st*n*rs o ,i)in>. (ncre*sin> pop,*tion nm+ers<to>ether ith the m*teri*, em*ns o moern societ< p,*ce e)er incre*sin> em*ns on ener> spp,ies.

 hi,e *ntin> * +etter ,ie is not * +* thin>< >i)en the pop,*tion exp,osion the crrent ener> crisis isine)it*+,e< hich +rin>s * ho,e host o en)ironment*, imp,ic*tions in to. his is not to s* th*t e)erimpro)ement in the st*n*r o ,i)in> is necess*ri, *ste, o ener> or po,,tin> to the p,*net< +tr*ther it is the cm,*ti)e eect o these impro)ements th*t is *m*>in> to the en)ironment. he *+ses*cin> the n*tr*, en)ironment *s * res,t o the ener> crisis *n the oo em*n *re c,e*r,m*niest*tions o *nthropocentric )ies th*t tre*t the en)ironment *s * resorce *n instrment orhm*n ens. he po,,tion *n estrction o the nonhm*n n*tr*, or, is eeme *ccept*+,e<pro)ie th*t it oes not interere ith other hm*n +ein>s. (t co, +e *r>e th*t there is nothin>essenti*,, ron> ith *nthropocentric *ssmptions< since it is n*tr*,< e)en instinct*,< to *)or ones

se, *n species o)er *n *+o)e *,, other orms o ,ie. =oe)er< it is pro+,em*tic in th*t sch perceptionsin,ence or *ctions *n e*,in>s ith the or, to the extent th*t the e,,+ein> o ,ie on this p,*net isthre*tene< m*%in> the contin*nce o * h>e proportion o existin> ,ie orms Dtenos i notimpro+*+,eD E,,iot 1''5: 1F. ;enin> the nonhm*n or, ethic*, consier*tion< it is e)ient th*t*nthropocentric *ssmptions pro)ie * r*tion*,e or the exp,oit*tion o the n*tr*, or, *n< thereore<h*)e +een ,*r>e, responsi+,e or the present en)ironment*, crisis ;es G*rins 1''7: '3F. 0ox ientiiesthree +ro* *ppro*ches to the en)ironment inorme + *nthropocentric *ssmptions< hich in re*,it*re not istinct *n sep*r*te< +t occr in * )*riet o com+in*tions. he Dexp*nsionistD *ppro*ch isch*r*cterise + the reco>nition th*t n*tre h*s * pre, instrment*, )*,e to hm*ns. his )*,e is*ccesse thro>h the phsic*, tr*nsorm*tion o the nonhm*n n*tr*, or,< + *rmin>< minin><*mmin> etc. ch pr*ctices cre*te *n economic )*,e< hich tens to De*te the phsic*,tr*nsorm*tion o Hresorces ith economic >rothD 0ox 1''-: 152F. $e>itimisin> continos exp*nsion*n exp,oit*tion< this *ppro*ch re,ies on the ie* th*t there is *n nenin> spp, o resorces. he

Dconser)*tionistD *ppro*ch< ,i%e the irst< reco>nises the economic )*,e o n*tr*, resorces thro>h theirphsic*, tr*nsorm*tion< hi,e *t the s*me time *cceptin> the *ct th*t there *re ,imits to these resorces.(t thereore emph*sises the import*nce o conser)in> n*tr*, resorces< hi,e prioritisin> the import*nceo e)e,opin> the nonhm*n n*tr*, or, in the est or in*nci*, >*in. he Dpreser)*tionistD *ppro*chiers rom the irst to in th*t it reco>nises the enIoment *n *esthetic enrichment hm*n +ein>srecei)e rom *n nistr+e n*tr*, or,. 0ocsin> on the pschic*, norishment )*,e o the nonhm*n n*tr*, or, or hm*ns< this *ppro*ch stresses the import*nce o preser)in> resorces in theirn*tr*, st*tes.

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#ivi$ evidence continues' no te"t de$eted( A,, three *ppro*ches *re inorme + *nthropocentric *ssmptions. his res,ts in * onesie

nerst*nin> o the hm*nn*tre re,*tionship. N*tre is nerstoo to h*)e * sin>,*r ro,e o ser)in>hm*nit< hi,e hm*nit is nerstoo to h*)e no o+,i>*tions to*r n*tre. ch * perceptionrepresents Dnot on, * e,e +t *,so * )er *n>eros orient*tion to the or,D 0ox 1''-: 13F< *s on,the ,i)es o hm*n +ein>s *re reco>nise to h*)e irect mor*, orth< hi,e the mor*, consier*tion ononhm*n entities is entire, contin>ent pon the interests o hm*n +ein>s ierce J @*n ;e @eer1''5: 'F. =m*nit is *)ore *s inherent, )*,*+,e< hi,e the nonhm*n n*tr*, or, conts on, interms o its se )*,e to hm*n +ein>s. he Dexp*nsionistD *n Dconser)*tionistD *ppro*ches reco>nise *neconomic )*,e< hi,e the Dpreser)*tionistD *ppro*ch reco>nises * heonistic< *esthetic or spirit*, )*,e.he *ccept< ithot ch*,,en>e< the *ssmption th*t the )*,e o the nonhm*n n*tr*, or, is entire,epenent on hm*n nees *n interests. None *ttempt to mo)e +eon the *ssmption th*t n*tre h*s *n orth other th*n the )*,e hm*ns c*n eri)e rom it< ,et *,one se*rch or * eeper )*,e in n*tre. his ensres th*thm*n ties ret*in * pre, hm*n ocs< there+ *)oiin> the possi+i,it th*t hm*ns m* h*)e ties th*t extento nonhm*ns. his c*n ,e* to )iein> the nonhm*n or,< e)oi o irect mor*, consier*tion< *s * mereresorce ith * pre, instrment*, )*,e o ser)ite. his >i)es rise to * princip,e o Htot*, se< here+ e)er

n*tr*, *re* is seen or its potenti*, c,ti)*tion )*,e< to +e se or hm*n ens Kimmerm*n 1''8: 1'F. hispro)ies ,imite me*ns to criticise the +eh*)ior o those ho se n*tre pre, *s * *rehose o resorces ierceJ @*n ;e @eer 1''5: 184F. (t is c,e*r th*t hm*nit h*s the c*p*cit to tr*nsorm *n e>r*e the en)ironment.

Li)en the conseences inherent in h*)in> sch c*p*cities< Dthe nee or * coherent< comprehensi)e<r*tion*,, pers*si)e en)ironment*, ethic is imper*ti)eD ierce J @*n ;e @eer 1''5: 2F. he prpose o*n en)ironment*, ethic o, +e to *ccont or the mor*, re,*tions th*t exist +eteen hm*ns *n theen)ironment< *n to pro)ie * r*tion*, +*sis rom hich to ecie ho e o>ht *n o>ht not to tre*tthe en)ironment. he en)ironment *s eine *s the or, in hich e *re en)e,ope *n immerse<constitte + +oth *nim*te *n in*nim*te o+Iects. his inc,es +oth ini)i*, ,i)in> cre*tres< sch *sp,*nts *n *nim*,s< *s e,, *s non,i)in>< nonini)i*, entities< sch *s ri)ers *n oce*ns< orests *n

 )e,s< essenti*,,< the ho,e p,*net E*rth. his constittes * )*st *n *,,inc,si)e sphere< *n< orprposes o c,*rit< sh*,, +e reerre to *s the D>re*ter en)ironmentD. (n orer to *ccont or the mor*,re,*tions th*t exist +eteen hm*ns *n the >re*ter en)ironment< *n en)ironment*, ethic sho, h*)e *si>niic*nt, ie r*n>e o ocs. ( *r>e th*t *nthropocentric )*,e sstems *re not sit*+,e to the t*s% oe)e,opin> * comprehensi)e en)ironment*, ethic. 0irst,< *nthropocentric *ssmptions h*)e +een shonto +e ,*r>e, responsi+,e or the crrent en)ironment*, crisis. hi,e this in itse, oes not pro)ie stron>spport or the c,*im< it oes c*st * im ,i>ht on *n theor th*t is inorme + sch *ssmptions.econ,< *n en)ironment*, ethic reires * si>niic*nt, ie r*n>e o ocs. As sch< it sho, consierthe interests o * ie r*n>e o +ein>s. (t h*s +een shon th*t *nthropocentric *ppro*ches o notentert*in the notion th*t nonhm*n entities c*n h*)e interests inepenent o hm*n interests.DExp*nsionistD< Dconser)*tionistD *n Dpreser)*tionistD *ppro*ches on, *c%no,e>e * )*,e in n*treth*t is etermine + the nees *n interests o hm*ns. hir,< +ec*se *nthropocentric *ppro*chespro)ie * mor*, *ccont or the interests o hm*ns *,one< hi,e exc,in> nonhm*ns rom irectmor*, consier*tion< the *re not sicient, encomp*ssin>. An en)ironment*, ethic nees to +e sit*+,encomp*ssin> to ensre th*t * mor*, *ccont is pro)ie or *,, entities th*t constitte the en)ironment. (t co, +e*r>e th*t the inirect mor*, concern or the en)ironment *risin> ot o *n *nthropocentric *ppro*ch is sicient toensre the protection o the >re*ter en)ironment. (n response< on, those entities th*t *re in the interest o hm*ns

 i,, +e mor*,, consiere< *,+eit inirect,< hi,e those entities hich *,, otsie o this re*,m i,, +e seen to +emor*,, irre,e)*nt. Assmin> th*t there *re more entities on this p,*net th*t *re not in the interest ohm*ns th*n entities th*t *re< it is s*e to s* th*t *nthropocentric *ppro*ches *re not *e*te,encomp*ssin>. 0orth,< the >o*,s o *n en)ironment*, ethic sho, protect *n m*int*in the >re*teren)ironment. (t is c,e*r th*t the exp*nsionist *ppro*ch< hich is prim*ri, concerne ith thetr*nsorm*tion o n*tre or economic retrn< oes not meet these >o*,s. imi,*r,< neither oes theconser)*tionist *ppro*ch< hich is *r>*+, the s*me *s the exp*nsionist *ppro*ch. he preser)*tionist *ppro*choes< in princip,e s*tis this reirement. =oe)er< this is pro+,em*tic or sch preser)*tion is +*se pon the nees*n interests o hm*ns< *n D*s hm*n interests *n nees ch*n>e< so too o, hm*n ses or the en)ironmentD;es G*rins 1''7: 12'F. Nonhm*n entities< he, c*pti)e + the nees *n interests o hm*ns< *re open to

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 h*te)er *ncies the interests o hm*ns. (n ,i>ht o the *+o)e< it is m contention th*t *nthropocentric )*,esstems *i, to pro)ie * st*+,e >ron or the e)e,opment o *n en)ironment*, ethic.

