Click here to load reader
Click here to load reader
Jan 12, 2016
*Born 1925, Alberta Canada
*Majored in psychology at University of Iowa
*Currently a Professor at Stanford University
*President of American Psychological Association 1974
*As Undergrad worked with Robert Sears Social Learning Theory
*1960s Studied Cognitive Processes
*1970s Studied Imitation and Modeling Behavior
*1980s Developed Self-Efficacy Theory
*Percieved Self-efficacy- peoples beliefs about their capabilities to produce effects. *Instructional Efficacy-teachers beliefs in their own abilities as a teacher to handle the classroom and influence their studentsperformances. *Cognitive Processes-Thinking processes involved in the acquisition, organization, and use of information.
*1987, Schunk taught children with severe academic problems how to diagnose cognitive task demands, construct solutions, monitor their adequacy, and make corrective changes when they erred.
*Bandura found that endurance and sustained effort=success and aiming for higher goals.
*Dowrick and Schunk (1983), Hanson (1989) test with vicarious experience and video-tapes.
*Bandura: For most activities, however, there are no absolute measures of adequacy. Therefore, people must appraise their capabilities in relation to the attainments of others.
*Bandura: People often read their physiological activation in stressful or taxing situations as signs of vulnerability to dysfunction.
Ex: Palms Sweating Before a Piano Recital
*Collins first evaluated the self-efficacy levels of the children by asking them if they were good in math.
* Next, he gave them problems to work out with the easiest ones going to students with low self-efficacy levels giving the harder problems to those who supposed themselves to be mathematically efficacious.
*The children who thought of themselves as good produced better results not just on natural ability but by the effort they put forth.
* The children with high self-efficacy appraisals (evaluations) were more motivated to do well; thus, they worked harder to find new strategies for the problems they did not understand.
* Thus, as Collins proved, a childs attitude does directly correlate with his performance academically, as proven in the above example with math.
*Many students do not achieve their highest potential academically because of a perceived low self-efficacy and that some teachers do not know how to positively impact their students confidence in their own abilities.
*By finding out which source of self-efficacy is the most effective and how teachers can motivate their students to believe in themselves, the students can benefit academically and humanly as happier, self-empowered individuals.
*Students with a higher perceived self-efficacy will score better on the first math problem test than the students with a lower perceived self-efficacy on the vicarious experience test.*Students who were encouraged verbally after the first test will choose a higher level of difficulty on the second test.
*Students who were motivated by a model to follow after the first test will improve their scores on the second test. *Enactive mastery experience will have the greatest impact on the students perceived self-efficacy.
*Setting: St. Joan of Arc Catholic Church, Laplace, LA in Mrs. Daigres 4th grade Classroom with 12 4th graders (2 boys and 10 girls).
*After obtaining written permission from the parents, I gave 12 of the students a survey with the following questions on it to assess their perceived self-efficacy in math asking questions like:
*Do you like Math?*Do you enjoy memorizing Multiplication Tables?*What is something that you learned in Math this year?*Do you think you are very good at Math, okay at math, or not very good at Math?
*I asked the child if he/she would like the easy, medium, or hard multiplication problems and have them work on one.
*I gave him/her one minute to solve the problems on the worksheet and then scored the worksheet, showing the score to the child and asking them which level test he/she wanted if he had a second chance to work on it.
*I asked the child to choose which level worksheet he wanted. Depending on what he chose, I encouraged him to pick a worksheet that is the next level up in difficulty, recording his score.
*I gave him 1 min. to finish the worksheet and then gave him a choice of a second worksheet to work on, recording his score.
*I showed him an example of a medium level multiplication worksheet that a child from the first group took, scoring a 100.
*Then, gave each child a choice of which worksheet to work on next and recorded his score.
Actual Performance Ratings on Math Test390-100280-89170-79079-BelowLevel of Self-Efficacy Rating3210Level of Test Difficulty321
*See Bandura Hand-Out
*1st Hypothesis-True; 2nd-Partially True;3rd-True; 4th-False*See Bandura Hand-Out
*See Bandura Hand-Out
*Educators must understand that self-efficacy does influence academic performance and that in some, not all cases, verbal persuasion helps the students.
*As with the results of each of the groups study, these three sources of self-efficacy do not always predict a high performance or a higher goal that the students chose.
*Bandura, Albert. Enactive Mastery Experience. Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control. NewYork: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1997. 80-81.
*Bandura, Albert. Physical and Affective States. Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control. NewYork: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1997. 106.
*Bandura, Albert. The Nature and Structure of Self-Efficacy. Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1997. 36-38.
*Bandura, Albert. Verbal Persuasion. Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control. NewYork: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1997. 86.
*Bandura, Albert. Vicarious Experience. Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control. NewYork: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1997. 101.
*Bandura, Albert. Sources of Self-Efficacy. Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1997. 78-115.
*Bandura, Albert. Teachers Perceived Efficacy. Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control. NewYork: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1997. 243-258.
*Crain, William. Theories of Development: Concepts and Applications. 5th ed. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2005.
******Verbally teaching children new cognitive strategies and practical methods to apply these strategies and encouraging the children on their past success did not improve their levels of academic performance. Rather, positive feedback on the childs increased ability to perform a certain task raised his academic performance and his self-efficacy level. Conclusion: Enactive Mastery Experience=most effective source of Self-Efficacy*Dowrick (in 1983) and Schunk and Hanson (in 1989) found that individuals who saw themselves on video-tape performing certain tasks (with the mistakes deleted) gained a higher sense of self-efficacy in that specific area of performance****************Group 1: Enactive Mastery Experience- Two of the girls received a 3 for actual performance on the first test. These two girls chose the medium level worksheet for their first test and the difficult level worksheet for their second test. One other girl with a high self-efficacy level chose a medium level first test and scored well; however, she got discouraged at not finishing all the problems and chose an easy level as her second choice. One girl with a high self-efficacy chose a medium level first test and had a low score for that level but chose the hardest level for her second choice. Her reason was