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 Anthropocentrism 1NC [)/6]

*. +mpact – anthropocentrism drives endless consumption that resu$ts in eco$ogica$destruction

 Ahkin %&1&[M,*nie< on*sh 9ni)ersit< #=m*n Centrism< Animist *teri*,ism< *n the Critie o R*tion*,ism in @*,.,moos Critic*, Eco,o>ic*, 0eminism<& Emer>ent Astr*,*si*n hi,osophers< 2-1-< (sse 3<http://.e*p.phi,osoph*str*,i*.com/isseB3/EA3BA=(NB=m*nBCentrism.p ]

hese i)e e*tres pro)ie the +*sis or he>emonic centrism inso*r *s the promote cert*in concept*,*n percept*, istortions o re*,it hich ni)ers*,ise *n n*tr*,ise the st*npoint o the speriorre,*t* *s prim*r or centre< *n en *n s+orin*te the st*npoints o ineriorise others *s secon*ror eri)*ti)e. 9sin> st*npoint theor *n*,sis< ,moos reconcept*,is*tion o hm*n ch*)inistr*meor%s ,oc*tes *n issects these ,o>ic*, ch*r*cteristics o *,ism< *n the concept*, *npercept*, istortions o re*,it common to centric strctres< *s o,,os. R*ic*, exc,sion is on in ther*tion*,ist emph*sis on ierences +eteen hm*ns *n nonhm*n n*tre< its )*,oris*tion o * hm*nr*tion*,it concei)e *s exc,sion*r o n*tre< *n its minimis*tion o simi,*rities +eteen the tore*,ms. =omo>enis*tion *n stereotpin> occr especi*,, in the r*tion*,ist eni*, o consciosness ton*tre< *n its eni*, o the i)ersit o ment*, ch*r*cteristics on ithin its m*n ierentconstitents< *ci,it*tin> * perception o n*tre *s homo>eneos *n o its mem+ers *s interch*n>e*+,e*n rep,*ce*+,e resorces. his einition o n*tre in terms o its ,*c% o hm*n r*tion*,it *nconsciosness me*ns th*t its ientit rem*ins re,*ti)e to th*t o the omin*nt hm*n >rop< *n itsierence is m*r%e *s eicienc< permittin> its inerioris*tion. O*c%>ronin> *n eni*, m* +eo+ser)e in the conception o n*tre *s extr*neos *n inessenti*, +*c%>ron to the ore>ron ohm*n c,tre< in the hm*n eni*, o epenenc on the n*tr*, en)ironment< *n eni*, o the ethic*,*n po,itic*, constr*ints hich the nreco>nise ens *n nees o nonhm*n n*tre mi>ht otherisep,*ce on hm*n +eh*)ior. hese e*tres to>ether cre*te *n ethic*, iscontinit +eteen hm*ns *nnonhm*n n*tre hich enies n*tres )*,e *n *>enc< *n there+ promote its instrment*,is*tion*n exp,oit*tion or the +eneit o hm*ns.11 his *,istic ,o>ic he,ps to ni)ers*,ise the hm*n centricst*npoint< m*%in> in)isi+,e *n seemin>, ine)it*+,e the concept*, *n percept*, istortions o re*,it

*n oppression o nonhm*n n*tre it enIoins. he *,tern*ti)e st*npoints *n perspecti)es o mem+erso the ineriorise c,*ss o n*tre *re enie ,e>itim*c *n s+orin*te to th*t o the c,*ss o hm*ns<,tim*te, +ecomin> in)isi+,e once this m*ster st*npoint +ecomes p*rt o the )er strctre otho>ht.12 ch *n *nthropocentric r*meor% cre*tes * )*riet o serios inIstices *n prenti*, ris%s<m*%in> it hi>h, eco,o>ic*,, irr*tion*,.13 he hier*rchic*, )*,e prescriptions *n epistemic istortionsresponsi+,e or its +i*se< recti)e concept*,is*tion o n*tre strips the nonhm*n n*tr*, re*,m onon instrment*, )*,e< *n impees the *ir *n imp*rti*, tre*tment o its mem+ers. imi,*r,<*nthropocentrism cre*tes istri+ti)e inIstices + restrictin> ethic*, concern to hm*ns< *mittin>p*rtis*n istri+ti)e re,*tionships ith nonhm*n n*tre in the orms o commoiic*tion *ninstrment*,is*tion. he prenti*, ris%s *n +,inspots cre*te + *nthropocentrism *re pro+,em*tic orn*tre *n hm*ns *,i%e *n *re o especi*, concern ithin or crrent context o r*ic*, hm*nepenence on *n irrep,*ce*+,e *n incre*sin>, e>r*e n*tr*, en)ironment. hese prenti*, ris%s*re in ,*r>e p*rt conseences o the centric strctrePs promotion o i,,sor hm*n isem+eeness<

se,enc,osre *n insensiti)it to the si>niic*nce *n sr)i)*, nees o nonhm*n n*tre: ithin thecontext o hm*nn*tre re,*tionships< sch * ,o>ic mst ine)it*+, ,e* to *i,re< either thro>h thec*t*strophic extinction o or n*tr*, en)ironment *n the conseent co,,*pse o or species< or morehope,, + the *+*nonment *n tr*nsorm*tion o the hm*n centric r*meor%.15 hi,st*c%no,e>in> the import*nce o prenti*, concerns or the moti)*tion o pr*ctic*, ch*n>e< ,mooemph*sises the ei>htier t*s% o *c%no,e>in> inIstices to nonhm*ns in orer to +rin> *+ot*e*te isposition*, ch*n>e.

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 Ahkin evidene continues' no te"t de$eted(he moe, o en,i>htene se,interest imp,icit in prenti*,, moti)*te *ction is in*e*te to this t*s%inso*r *s it rem*ins ithin the r*meor% o hm*n centrism. A,tho>h it *c%no,e>es the possi+i,ito re,*tion*, interests< it rests on * n*ment*, ei)oc*tion +eteen instrment*, *n re,*tion*, orms

o concern or others. (nee it moti)*tes *ction either + *ppe*, to hm*nsP ,tim*te se,interest< ths*i,in> to tr, *c%no,e>e inIstices c*se to nonhm*n others< rem*inin> c*>ht ithin theprenti*,, ris% r*meor% o *nthropocentrism< or e,se it *ccepts th*t othersP interests cont *sre*sons or *ction en*+,in> reco>nition o inIstices +t it oes so in * m*nner hich tre*ts theintersection o othersP nees ith more ,,consiere hm*n interests *s contin>ent *n tr*nsient.Li)en this *n*,sis< it is c,e*r th*t en)ironment*, concern mst +e +*se on * eeper reco>nition oinIstice< in *ition to th*t o prence< i it is to o)ercome i,,sions o hm*n isem+eeness *nse,enc,osre *n h*)e * >enine *n ,*stin> eect.

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 Anthropocentrism 1NC [-/6]

C. !he A$ternative – the udge shou$d vote negative to reect the affirmativesanthropocentric framing. !his is vita$ to re0shape the discussion.

at2 and 3echs$i %&&4)[em+ers o the cience< echno,o>< *n ociet ro>r*m<< Ne Gerse (nstitte o echno,o>< Ne*r%. *tQ iscrrent, @ice resient o the (ntern*tion*, ociet or En)ironment*, Ethics < #o)in> +eon Anthropocentrism:En)ironment*, Ethics< ;e)e,opment< *n the Am*Qon.& 1''3< http://.me,tethi%.*t/on,o*.phpiS3'2.]

C*n *n en)ironment*,ist een * po,ic o preser)*tion in the Am*Qon r*in orest ithot )io,*tin> * +*sic sense o Istice e +e,ie)e th*t the mist*%e is not the po,ic o preser)*tion itse,< +t the*nthropocentric instrment*, r*meor% in hich it is Istiie. En)ironment*, po,ic ecisions sho,not mere, concern the tr*eo *n comp*rison o )*rios hm*n +eneits. ( en)ironment*,ists c,*imth*t the hir or, mst preser)e its en)ironment +ec*se o the o)er*,, +eneits or hm*nit< thenecision m*%ers in the hir or, c*n em*n Istice in the etermin*tion o preser)*tion po,ic:preser)*tionist po,icies n*ir, *m*>e the hm*n interests o the ,oc*, pop,*tions. ( preser)*tionistpo,icies *re to +e Istiie ithot * ,oss o eit< there *re on, to possi+,e *,tern*ti)es: either e in theinstri*,iQe or, mst p* or the +eneits e i,, >*in rom preser)*tion or e mst reIect the*nthropocentric *n instrment*, r*meor% or po,ic ecisions. he irst *,tern*ti)e is *n empiric*,po,itic*, isse< *n one *+ot hich e *re not o)er, optimistic. he secon *,tern*ti)e represents * shitin phi,osophic*, or, )ie. e *re not pro)iin> * irect *r>ment or * non*nthropocentric )*,esstem *s the +*sis o en)ironment*, po,ic. R*ther< or str*te> is inirect. $et s *ssme th*t * theor o norm*ti)e ethics hich inc,es nonhm*n n*tr*, )*,e h*s +een Istiie. (n sch * sit*tion< thehm*n commnit< in *ition to its tr*ition*, hm*ncentere o+,i>*tions< o, *,so h*)e mor*,o+,i>*tions to n*tre or to the n*tr*, en)ironment in itse,. ne o these o+,i>*tions o, in)o,)e ther>ent necessit or en)ironment*, preser)*tion. e o, +e o+,i>*te< or ex*mp,e< to the Am*Qon r*inorest irect,. e o, preser)e the r*in orest< not or the hm*n +eneits res,tin> rom thispreser)*tion< +t +ec*se e h*)e *n o+,i>*tion o preser)*tion to n*tre *n its ecosstems. r ties

 o, +e irecte to n*tre *n its inh*+it*nts *n en)ironments< not mere, to hm*ns *n hm*ninstittions. 0rom this perspecti)e< estions o the tr*eo *n comp*rison o hm*n +eneits< *n

estions o Istice or speciic hm*n pop,*tions< o not omin*te the iscssion. his ch*n>e oemph*sis c*n +e i,,str*te + *n exc,si)e, hm*n ex*mp,e. Consier to +sinessmen< mith *nGones< ho *re *r>in> o)er the proper istri+tion o the +eneits *n costs res,tin> rom * prior

 +siness *>reement +eteen them. ( e Ist ocs on mith *n Gones *n the isses concernin> them< e i,, *nt to ,oo% *t the contr*ct< the re,e)*nt ,e>*, preceents< *n the *ct*, res,ts o the e*,< +eorerenerin> * ecision. Ot sppose e ,e*rn th*t the *>reement in)o,)e the p,*nne mrer o * thirp*rt< Lreen< *n the res,tin> istri+tion o his propert. At th*t point the isses +eteen mith *nGones ce*se to +e re,e)*ntT e no ,on>er consier ho h*s c,*ims to Lreens *,,et< o)erco*t< or O to

 +e import*nt. he competin> c,*ims +ecome insi>niic*nt in ,i>ht o the o+,i>*tions oe to Lreen. hisc*se is *n*,o>os to or )ie o the mor*, o+,i>*tions oe to the r*in orest. As soon *s e re*,iQe th*tthe r*in orest itse, is re,e)*nt to the con,ict o competin> >oos< e see th*t there is not * simp,ei,emm* +eteen hir or, e)e,op ment< on the one h*n< *n preser)*tion o r*in orests< on theotherT there is no< in *ition< the mor*, o+,i>*tion to n*tre *n its ecosstems. hen the

non*nthropocentric r*meor% is introce< it cre*tes * more comp,ex sit*tion or e,i+er*tion *nreso,tion. (t comp,ic*tes the *,re* et*i,e iscssions o hm*n tr*eos< hi>htech tr*nsers< *ipro>r*ms< e+t orn*tre s*ps< sst*in*+,e e)e,opment< etc.< ith * consier*tion o the mor*,o+,i>*tions to nonhm*n n*tre. his comp,ic*tion m* *ppe*r conterproc ti)e< +t *s in the c*se omith< Gones< *n Lreen< it *ct*,, ser)es to simp,i the ecision. Gst *s * concern or Lreen m*e thecontr*ct ispte +eteen mith *n Gones irre,e)*nt< the o+,i>*tion to the r*in orest m*%es m*n o theisses *+ot tr*eos o hm*n >oos irre,e)*nt.12 (t is< o corse< nortn*te th*t this irect o+,i>*tionto the r*in orest c*n on, +e met ith * cost in hm*n s*tis*ctionUsome hm*n interests i,, not +e,i,,e. Ne)erthe,ess< the s*me c*n +e s*i o *,, ethic*, ecisions< or so *nt te*ches s: e *re on,*ssre, mor*, hen e *ct *>*inst or inc,in*tions.

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 Anthropocentrism 1NC [6/6]

*tQ *n eschs,i e)ience contines< no text e,eteVo smm*riQe< the historic*, orces o economic imperi*,ism h*)e cre*te * h*rsh i,emm* or

en)ironment*,ists ho consier n*tre preser)*tion in the hir or, to +e necess*r. Ne)erthe,ess<en)ironment*,ists c*n esc*pe the i,emm*< *s exemp,iie in the e+*te o)er the e)e,opment o the

 Am*Qon r*in orest< i the reIect the *xio,o>ic*, *n norm*ti)e r*meor% o *nthropocentricinstrment*, r*tion*,it. A set o o+,i>*tions irecte to n*tre in its on ri>ht m*%es m*n estions ohm*n +eneits *n s*tis*ctions irre,e)*nt. he Am*Qon r*in orest o>ht to +e preser)e re>*r,ess othe +eneits or costs to hm*n +ein>s. nce e mo)e +eon the conines o hm*n+*se instrment*,>oos< the en)ironment*,ist position is there+ Istiie< *n no po,ic i,emm* is cre*te. hisconc,sion ser)es *s *n inirect Istiic*tion o * non *nthropocentric sstem o norm*ti)e ethics<*)oiin> pro+,ems in en)ironment*, po,ic th*t * hm*n+*se ethic c*nnot.13

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%NC / 1N5 "tensions7 A/! 81 – 9No Link:

1. !here is a $ink – the affirmative va$ues the ocean on$; insofar as it is va$ua$e tohumans. 3ur 1NC #ivi$ evidence sa;s this is the same mindset that <e use to ustif;prioriti2ing human interests aove other species and caused  the destruction of the

ocean in the first p$ace ecause it.

%. [+N#5! =LAN0#=C+>+C L+N]

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%NC / 1N5 "tensions7 A! 8% – 9Anthropocentrism +nevita$e:[1/1]

1. Anthropocentrism is not inevita$e. +f the udge votes negative to reect human0centric po$icies $ike the p$an' then po$icies <i$$ e eva$uated through a moreinclusive decision0making process. 3ur 1NC at2 and 3echs$i evidence sa;s thisavoids the po$ic; di$emmas descried in their evidence.

%. ven if anthropocentrism is inevita$e' the udge has an ethica$ o$igation toreect it. ver; meaningfu$ socia$ change in histor; has started <ith a sma$$ numerof peop$e emracing a different <a; of vie<ing the <or$d at the persona$ $eve$.

). An aso$ute reak <ith anthropocentrism ma; e impossi$e' ut voting negativeto keep tr;ing is important and sufficient to so$ve.

?ackson %&1)

[K*%i*h (m*n. C*rter L. ooson ostoctor*, 0e,,o *t the 9ni)ersit o @ir>ini*. he is *,so *n *ssist*ntproessor o En>,ish *t Leor>e *son 9ni)ersit. #Anim*,: Ne ;irections in the heoriQ*tion o R*ce *nosthm*nism.& Feminist Studies< @o, 3' N3. 2-13]

 Accorin> tonter< * mt*tion *t the ,e)e, o the episteme< one *s tr*nsorm*ti)e *s th*t hich sherein the epoch o 0oc*,ts #m*n<& is reire i %no,e>e is to +re*% rom *ns co>niti)e *n concept*,strctres.28 ome o posthm*nisms e*r,iest critics interIecte th*t the ie, o, +eneit rom more*ttenti)eness to the po,itics o >ener< r*ce< c,*ss< *n *+i,it< *s the +e,ie)e th*t the ie, h*nittin>, reinscri+e estern exception*,ism< techno,o>ic*, etishism< *n *+,eism in its em+r*ce o#prosthetic*,,enh*nce tres.&2' (t o,< hoe)er< +e * mist*%e to n*rro, interpret sch criticism*s simp, * m*tter o *ccess *n ientit< somethin> ,i%e #posthm*nism or e)erone.& o o so o,miss the ,*r>er point< hich concerns posthm*nisms st*te promise *n e)en responsi+i,it to +re*%

 ith En,i>htenments orer o consciosness. As o,e notes in h*t (s osthm*nism< one o theh*,,m*r%s o ,i+er*, hm*nism #is its pench*nt or th*t %in o p,r*,ism< in hich the sphere o *ttention

*n consier*tion inte,,ect*, or ethic*,F is +ro*ene *n extene to pre)ios, m*r>in*,iQe >rops< +t ithot in the ,e*st est*+i,iQin> or throin> into r*ic*, estion the schem* o the hm*n honert*%es sch p,r*,iQ*tion.&3- A c*,, or * tr*nsorm*ti)e theor *n pr*ctice o hm*nit sho, not

 +e mist*%en or the *nt*s o *n *+so,te +re*% ith hm*nism< hich h*s *nim*te so m*n #post&moments. R*ther< in the +est or%< the #post& m*r%s * commitment to #or% thro>h& th*t hich rem*ins,i+ er*, hm*nist *+ot their phi,osoph. Nei, O*min>ton< in #heoriQin> osthm*nism<& m*%es the,*tter point< *r>in> th*t * ri>or os posthm*nism mst stri)e to re*ch +eon ,i+er*,F hm*nism

 hi,e *c%no,e>in> th*t there is sti,, mch ,i+er*,F hm*nism in the posthm*nist ,*nsc*pe to or%thro>h.31 hi,e ( st*rte this ess* + o+ser)in> the cstom*r pr*ctice o p,*cin> the or%s in contexto * >ene*,o>< h*t is tr, excitin> *+ot this moment in posthm*nism is th*t esh*ri< $n+,*< *nChen *re ch*rtin> * ne p*th or tre or% r*ther th*n reinscri+in> preexistin> p*r *i>ms. A,, three o these texts proce mch enthsi*sm in this re*er *+ot h*t is to come or posthm*nism.

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%NC / 1N5 "tensions7 A/! 8) – 9=ermutation: [1/1]

1. !he permutation doesnt so$ve the $ink – the 1AC <as a$igned <ithanthropocentrism since the advantages <ere framed as enefits to human eings

e"c$usive$;. +f <e <in our $ink arguments' ;ou shou$d reect the permutation 00theres no enefit to preferring it over the a$ternative a$one.

%. !he permutation proves the link – their <i$$ingness to contingent$; prioriti2ehuman interests devo$ves into self-serving rationalizations for anthropocentricpo$icies.

Lupise$$a and Logsdon 144@[*r%. *sters o hi,osoph *t *r,*n. An Gohn " irector o the p*ce o,ic (nstitte *t Leor>e *shin>ton.#;o e Nee * Cosmocentric Ethic& 1''7*roiS1-.]

te)e Li,,ett h*s s>>este * h+ri )ie com+inin> homocentrism *s *pp,ie to terrestri*, *cti)itcom+ine ith +iocentrism to*rs or,s ith ini>enos ,ie.32 (n)o%in> sch * p*tchor% o theories

to he,p e*, ith ierent om*ins *n circmst*nces co, +e consiere *ccept*+,e *n perh*ps e)enesir*+,e especi*,, hen e*,in> ith somethin> *s )*rie *n comp,ex *s ethics. (nee< it h*s * cert*incommon sense *ppe*,. =oe)er< inste* o i>>in> eep, into h*t is cert*in, * ,e>itim*teepistemo,o>ic*, isse< ,et s consier the ors o G. O*ir C*,,icott: #Ot there is +oth * r*tion*,phi,osophic*, em*n *n * hm*n pscho,o>ic*, nee or * se,consistent *n *,,em+r*cin> mor*,theor. e *re neither >oo phi,osophers nor ho,e persons i or one prpose e *opt ti,it*ri*nism<*nother eonto,o>< * thir *nim*, ,i+er*tion< * orth the ,*n ethic< *n so on. ch ethic*, ec,ecticismis not on, r*tion*,, into,er*+,e< it is mor*,, sspect *s it in)ites the sspicion o * hoc r*tion*,iQ*tionsor mere, expeient or se,ser)in> *ctions.&33

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%NC / 1N5 "tensions7 A/! 8, – 9No 5oot Cause: [1/1]

1. Anthropocentrism is the root cause of the harms of the 1AC. 5esource dep$etion'environmenta$ destruction' and c$imate change are all  e"p$ained ; humanit;s

continued <i$$ingness to ignore non0human species in the name of humanconsumption – thats our 1NC #i$va evidence.

%. !his is a$so true of geopo$itica$ conf$ict. !he human/non0human dichotom; trainsus to treat others as $ess0than0human' <hich is a precondition for <ar.

ochi %&&4[*ri% ochi is * $ectrer in $* *n (ntern*tion*, *t the 9ni)ersit o ssex. #pecies *r: $*< @io,ence *n Anim*,s in $*& Culture and the Humanities @o, 5 N3. cto+er 2--' ]

(n re,*tion to the isse o *r/,* these to insi>hts c*n +e t*%en rther. ( thin% 0oc*,ts notion o r*ce *r c*n +e e)e,ope + pttin> *t its he*rt the ierin> historic*, *n >ene*,o>ic*, re,*tionships +eteenhm*n *n nonhm*n *nim*,s. hs< +eon r*ce *r h*t sho, +e consiere *s * prim*r c*te>or

 ithin ,e>*, *n po,itic*, theor is th*t o species *r. 0rther< the n*ment*, po,itic*, istinction is not*s chmitt o, h*)e it< th*t o riens *n enemies< +t r*ther< the )io,ent con,ict +eteen hm*n *nnonhm*n *nim*,s. R*ce *r is *n extension o *n e*r,ier orm o *r< species *r. he rienenemistinction is *n extension o * more prim*r istinction +eteen hm*n *n nonhm*n *nim*,s. (n thisrespect< h*t c*n +e seen to ,* *t the on*tion o the $* o *r is not the estph*,i*n notion o ci)i,pe*ce< or the notion o hm*n ri>hts. Neither r*ce *r nor the rienenem istinction resies *t the

 +ottom o the $* o *r. R*ther< h*t sits *t the on*tion o the $* o *r is * iscorse o species *r th*t o)er time h*s +ecome so n*tr*,ise ithin estern ,e>*, *n po,itic*, theor th*t e h*)e*,most or>otten *+ot it. A,tho>h species *r rem*ins ,*r>e, hien +ec*se it is not seen *s *r ore)en )io,ence *t *,, it contines to *ect the *s in hich Iriic*, mech*nisms orer the ,e>itim*c o

 )io,ence. hi,e species *r m* not +e * estern monopo,< in this *ccont ( i,, on, ex*mine * estern )*ri*nt. his )*ri*nt< hoe)er< is one th*t m* e,, h*)e +een impose pon the rest o the or,thro>h co,oniQ*tion *n >,o+*,iQ*tion. (n h*t i,, o,,o ( oer * s%etch o species *r *n sho hothe Iriic*, mech*nisms or eterminin> h*t constittes ,e>itim*te )io,ence *,, +*c% pon the hien

on*tion o species *r. ( tr to o this + shoin> th*t the )*rios moern Iriic*, mech*nisms oreterminin> h*t conts *s ,e>itim*te )io,ence *re epenent pon * pr*ctice o I>in> the )*,e oorms o ,ie. ( *r>e th*t contempor*r c,*ims *+ot the ,e>itim*c o *r *re +*se pon I>ements*+ot ierenti*, ,ie)*,e *n th*t these I>ements *re *n extension o *n ori>in*, pr*ctice in hichthe ,e>itim*c o %i,,in> is >rone pon the )*,*tion o the hm*n *+o)e the nonhm*n. 0rther< +>i)in> *n o)er)ie o the *s in hich or nerst*nin> o the ,e>itim*c o *r h*s ch*n>e< ( *ttemptto sho ho the notion o species *r h*s +een contin*,, exc,e rom the $* o *r *n o hocontempor*r historic*, mo)ements mi>ht open * sp*ce or its possi+,e reinc,sion.

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%NC / 1N5 "tensions7 A/! 8- – 9No +mpact: [1/1]

1. !he impact to anthropocentrism is end$ess consumption that resu$ts in e"tinction. hen <e prioriti2e human interests over non0human species' it ustifies continua$

ruth$ess e"p$oitation of natura$ resources unti$ no $ife on the p$anet is sustaina$e.3ur 1NC Ahkin evidence sa;s anthropocentrism makes non0human interestsinvisi$e and makes environmenta$ destruction inevita$e.

%. Anthropocentrism risks e"tinction and shou$d e independent$; reected ecauseits unethica$

Bott$ie %&&4,[Ro>er. roessor o =m*nities *t orcester o,technic. #Ethics *n r*m*: $e)in*s< 0eminism< *n ;eepEco,o>& 1''4 http://.crosscrrents.or>/eministeco,o>.htm]

erh*ps there is in pro>ress *nother< e)en more encomp*ssin> ;e*th E)ent< hich c*n +e the historic*,conition or *n ethic o comp*ssion *n c*re. ( spe*% o the specter o ecocie < the continin> estrction

o species *n ecosstems< *n the >roin> thre*t to the +*sic conitions essenti*, to hm*n ,ie . h*t%in o ethic is *e*te to this +rt*,, ne *n potenti*,, most nor>i)in> o crises =o c*n erespon to this tr*m* ith *n ethic hich em*ns * response< *n oes not rem*in m*r>in*,iQe =ere( i,, *t ,e*st +e>in in *>reement ith $e)in*s. As he reIects *n ethics proceein> on the +*sis o se,interest< so ( +e,ie)e the *nthropocentric perspecti)es o conser)*tion or ,i+er*, en)ironment*,ism c*nnott*%e s *r eno>h. r re,*tions ith nonhm*n n*tre *re poisone *n not Ist +ec*se e h*)e set pee+*c% ,oops th*t *,re* ,e* to m*ss st*r)*tions< s%roc%etin> en)ironment*, ise*se r*tes< *ne)*st*tion o n*tr*, resorces. he pro+,em ith ecocie is not Ist th*t it hrts hm*n +ein>s. rnc*rin> )io,ence *,so )io,*tes the )er >ron o or +ein>< or n*tr*, +o< or home. ch )io,ence isone not simp, to the other *s i the r*inorest< the ri)er< the *tmosphere< the species m*e extinct *retot*,, ierent rom orse,)es. R*ther< e h*)e crciie orse,)esinre,*tiontotheother < r*ctrin> *moe o +ein> in hich se, *n other c*n no more +e concei)e *s ,, in iso,*tion rom e*ch other th*nc*n * mother *n * nrsin> chi,. e *re th*t chi,< *n nonhm*n n*tre is th*t mother. ( this im*>eseems too m*,in< ,et s remem+er th*t other ,*ct*tin> omen c*n ee *n in*nt< +t e h*)e on, onee*rth mother.

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%NC / 1N5 "tensions7 A/! 86 – 9A$ternative >ai$s: [1/1]

1. !he a$ternative so$ves – reecting anthropocentric thought causes us to rethinkthe va$ue s;stems <e emp$o; in our ever;da; $ives. 3ur 1NC at2 and 3echs$i

evidence sa;s reecting anthropocentrism a$$o<s us to move e;ond human0centricthought and emrace neutra$ va$ue s;stems.

%. ven if reection is insufficient to so$ve anthropocentrism' <e shou$d sti$$ fightagainst it in ever; instance. !hat <as our ?ackson evidence.

). 5eection achieves actua$ change – reecting the hierarch; et<een human andnonhuman is a critical first step

in> 1''7[Ro>er in> is * h.;. in A>ric,tr*, Economics rom the 9ni)ersit o Re*in> in En>,*n< here he *s on the*c,t nti, resi>nin> =e h*s recei)e m,tip,e e,,oships rom ?*o< he *c;oe,, Co,on< *n the @ir>ini*Center or the Cre*ti)e Arts. #Critic*, Re,ections on Oiocentric En)ironment*, Ethics: (s (t *n A,tern*ti)e to

 Anthropocentrism& p*ce< p,*ce< *n en)ironment*, ethic< p>. 215216]

 ithot enin> th*t *nthropocentrism c*n +ecome mch more en)ironment*,, inorme *nsophistic*te< there *re sti,, se)er*, re*sons or sspicion th*t moti)*te +iocentric ethics. 0irst< it mi>ht +e*r>e th*t ithot * r*ic*, shit in *ttites *n +e,ies *+ot the )*,e o nonhm*n n*tre< n*rro,concei)e *n shortterm hm*n interests i,, contine to pre)*i, *t the expense o the en)ironment. rsense o ierence rom *n speriorit to nonhm*n n*tre is so n*ment*, to or c,tr*, ot,oo%< itmi>ht +e *r>e< th*t nothin> short o * shit to * +iocentric st*npoint i,, +e sicient to protect e)enhm*n nees *n interests. 0rom this st*npoint< it is essenti*, to e)e,op *n *opt * +iocentricen)ironment*, ethic e)en in orer to promote hm*n ri>hts or preerence s*tis*ction. A secon *r>mentis th*t *nthropocentrism simp, *i,s to *rtic,*te the experience o m*n hm*n +ein>s. Gst *s m*nmen *n omen c*re *+ot their e,,o hm*n +ein>s< respect hm*n ri>hts< *n hope to minimiQehm*n serin>< so too the c*re *+ot h*t h*ppens to omestic*te *n i, *nim*,s< n*tr*,ecosstems< *n the p,*net *s * ho,e. An hi,e some m* see their mor*, concern *s entire, eri)*ti)e

rom their concern or hm*n +ein>s< in the *nti*n *shion< m*n others )*,e nonhm*n n*tre or itson s*%e *n not or the s*%e o other hm*n +ein>s. he phenomeno,o>ic*, re*,it o this experience *nthe potenti*, or exp*nin> it Istiies eorts to *rtic,*te *n en)ironment*, ethic th*t oes not ,tim*te,rece )*,e to some eri)*ti)e o hm*n ri>hts *n preerences. A thir *r>ment in *)or o*+*nonin> *nthropocentric ethics is * pr*ctic*, one. ( the >o*, o p+,ic po,ic is simp, the s*tis*ctiono hm*n interests< then the reso,tion o po,ic con,icts reces to * +*,*ncin> o hm*n ri>hts *nti,ities. (n sch circmst*nces< en)ironment*, po,ic m* ten to pro)ie ,ess protection +oth to n*tre*n to hm*n +ein>s th*n mi>ht h*)e +een *chie)e + * +iocentric ethic. Eric *tQ *n $*ren echs,ih*)e s>>este th*t i the intrinsic )*,e o nonhm*ns is >r*nte + the p*rties in po,ic con,icts< thenreso,tion o the con,icts i,, *,so t*%e into *ccont the conseences or n*tre.D Christopher tone h*seene the ie* o >r*ntin> n*tr*, entities ,e>*, st*nin> on the >rons th*t n,ess the n*tr*, entitis represente in cort proceein>s< it is n,i%e, to +eneit irect, rom *m*>es **re or rep*r*tionsimpose + the corts.D (n sm< the s%epticism *+ot *nthropocentrism ,ies in the concern th*t the

einition o costs *n +eneits i,, ine)it*+, s%e mor*, e,i+er*tions in * se,ser)in>< *nthropocentricirection n,ess e c*n e)e,op * s*tis*ctor +iocentric en)ironment*, ethics.

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=$an0#pecific Link7 Aquacu$ture [1/1]

D Aquacu$ture is particu$ar$; anthropocentric – it prioriti2es human consumptionaove the hea$th of fish popu$ation

Carro$$ %&&4[Cortne. Co,,e>e o Arts *n ciences *t Ooston 9ni)ersit. #0ish 0*rmin> *n the Oon*r o st*in*+i,it: =o A*c,tre ests N*tres Resorces& Boston University Journal of the Arts and Sciences< 2--'http://.+.e/ritin>pro>r*m/Iorn*,/p*stisses/isse2/c*rro,,/]

he *)ent o **c,tre h*s extene the instr o *ctor *rmin> to e*rths m*rine *n resh*tersstems. (t h*s >re*t, +eneite the se*oo +siness *n h*s *,,oe consmers to h*)e tr*ition*,,se*son*, ish *t *n time o the e*rT hoe)er *s the **c,tre instr r*pi, >ros rom sm*,, sc*,eto ,*r>e sc*,e< m*n estion its sst*in*+i,it. hi,e the instr insists th*t ish *rmin> t*%es the

 +ren o i, ish stoc%s< other experts h*)e s>>este th*t the *rms *ct*,, o more h*rm th*n he,p + incre*sin> the spre* o ise*ses< p*r*sites sch *s se* ,ice< *n *stronomic*,, incre*sin> the ,e)e, opo,,tion *n *ste in the i, ecosstems. (n p*rtic,*r< the ,*r>e sc*,e proction o c*rni)oros ishsch *s s*,mon h*s concerne m*n en)ironment*, >rops +ec*se it reires mch ,*r>er *monts oresorces th*n procin> other tpes o ish. Esc*pe s*,mon rom *rms c*n *,so *)erse, *ect the>enetic )*ri*+i,it o i, pop,*tions< recin> their eco,o>ic*, resi,ience. he e+*te o)er thesst*in*+i,it o **c,tre represents the con,ict +eteen Americ*s nee to conser)e *n Americ*snee to contro, n*tres resorces. Risin> e)ience s>>ests th*t ish *rmin> m* en p t*xin> theen)ironment +eon its c*p*cit i it oes not +ecome more eco,o>ic*,, min,. he ,tim*te estion o the e+*te rem*ins ho *r societ c*n psh the +on*r o sst*in*+i,it *n ho *r techno,o> c*nexten the c*p*cit o n*tres resorces.W echno,o> optimists +e,ie)e ne inno)*tions c*n reso,)e *npossi+,e hr,es th*t m* come *+ot ith the e)e,opment o **c,tre. ince 1'7-< se*oo proction in the**c,tre instr h*s incre*se *t *n *nn*, r*te o 8.8X orris et *,. 2F. As the or, pop,*tion *ppro*ches 8 +i,,ion< se*oo procers h*)e h*rnesse **c,tre in *n eort to i,, the >*p +eteen pop,*tion >roth *nn*tr*, se*oo proction o,ne*x 28"2'F. 0*rme s*,mon proction *monte to 817<--- tons in 2--6 *nincre*se 171 o, since 1'8- orris et *,. 2F. hi,e shrimp *n oster *rms m*in, >re ot o e)e,opin>contries< s*,mon *rmin> >re ot o contries ith *ccess to more sophistic*te techno,o> inc,in> the 9..<C*n**< *n Erope o,ne*x 45F. (niti*, *ssessments o ish *rmin> conc,e th*t *,, economies h* *n interestin e)e,opin> **c,tre. 0or ex*mp,e< on Gne 2< 1'76 in oto< G*p*n< *n 0A echnic*, Conerence on

 A*c,tre ex*mine *n iscsse tpes o **c,tre< the possi+,e pro+,ems sch *s the ris% o ise*se< *n,tim*te, recommene the exp*nsion o **c,tre< ,e*in> to h>e in)estment in the risin> instr o,ne*x

3-"31F. o techno,o> optimists< the potenti*, re*rs o **c,tre seeme ininite< +t e stoppe toconsier possi+,e repercssions to the ecosstem.W ome en)ironment*, concerns *+ot **c,tre i sr*ce*s it +e>*n to e)e,op< +t *n initi*, e*rs o eco,o>ic*, imp*cts i ,itt,e to inhi+it >roth o the instr. (n 1'67 the9nite t*tes Con>ress est*+,ishe the Commission on *rine cience< *n in 1'6' the commission re,e*se * reportth*t c*,,e or more rese*rch on **c,tre. ;espite the ,*c% o rese*rch< the promise o Io+s *n oo secritotei>he *n concerns *+ot its eects on the en)ironment< *n e)e,opment contine n*+*te o,ne*x 45F.(n *ition< the p*ss*>e o the 9.. A*c,tre Act in 1'8- *,so he,pe nrtre the e)e,opment o the **c,tre

instr o,ne*x 46F. 0ish *rmin> h*s o+)ios +eneits sch *s oo secrit *n Io+s< +t theseo+)ios +eneits o+scre m*n o the potenti*, pro+,ems th*t co, *rise in the tre.W An instr sch*s **c,tre th*t oes not m*%e eorts to promote sst*in*+i,it i,, ine)it*+, rn into pro+,ems<espite *n short term +eneits it m* >i)e to in)estors. *,mon *rms especi*,, merit concern +ec*se toproce pre*tor ish< comp*nies nee to #rece ish& to proce ish< hich essenti*,, trns ish ,oer

on the oo ch*in< sch *s s*rines or *ncho)ies< into ee or *rme s*,mon =*,ei, 5F. his processreires * h>e *mont o resorces comp*re to her+i)oros ish< m*%in> the s*,mon instr more

 ),ner*+,e i spp,ies +ecome sc*rce *n mch more ener> intensi)e. (n *ition< tho>h the**c,tre +siness c,*ims th*t its *rms pro)ie necess*r oo proction or societs >roin>pop,*tions< m*n estim*tes sho th*t moern ish *rmin> consmes more ish th*n it proces=*,ei, 18F. he estion o hether **c,tre pro)ies * sicient oo sorce or tre >ener*tionsme*ns m*n comp*nies i,, ,e* themse,)es to *i,re i the o not m*n*>e their resorces responsi+,.

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=$an0#pecific Link7 3ffshore ind [1/1]

D 3ffshore <ind proects are steeped in anthropocentrism – the p$an specifica$$;sacrifices bird populations at the a$tar of human interest

>ears %&11[;*rr,< reporter or the *shin>ton ost< #in *rms ner ire or +ir %i,,s<& 8/28/2-11< he *shin>ton ost<http://.*shin>*tion*,/he*,thscience/in*rmsnerireor+ir%i,,s/2-11/-8/25/>(YA-+@,GBstor.htm,]

ix +irs on e* recent, in othern C*,iorni*s eh*ch*pi ont*ins ere m*Iestic >o,en e*>,es.Ot some +ir *tchers s* th*t in *n *re* here oQens o in tr+ines s,ice the *ir the ere *,sosittin> c%s. he 9.. 0ish *n i,,ie er)ice is in)esti>*tin> to etermine h*t %i,,e the +i> r*ptors<*n ec,ine to i),>e the conitions o the rem*ins. Ot the ,i%e, c*se o e*th is no mster to

 i,,ie +io,o>ists ho s* the ere pro+*+, c,ippe + the +,*es o some o the 8- in tr+ines *t thethreee*ro, ine ree in 0*rm roIect< oper*te + the $os An>e,es ;ep*rtment o *ter *noer. As the +*m* *ministr*tion pshes to e)e,op eno>h in poer to pro)ie 2- percent o

 Americ*s ener> + 2-3-< some +ir *)oc*tes orr th*t the >rim isco)er o the e*>,es this month i,, +e * *r more common occrrence. inmi,,s %i,, ne*r, h*, * mi,,ion +irs * e*r< *ccorin> to * 0ish*n i,,ie estim*te. he Americ*n Oir Conser)*nc proIecte th*t the nm+er co, more th*n o+,ein 2- e*rs i the *ministr*tion re*,iQes its >o*, or in poer. he Americ*n in Ener> Associ*tion<

 hich represents the instr< isptes the conser)*ncs proIection< *n *,so the crrent 0ish *n i,,ie cont< s*in> the crrent +ir %i,, is *+ot 15-<--- *nn*,,. )er ne*r, 3- e*rs< none o then*tions 5-- in *rms< here 35<--- in tr+ines oper*te most, on pri)*te ,*n< h*)e +eenprosecte or %i,,in> +irs< *,tho>h ,on>st*nin> ,*s protect e*>,es *n * host o mi>r*tin> +irs. (the on>oin> in)esti>*tion + the 0ish *n i,,ie er)ices ,* enorcement i)ision res,ts in *prosection *t ine ree< it i,, +e * irst. he conser)*nc *nts stron>er re>,*tions *n pen*,ties orthe in instr< +t the >o)ernment h*s so *r respone on, ith )o,nt*r >ie,ines. #(tsriic,os. (ts )o,nt*r<& s*i Ro+ert Gohns< * spo%esm*n or the conser)*nc. #( o h* )o,nt*r>ie,ines or t*xes< o, o p* them& he >o)ernment sho, pro)ie more o)ersi>ht *n orceoper*tors o in tr+ines to se,ect sites here +irs ont oten , or hnt< the conser)*nc s*s. (t *,so

 *nts the in instr to p>r*e to ener>eicient tr+ines ith +,*es th*t spin s,oer. he ,*c% oh*r r,es h*s c*se some *t the conser)*nc to spec,*te th*t eer*, *thorities h*)e ecie th*t the%i,,in> o +irs U inc,in> +*, *n >o,en e*>,es U is * price the *re i,,in> to p* to ,oer the n*tionsc*r+on ootprint ith c,e*ner in ener>. Ot eer*, oici*,s< other i,,ie >rops *n * in*rminstr represent*ti)e s*i the conser)*ncs )ies *re extreme. in *rms crrent, %i,, *r eer

 +irs th*n the estim*te 1-- mi,,ion th*t , into >,*ss +i,in>s< or p to 5-- mi,,ion %i,,e e*r, + c*ts.oer ,ines %i,, *n estim*te 1- mi,,ion< *n ne*r, 11 mi,,ion *re hit + *tomo+i,es< *ccorin> to sties.#he re*,it is th*t e)erthin> e o *s hm*n +ein>s h*s *n imp*ct on the n*tr*, en)ironment<& s*iGohn Anerson< irector o sitin> po,ic or the inener> *ssoci*tion. Another re*,it is th*t some in*rms *re *r more e*, to +irs *n i,,ie th*n others. ne o the n*tions ,*r>est in *rms< the

 A,t*mont *ss in Resorce Are* ne*r $i)ermore< C*,i.< h*s %i,,e *n *)er*>e o ne*r, 2<--- r*ptors*nn*,,< inc,in> more th*n 5-- e*>,es< o)er or e*rs< *ccorin> to eer*, *>encies *n +ir *tchers.;e)e,opers in the e*r, 1'8-s p,*ce the *rms 5<--- tr+ines in *n *re* here se)er*, species o r*ptors hnt. he +,*es o the e*r, moe, tr+ines spin *ster to >ener*te poer. Critics s* it *s * +,ener th*t ct on +irs *sthe ocse on pre. NextEr* Ener> Resorces< hich oper*tes the *rm< resiste em*ns to p>r*e *n re,oc*teeipment or e*rs nti, its opponents seeme to +e on the )er>e o pre)*i,in> in cort. (t recent, sett,e * ,*siti,e + the *rin A+on ociet *n other interest >rops *n is no m*%in> ch*n>es th*t oici*,s s* otheroper*tors sho, notice. he inc,e retroittin> *n rep,*cin> *stmo)in> tr+ines ith ne tr+ines th*t >ener*teener> more eicient, ith s,oermo)in> +,*es. Anerson eene A,t*mont< s*in> it *s +i,t *t * time hene)e,opers ere i>nor*nt *+ot sitin> *n *nim*, h*+it*ts. in *rms >et more p+,icit th*n other thin>s th*tc*se +ir e*ths +ec*se the +irs ie here there strc%< Anerson s*i. C*rs hit them *n ri)e **. An +irs, ** rom mont*intop minin> oper*tions th*t cre*te conitions th*t c*n ,e* to their emise. A 0ish *n i,,ie

er)ice oici*, s*i th*t theres no o+t th*t +irs i,, contine to +e %i,,e + in tr+ines *s thepro,ier*te on ,*n *n *ter< +t the tric% is to or% ith the instr to ecre*se the nm+er o e*ths.

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=$an0#pecific Link7 3i$ "p$oration [1/1]

D 3i$ dri$$ing is an environmenta$ disaster – it destro;s marine ecos;stems in thename of the fossi$ fue$ econom;

Eong and Fangie %&&4[ei =on> *n ?in ?*n>ie. $* *n o,itic*, cience *t the 9ni)ersit o Chin*s choo, o En>ineerin> *n ArtsYin*o echnic*, Co,,e>e. #ties on m*rine oi, spi,,s *n their eco,o>ic*, *m*>e& The Journal of OceanUniversity of China< 0e+ 2--'. A)*i,*+,e )i* prin>er$in%]

he sorces o m*rine oi, spi,,s *re m*in, rom *ccients oi, m*rine oi, t*n%ers or rei>hters< m*rine oi,ri,,in> p,*torms< m*rine oi, pipe,ines< m*rine oi,ie,s. terrestri*, po,,tion< oi,+e*rin> *tmosphere. *noshore oi, proction eipment. (t is conc,e pon *n*,sis th*t there *re to m*in re*sons orm*rine oi, spi,,s: (F he moti)e or h>e economic +eneZts o oi, instr oners *n oi, shippin> *>ents*r srp*sses their sense o eco,o>ic*, ris%s. ,,F *rine eco,o>ic*, s*et h*s not +ecome the m*in concerno n*tion*, secrit. i, spi,,s *re is*sters +ec*se hm*ns sp*re no eorts to >et economic +eneZts romoi,. he present p*per r*s *nother conc,sion th*t m*rine eco,o>ic*, *m*>e c*se + oi, spi,,s c*n +ero>h, i)ie into to c*te>ories: *m*>e to m*rine resorce )*,e irect )*,eF *n *m*>e tom*rine ecosstem ser)ice )*,e inirect )*,eF. *rine oi, spi,,s c*se *m*>e to m*rine +io,o>ic*,.isher< se**ter< torism *n miner*, resorces to )*rios extents< hich contri+tes to the ,oer *,it *n )*,e o m*rine resorces. n * ,,< 2--6< o,*r (< *n oi, t*n%er ch*rtere + etron Corp.< the,*r>est oi, reZner in the hi,ippines< s*n% ne*r Lim*r*s (s,*n< the hi,ippines -C=ALene)*< *s *+ot 2----- ,iters 53--- >*,,onsF o +n%er oi, in the initi*, spi,,. he t*n%er *s sn% ineep *ter. *%in> reco)er n,i%e, ith *n *ition*, 1.8 mi,,ion ,iters 475--- >*,,onsF o +n%er e,on +o*r. Ro>h, 32-%m 2-- mi,esF o co*st ,ine *s co)ere in thic% s,>e. i,es o cor*, ree,H ereestroe *n (--- hect*res 247- *cresF o m*rine re ser)e +*, *m*>e. *n m*n>ro)e trees *ncor*, ree ie *n *+ot 25--- peop,e ere *,re* *ecte or isp,*ce rin> the Zrst e *s. P,11isoi, spi,, *s. 9no+te,. * is*ster to the m*rine ecosstem. =oe)er< e mst +e **re th*t it *s Istone c*se. $et s ,oo% +*c% on some serios m*rine oi, spi,,s in histor: the oi, t*n%er orre C*nonspi,,e oi,T the oi, t*n%er Amoco C*iQ c*se ,e*%*>e O,*c%ties< 2--8F T the ri,,in> p,*torm e,,,xtoc ( e,, exp,oe *ter c*tchin> Zre *n c*se the oi, e,,Ps +,oot: ice o Response *n

Restor*tion< 2--7F Exxon @*,eQ >rone *n spi,,e oi,T the oi, t*n%er resti>e rec%e *n c*se,e*%*>eT the oi, t*n%er *sm*n e* spi,,e oi,T O shton the rhoe O* oi, Ze, e to * spi,, rom*n oi, tr*nsit ,ine O,*nc* c, *(.< 2--6F. (t is necess*r or s to in ot the re*sons o oi, spi,,s th*t h*)ereent, occrre or h*, * centr. Act*,, *ccients o m*rine oi, t*n%ers or rei>hters< m*rine oi,ri,,in> p,*torms< m*rine oi, pipe,ines< m*rine oi,ie,s< e, ,e*%*>es< )esse,s sin%in>< m*rine oi,exp,or*tion *n exp,oit*tion< oper*tions *t ports or *s *n oper*tions o oshore *n co*st*,inst*,,*tions c*n *,, c*se serios *m*>e to the m*rine ecosstem *n h*)e +ecome the m*in re*sons orthre*tenin> m*rine eco,o>ic*, s*et O*%er ct *(.< 1''3F. (t is essenti*, to ienti the sorces o m*rine oi,spi,,s< m*%e * proon *n*,sis o the +*sic re*sons< *n i,,str*te the m*rine eco,o>ic*, *m*>e c*se

 + oi, spi,,s i< 2--2F.

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=$an0#pecific Link7 5eef "p$oration [1/%]

D !he affirmatives fi"ation <ith policy solutions means their va$ue structure isrooted in anthropocentrism

at2 and 3echs$i %&&4)[em+ers o the cience< echno,o>< *n ociet ro>r*m<< Ne Gerse (nstitte o echno,o>< Ne*r%. *tQ iscrrent, @ice resient o the (ntern*tion*, ociet or En)ironment*, Ethics < #o)in> +eon Anthropocentrism:En)ironment*, Ethics< ;e)e,opment< *n the Am*Qon.& 1''3< http://.me,tethi%.*t/on,o*.phpiS3'2.]

(t is not srprisin> th*t *nthropocentric *r>ments omin*te iscssions o po,ic: *r>ments oren)ironment*, preser)*tion +*se irect, on hm*n interests *re oten compe,,in>. ;mpin> toxic

 *stes into * commnits reser)oir o rin%in> *ter is c,e*r, *n irr*tion*, *ctT in sch * c*se< *iscssion o ethics or )*,e theor is not necess*r. he irect h*rm to hm*ns en>enere + this *ctionis eno>h to is*,i it rom serios ethic*, consier*tion. Ne)erthe,ess< other *ctions in the ie, oen)ironment*, po,ic *re not so c,e*r: there m* +e< or ex*mp,e< c*ses in hich there *re competin>h*rms *n >oos to )*rios se>ments o the hm*n pop,*tion th*t h*)e to +e +*,*nce. he metho or

 +*,*ncin> these competin> interests >i)es rise to isses o eit *n Istice. (n *ition< *n morepertinent to or *r>ment< *re c*ses in hich hm*n *ctions thre*ten the existence o n*tr*, entities nots*+,e *s resorces or hm*n ,ie. h*t re*son o e hm*ns h*)e or expenin> )*st sms o monein positi)e expenitres *n ,ost opportnitiesF to preser)e en*n>ere species o p,*nts *n *nim*,sth*t *re ,iter*,, nonresorces2 (n these c*ses< po,icies o en)ironment*, preser)*tion seem to or%*>*inst hm*n interests *n hm*n >oo. Anthropocentric *n instrment*, *r>ments in *)or opreser)*tionist po,icies c*n +e e)e,ope in * series *n *rr*n>e in orer o incre*sin> p,*si+i,it. 0irst<it is *r>e th*t *n p*rtic,*r species o p,*nt or *nim*, mi>ht pro)e se, in the tre. A,*st*ir Lnnc*,,s this position the #r*re her+& theor. Accorin> to this theor< the e,imin*tion o *n n*tr*, entit ismor*,, ron> +ec*se it c,oses on the options or *n possi+,e positi)e se.3 A point reent, r*isein iscssions o this pro+,em is th*t the en*n>ere species e *re *+ot to e,imin*te mi>ht +e the creor c*ncer. corse< it is *,so possi+,e th*t it i,, c*se c*ncerT the speciic eects o *n p,*nt or *nim*,species mi>ht +e h*rm, *s e,, *s +eneici*,. Oec*se e *re *r>in> rom * position o i>nor*nce< it is,icros to *ssert either possi+i,it *s cert*in< or to se either *,tern*ti)e *s * +*sis or po,ic.

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CDL Core Files 2014/2015 #l$n%!peci&c Lin's Anthropocentrism Critique NE

=$an0#pecific Link7 5eef "p$oration [%/%]

D Euman0centric approaches to save the environment are couched inanthropocentrism. !he p$an might do a it to he$p the ocean' ut the affirmatives

method  is dangerous.

>o" %&&4-[*ric% 0ox< Emerits roessor o hi,osoph< 9ni)ersit o Centr*, $*nc*shire. p+,ishe ie, inen)ironment*, phi,osoph< #to*r * tr*nsperson*, Eco,o>&< t*te 9ni)ersit o Ne ?or% ress< 1''5<http://.snpress.e/p2271to*r*tr*nsperson*,eco,o>.*spx]

o)in> on to i,,str*te the *ssmption o hm*n se,import*nce in the ,*r>er scheme o thin>s< e c*nsee th*t this *ssmption shos thro>h< or ex*mp,e< in those prescientiic )ies th*t s* hm*ns *se,,in> *t the center o the ni)erse< *s m*e in the im*>e o Lo< *n *s occpin> * position e,, *+o)ethe #+e*sts& *n Ist * ,itt,e ,oer th*n the *n>e,s on the Lre*t Ch*in o Oein>. An hi,e the e)e,opmento moern science< especi*,, the Copernic*n *n ;*rini*n re)o,tions< ser)e to seep these )ies*sie " or *t ,e*st those *spects th*t ere open to empiric*, ret*tion " it i no sch thin> to thehm*ncentere *ssmptions th*t ner,* these )ies. 0r*ncis O*con or ex*mp,e< s* science *s#en,*r>in> the +ons o =m*n Empire&T ;esc*rtes ,i%eise s* it *s renerin> s the #m*sters *npossessors o n*tre.& Approxim*te, three *n * h*, centries ,*ter< Nei, Armstron>s moon *,% " thec,min*tion o * m*ssi)e< po,itic*,, irecte< scientiic *n techno,o>ic*, e)e,opment eort "epitomiQe +oth the ,iter*, *ctin> ot o this )ision o #en,*r>in> the +ons o =m*n Empire& *n the,iter*, expression o its *nthropocentric spirit: Armstron>s moon *,% *s< in his on ors *t the time<* #sm*,, step or him +t * #>i*nt ,e*p or *n%in.& O*c% here on e*rth< e in th*t e)en thosephi,osophic*,< soci*,< *n po,itic*, mo)ements o moern times most concerne ith exposin>iscrimin*tor *ssmptions h*)e tpic*,, conine their interests to the hm*n re*,m< th*t is< to isses too ith imperi*,ism< r*ce< socioeconomic c,*ss< *n >ener. hen *ttention is in*,, trne to theexp,oit*tion + hm*ns o the nonhm*n or,< or *r>ments or the conser)*tion *n preser)*tion othe nonhm*n or, contine to +etr* *nthropocentric *ssmptions. e *r>e th*t nonhm*n or,sho, +e conser)e or preser)e +ec*se o its se )*,e to hm*ns e.>.< its scientiic< recre*tion*,< or*esthetic )*,eF r*ther th*n or its on s*%e or or its se )*,e to nonhm*n +ein>s. (t c*nnot +e

emph*siQe eno>h th*t the )*st m*Iorit o en)ironment*, iscssion " hether in the context o p+,icmeetin>s< nesp*pers< pop,*r m*>*Qines< reports + intern*tion*, conser)*tion or>*niQ*tions< reports + >o)ernment instrment*,ities< or e)en reports + en)ironment*, >rops " is coche ith these*nthropocentric terms o reerence. hs e)en m*n o those ho e*, most irect, ith en)ironment*,isses contine to perpet*te< hoe)er nittin>,< the *rro>*nt *ssmption th*t e hm*ns *re centr*,to the cosmic r*m*T th*t< essenti*,,< the or, is m*e or s. Gohn ee< * prominentnon*nthrsopocentric eco,o>ic*, *cti)ist< sms p the sit*tion ite simp, hen he rites< #the ie* th*thm*ns *re the cron o cre*tion< the sorce o *,, )*,e< the me*sre o *,, thin>s< is eep, em+ee inor c,tre *n consciosness.&

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CDL Core Files 2014/2015 Index Anthropocentrism Critique AFF

 Anthropocentrism Critique Affirmative

 Anthropocentrism Critique Affirmative %&

2AC 0ront,ine: Anthropocentrism Critie [1/4]...................................................................212AC 0ront,ine: Anthropocentrism Critie [2/4]..................................................................22

2AC 0ront,ine: Anthropocentrism Critie [3/4]..................................................................23

2AC 0ront,ine: Anthropocentrism Critie [4/4]..................................................................24

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%AC >ront$ine7 Anthropocentrism Critique [1/,]

1. No $ink – the 1AC argued that the p$an <ou$d e a good idea for all  of arthsinhaitants' not ust humans. e are not the t;pe of 9human centric framing: their

evidence critici2es.

%. Anthropocentrism is inevita$e and best  for non0human species. Eumans possessa rationa$ se$f0interest that ensures sufficient protection of other species.

Ea;<ard %&1%[imoth. roessor o o,itics *n (R *t the 9ni)ersit o Ein+r>h. #Anthropocentrism& 2-12.http://.*c*emi*.e/4-4717'/Anthropocentrism]

Oec*se o this r*ic*, *smmetr +eteen mor*, *>ents *n the rest o n*tre< it c*n +e *r>e not on,th*t *nthropocentrism is Istiie< +t *,so th*t to tr *n *)oi it o, +e * mist*%e +oth in pr*ctice*n in princip,e. (t o, +e * pr*ctic*, mist*%e since it is n*tr*, or mem+ers o one species to c*re*+ot others o their on species: e o not criticise * c*t or +ein> c*tcentere< so h sho, e

criticise hm*ns or +ein> hm*ncentre in this sense Gst *s it o, +e *+sr *n n*rr*nte tothin% th*t * i, *nim*, sho, c*re *+ot hm*n e,*re< so is it to thin% th*t hm*ns sho, irect*ttention rom mem+ers o their on species to others. hs i some c,tres h*)e e)o,)e *s hnters< orinst*nce< the *re not or th*t re*son immor*,. ore >ener*,,< *,, hm*ns consme other ,i)in> entitiesin orer to reproce their +oi, existence< *n hm*ns in *,, c,tres mst se n*tre in )*rios *s inorer to sr)i)e. (t o, *,so +e * princip,e mist*%e to tr *n comp,ete, o)ercome *nthropocentrism:or e)en i one is moti)*te to c*re *+ot the *te o nonhm*n entities< there *re ,imits to ho sccess,one mi>ht +e< or there *re ,imits to possi+,e hm*n %no,e>e o h*t is re*,, >oo or them< so th*t *t

 +est one h*s *n nre,i*+,e< *nthropomorphic< )ie o their >oo< *n< *t orst< sch * mis>ie )ieth*t in trin> to o >oo one in *ct oes nreco>niQe h*rm. R*ther th*n tr to set the nonhm*n or,to ri>hts< it m* thereore +e *r>e< hm*ns o, o +etter to concentr*te on their on mor*,impro)ement< reco>niQin> th*t ethics is * pec,i*r, hm*n **ir< concerne ith ri>ht hm*n *ctionT ithe o this< it mi>ht rther +e *r>e< the *re then ,i*+,e to o ,ess h*rm to other +ein>s< +t orre*sons connecte ith 6 their on mor*, e)e,opment. hs *n *r>ment or *nthropocentrism hichm*n t*%e to +e ecisi)e is th*t i hm*ns +ecome tr, hm*ncentere in the sense o m*%in> *conscientios eort to nerst*n themse,)es *n their p,*ce in the or, this i,, ie, *n en,i>htenese,interest hich pro)ies * irmer *n more re,i*+,e +*sis or the >oo tre*tment o nonhm*n +ein>s.Ooth Ain*s *n *nt< or inst*nce< +e,ie)e th*t cre,t to nonhm*ns is ron> +ec*se it c*n oster *h*+it o cre,t more >ener*,, somethin> th*t is +* or hm*ns to e)e,op in *n circmst*nces.Re,*te,< these *s it is *r>e hm*ns sho, exercise prence in the se o n*tr*, resorces< see% topreser)e species< +ioi)ersit< *n so on< or re*sons th*t eri)e rom their on en,i>htene se,interest.(n short< hm*ns h*)e to reco>niQe th*t +ec*se the ,i)e in on or, ith the rest o n*tre< i the m*%ethin>s >o +*, or its other constitents< thin>s i,, ,tim*te, >o +*, or them too. his )ie<moreo)er< h*s moti)*tion*, *)*nt*>es comp*re ith *ttempts to *ppe*, to *n *,tristic concern ornonhm*ns Por their on s*%eP< re>*r,ess o their interre,*tion ith hm*ns.

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%AC >ront$ine7 Anthropocentrism Critique [%/,]

). =ermutation7 do oth – the udge can vote affirmative ecause the p$an is a good

idea for the interests of all species. !his is est ecause a discussion ofenvironmenta$ ethics is counterproductive.

Light %&&%[Anre. roessor o hi,osoph *n En)ironment*, o,ic *t Leor>e *son. #Contempor*r En)ironment*, Ethics:0rom et*ethics to +,ic hi,osoph& Metaphilosophy< @o, 33 N4. 2--2. A)*i,*+,e )i* E+scohost]

E)en ith the *mp,e e)e,opment in the ie, o )*rios theories esi>ne to *nser these estions< ( +e,ie)e th*t en)ironment*, ethics is< or the most p*rt< not scceein> *s *n *re* o *pp,ie phi,osoph.0or hi,e the omin*nt >o*, o most or% in the ie,< to in * phi,osophic*,, son +*sis or the irectmor*, consier*tion o n*tre< is commen*+,e< it h*s tene to en>ener to nortn*te res,ts: 1Fe+*tes *+ot the )*,e o n*tre *s sch h*)e ,*r>e, exc,e iscssion o the +eneici*, *s in hich*r>ments or en)ironment*, protection c*n +e +*se on hm*n interests< *n re,*te, 2F the ocs on

someh*t *+str*ct concepts o )*,e theor h*s pshe en)ironment*, ethics ** rom iscssion o  hich *r>ments mor*,, moti)*te peop,e to em+r*ce more spporti)e en)ironment*, )ies. As *conseence< those *>ents o ch*n>e ho i,, eect eorts *t en)ironment*, protection " n*me,<hm*ns " h*)e o, +een ,et ot o iscssions *+ot the mor*, )*,e o n*tre. As * res,t<en)ironment*, ethics h*s +een ,ess *+,e to contri+te to crossiscip,in*r iscssions ith otheren)ironment*, proession*,s sch *s en)ironmen t*, socio,o>ists or ,*ersF on the reso,tion o en)ironment*, pro+,ems< especi*,, those proession*,s ho *,so h*)e *n interest in isses concern in>hm*n e,*re in re,*tion to the e*, istri+tion o en)ironment*, >oos. Ot c*n en)ironment*,phi,osoph *or to +e iescent *+ot the p+,ic reception o ethic*, *r>ments o)er the )*,e o n*tre he ori>in*, moti)*tions or en)ironment*, phi,osophers to trn their phi,osophic*, insi>hts tothe en)ironment +e,ie sch * position. En)ironment*, phi,osoph e)o,)e ot o * concern *+ot the st*teo the >roin> en)ironment*, crisis *n * con)iction th*t * phi,osophic*, contri+tion co, +e m*e tothe reso,tion o this crisis. ( en)ironment*, phi,osophers spen most o their time e+*tin> nonhm*ncentere orms o )*,e theor< the i,, *r>*+, ne)er +e *+,e to m*%e sch * contri+tion.

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%AC >ront$ine7 Anthropocentrism Critique [)/,]

,. Anthropocentrism is not the root cause of our harms. +ts impossi$e to kno<

 <ith certaint; <h; the status quo is unsustaina$e' ut the udge can voteaffirmative ecause the p$an is an effective so$ution.

Bat %&&4[AQ*r. ro o,itic*, cience *t e, A)i). #o h ;o eop,e 0i>ht E)o,tion*r heor *n the C*ses o *r& The European Journal of nternational !elations< 2--'. A)*i,*+,e )i* *>e]

his *rtic,es contri+tion is topron>e: it *r>es th*t (R theor re>*rin> the c*ses o con,ict *n *ris eep, ,*e< ,oc%e or ec*es in ,tim*te, ti,e e+*tes o)er n*rro< misconstre conceptsT thisconcept*, consion is nt*n>,e *n the e+*te is tr*nscene once * +ro*er< comprehensi)e< *ne)o,tion*ri, inorme perspecti)e is *opte. hs *ttempts to in the root c*se o *r in the n*treo either the ini)i*,< the st*te< or the intern*tion*, sstem *re n*ment*,, misp,*ce. (n *,, theseH,e)e,s there *re necess*r +t not sicient c*ses or *r< *n the ho,e c*nnot +e +ro%en into pieces.13

eop,es nees *n esires U hich m* +e prse )io,ent, U *s e,, *s the res,tin> est or poer*n the st*te o mt*, *pprehension hich e, the secrit i,emm* *re *,, mo,e in hm*n n*tresome o them existin> on, *s options< potenti*,s< *n s%i,,s in * +eh*)ior*, Htoo, %itFT the *re so mo,e

 +ec*se o stron> e)o,tion*r pressres th*t h*)e sh*pe hm*ns in their str>>,e or sr)i)*, o)er>eo,o>ic*, times< hen *,, the *+o)e ,iter*,, constitte m*tters o ,ie *n e*th. he )io,ent option ohm*n competition h*s +een ,*r>e, cr+e ithin st*tes< et is occ*sion*,, t*%en p on * ,*r>e sc*,e

 +eteen st*tes +ec*se o the *n*rchic n*tre o the interst*te sstem. =oe)er< retrnin> to step one<intern*tion*, *n*rch in *n o itse, o, not +e *n exp,*n*tion or *r ere it not or the potenti*, or

 )io,ence in * n*ment*, st*te o competition o)er sc*rce resorces th*t is im+ee in re*,it *n<conseent,< in hm*n n*tre. he necess*r *n sicient c*ses o *r U th*t o+)ios, h*)e to +ei,,e ith the p*rtic,*rs o the c*se in *n speciic *r U *re ths *s o,,os: po,itic*,, or>*niQe *ctorsth*t oper*te in *n en)ironment here no sperior *thorit eecti)e, monopo,iQes poer resort to

 )io,ence hen the *ssess it to +e their most costeecti)e option or innin> *n/or eenin> e)o,tionsh*pe o+Iects o esire< *n/or their poer in the sstem th*t c*n he,p them in *n/or een those

esire >oos.

-. !heir +mpact is non0unique and overstated – consumption is occurring in thestatus quo and theres nothing specific aout the p$an that motivates more of it. !hep$an is a specific use of the ocean that reverses status quo eco$ogica$ damage –prefer this to their generic' s<eeping descriptions of the affirmative.

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%AC >ront$ine7 Anthropocentrism Critique [,/,]

6. !he A$ternative >ai$s – reecting anthropocentrism is net worse for non0human

species and risks e"tinction.

 Founkins %&&,[E. roessor o Osiness Aministr*tion *t hee,in> Gesit. #he 0,*e ;octrine o N*tres (ntrinsic @*,e&"ue#ecois $i#re< 2--4. http://.e+ecois,i+re.or>/-4/-41-1517.htm]

En)ironment*,ists erroneos, *ssi>n hm*n )*,es *n concern to *n *mor*, m*teri*, sphere. henen)ironment*,ists t*,% *+ot the nonhm*n n*tr*, or,< the common, *ttri+te hm*n )*,es to it<

 hich< o corse< *re comp,ete, irre,e)*nt to the nonhm*n re*,m. 0or ex*mp,e< #n*tre& is inc*p*+,e o +ein> concerne ith the possi+,e extinction o *n p*rtic,*r ephemer*, species. )er '' percent o *,,species o ,ie th*t h*)e e)er existe on e*rth h*)e +een estim*te to +e extinct ith the >re*t m*Iorit othese perishin> +ec*se o nonhm*n *ctors. N*tre c*nnot c*re *+ot #+ioi)ersit.& =m*ns h*ppento )*,e +ioi)ersit +ec*se it re,ects the st*te o the n*tr*, or, in hich the crrent, ,i)e. ithot

hm*ns< the +e*t *n spect*c,e o n*tre o, not exist " sch ie*s c*n on, exist in the min o *r*tion*, )*,er. hese en)ironment*,ists *i, to re*,iQe th*t )*,e me*ns h*)in> )*,e to some )*,er. o

 +e * )*,e some *spect o n*tre mst +e * )*,e to some hm*n +ein>. eop,e h*)e the c*p*cit to *ssi>n*n to cre*te )*,e ith respect to nonhm*n existents. N*tre< in the orm o n*tr*, resorces< oes notexist inepenent, o m*n. en< choosin> to *ct on their ie*s< tr*nsorm n*tre or hm*n prposes.

 A,, resorces *re [h]m*nm*e. (t is the *pp,ic*tion o hm*n )*,*tion to n*tr*, s+st*nces th*tm*%es them resorces. Resorces ths c*n +e )iee *s * nction o hm*n %no,e>e *n *ction. Osin> their r*tion*,it *n in>enit< [hm*ns] men *ect n*tre< there+ en*+,in> them to *chie)epro>ress. *n%ins sr)i)*, *n ,orishin> epen pon the st o n*tre th*t inc,es *,, thin>s<e)en m*n himse,. =m*n +ein>s *re the hi>hest ,e)e, o n*tre in the %non ni)erse. en *re * istinctn*tr*, phenomenon *s *re ish< +irs< roc%s< etc. heir proper p,*ce in the hier*rchic*, orer o n*trenees to +e reco>niQe. 9n,i%e p,*nts *n *nim*,s< hm*n +ein>s h*)e * concept*, *c,t< ree i,,< *n* mor*, n*tre. Oec*se mor*,it in)o,)es the *+i,it to choose< it o,,os th*t mor*, orth is re,*te tohm*n choice *n *ction *n th*t the *>ents o mor*, orth c*n *,so +e s*i to h*)e mor*, )*,e. Or*tion*,, sin> his concept*, *c,t< m*n c*n cre*te )*,es *s I>e + the st*n*r o enh*ncin>hm*n ,ie. he hi>hest priorit mst +e *ssi>ne to *ctions th*t enh*nce the ,i)es o ini)i*, hm*n

 +ein>s. (t is thereore mor*,, ittin> to m*%e se o n*tre. *ns en)ironment inc,es *,, o hissrronin>s. hen he cre*ti)e, *rr*n>es his extern*, m*teri*, conitions< he is impro)in> hisen)ironment to m*%e it more se, to himse,. Neither ixe nor inite< resorces *re< in essence< *proct o the hm*n min thro>h the *pp,ic*tion o science *n techno,o>. r resorces h*)e +eenexp*nin> o)er time *s * res,t o or e)erincre*sin> %no,e>e. 9n,i%e p,*nts *n *nim*,s< hm*n

 +ein>s o mch more th*n simp, respon to en)ironment*, stim,i. =m*ns *re ree rom n*treseterminism *n ths *re c*p*+,e o choosin>. here*s p,*nts *n *nim*,s sr)i)e + **ptin> to n*tre<[hm*ns] men sst*in their ,i)es + emp,oin> re*son to **pt n*tre to them. eop,e m*%e )*,*tions*n I>ments. *,, the cre*te orer< on, the hm*n person is c*p*+,e o e)e,opin> other resorces<there+ enrichin> cre*tion. he e*rth is * n*mic *n e)e,opin> sstem th*t e *re not o+,i>e topreser)e ore)er *s e h*)e on it. =m*n in)enti)eness< * n*tr*, imension o the or,< h*s en*+,e

s to o more ith ,ess. hose ho proc,*im the intrinsic )*,e o n*tre )ie m*n *s * estroer o theintrinsic*,, >oo. Oec*se it is m*ns r*tion*,it in the orm o science *n techno,o> th*t permits himto tr*nsorm n*tre< he is espise or his *+i,it to re*son th*t is portr*e *s * corrptin> in,ence. hepoer o re*son oens r*ic*, en)ironment*,ists +ec*se it ,e*s to *+str*ct %no,e>e< science<techno,o>< e*,th< *n c*pit*,ism. his *ntip*th or hm*n *chie)ements *n *spir*tions in)o,)es thene>*tion o hm*n )*,es *n +etr*s *n ner,in> nihi,ism o the en)ironment*, mo)ement.