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An Ecosystem Services Valuation of a Restored Kissimmee ... Monday/J-K...Valuation of a Restored Kissimmee-Okeechobee-Everglades Watershed in ... Increased freshwater flow will displace

Apr 05, 2018




  • An Ecosystem Services Valuation of a Restored

    Kissimmee-Okeechobee-Everglades Watershed in the Face of Sea Level Rise

    ACES 2012 Workshop Dec 10, 2012

    ESV: Why the Controversy: Everglades Case Study

    Arthur R. Marshall Foundation 2012 Summer Interns:

    Mary Crider, Kyle Dollman, Danielle Koushel, James K.

    OConnell, and Max Wallace

  • Introduction

    Objectives Analyze CERP & CEPP as a Counter-Measure to Sea

    Level Rise (SLR)

    Complete an Ecosystem Service Valuation (ESV) for the Kissimmee-Okeechobee-Everglades Watershed

    Illustrate the value of the areas in the Everglades threatened by SLR

    Purpose Bring awareness to ESV as an important tool

    Encourage managers and decision-makers to consider SLR in public works projects

  • Sea Level Rise

    Preparing for Uncertainty

  • Sea Level Rise

    USACE, E.C. 1165-2-212, Figure B-11,


    SLR is caused by thermal

    expansion and glacial melting

    From 1961 to 2003, Global

    Mean Sea Level (GMSL) rose at

    an average rate of 0.017in/yr (a

    total of 3 inches)

    From 1993 to 2003, the average

    rate of increase was 0.12in/yr

    The expected range of SLR by

    2060 in South Florida is 9-24 in

    Most of FLs utility infrastructure

    is underground/coastal and at


  • Sea Level Rise

    CERP & CEPP as a Counter-Measure to SLR

    1. Lodge, 2010; 2. Mitsch, et al, 2010

    Problems/Issues of


    How CERP/CEPP are addressing them

    Salinization of


    Increased freshwater flow will displace incoming saltwater. This is vital to protecting South

    Florida drinking water supplies.

    Decreased flood

    control capabilities

    The placement of pumps and flood control devices along with an increased freshwater head

    will improve the ability to discharge flood waters.

    Decreased storm


    A restored flow will improve the health of the wetland ecosystem which will allow it to

    effectively hold stormwater. Mangrove forests also act a physical barrier to storm surges

    and high winds.1

    Saltwater inundation

    of coastal wetlands

    Restored sheet flow will decrease the salinity of coastal wetlands and bring more detritus to

    the coast.


    degradation of peat

    Mangrove forests will be encouraged by this increased deposition of organic matter. Peat

    deposits will form at a rate that will counteract the degradation from saltwater. 1

    Loss of carbon


    This tidal marsh and mangrove forests will sequester carbon.2

    Threatened natural

    habitats and species

    The resulting physical barrier will act as a primary defense against SLR.

  • Ecosystem Services and Ecosystem Services Valuation

    Definitions, Functions, and Examples

  • Ecosystem Services

    Benefits derived from a

    functioning ecosystem

    A variety of regulation,

    habitat, production,

    and cultural and

    informational functions

    generate substantial

    worth Pond Apple Forest, Torry Island, Lake Okeechobee

  • Regulation Services Ecosystem Service Function Everglades Example Scale

    Regulation Services - The capacity of ecosystems to maintain essential ecological processes and life support systems

    Gas regulation Balances atmospheric gas


    Wetlands produce CH4 and release 20% of that

    to the atmoshphere1 Global

    Carbon Sequestration Stores carbon from natural and

    anthropogenic sources

    Through deposition of biomass, the Everglades

    wetlands store carbon1 Global

    Climate regulation

    Controls temperature,

    precipitation, and local weather


    The evapotranspiration and rainfall in the

    Everglades are components of hydrologic

    patterns in all of South Florida2


    Disturbance regulation

    Ecosystem resilience to floods,

    storms, and anthropogenic


    Freshwater marsh vegetation naturally stores

    storm water and mangroves provide a physical

    barrier to hurricanes3



    Water flow regulation Timing and distribution of surface

    and groundwater flow

    Sheet flow maintains the ridge and slough

    structure of the natural Everglades system4



    Erosion control and

    sediment retention

    Reduces the rate at which soil is

    lost from the landscape

    Mangroves and freshwater marsh vegetation trap

    and hold sediment5



    Nutrient cycling and


    Intake, processing, and output of


    Nitrogen fixation completed by the Everglades

    ecosystem is important to convert nutrients to a

    usable form


    Waste treatment Pollutant and contaminant


    Vegetation in freshwater marshes filter

    chemicals out of surface and groundwater5 Ecosystem

    Pollination Plant reproduction Zebra Longwing butterflies transport pollen for

    plants, such as the Lantana6 Ecosystem

    Biological control Trophic regulation of communities Predators, such as Anhingas, regulate prey




  • Habitat and Production Services

    Ecosystem Service Function Everglades Example Scale

    Habitat Services - Provisions of suitable living space to be used by plants and animals

    Refugia Habitats for permanent and

    seasonal populations

    The Everglades provides a home for multiple

    threatened and endemic species7 Plot-plant

    Nursery function Habitats for successful


    The Everglades acts as a reproduction area for

    multiple threatened and endemic species7 Plot-plant

    Production Services - Goods and services are produced from an ecosystem

    Water supply Freshwater storage Freshwater flowing through the Everglades

    recharges the aquifers for drinking water8



    Soil formation Accumulates organic matter Freshwater marshes generate peat9 Ecosystem

    Food Production Gross Primary Product that can

    be removed for food

    Sugarcane and citrus groves are common in the

    North Everglades system Ecosystem

    Raw materials Gross Primary Product that can

    be removed for raw materials

    Limestone mining occurs in the Southern




    Genetic resources Ecological biodiversity The Everglades provides refuge for multiple

    threatened and endemic species7 Plot-plant

    Medicinal resources Biochemical substances found in

    the natural system

    Cypress essential oils have many medicinal uses

    including insect repellent10 Plot-plant

    Ornamental resources Potential ornamental use of

    natural resources

    The Ghost Orchid is one of many favorite

    ornamentals from the Everglades Plot-plant

  • Informational and Cultural Services

    Ecosystem Service Function Everglades Example Scale

    Informational and Cultural Services - An ecosystems ability to benefit people with cognitive and spiritual development

    Recreation Provisions for recreational


    Everglades National Park hosted 934,351

    recreational visitors in 201111 Global

    Aesthetic Information Landscape features to be viewed

    The observation tower on the Shark Valley bike

    trail overlooks the beautiful scenery of Everglades

    National Park


    Cultural and artistic


    Natural features that hold cultural

    and artistic value

    Zora Neale Hurston's There Eyes Were Watching

    God is set in mid-20th Century Florida and

    features the Everglades


    Spiritual and historic


    Natural features that hold spiritual

    and historic value

    Everglades National Park is a World Heritage Site

    with 196 Listed Archeological Sites12 Global

    Science and education Natural features that hold

    scientific and educational value

    Everglades National Park has engaged in

    environmental education for over 41 years11 Global

    1. Wright and Reddy, 2009; 2. Abtew, 2004; 3. Marine Biology Conservation Society, 2012; 4. McVoy, et al., 2011; 5. Bruland, 2008; 6.

    Moisset, 2010; 7. Florida Museum of Natural History, 2010; 8. Esterson and Eckert, 2010; 9. Lodge, 2010; 10. Watkins, et al., 2002;

    11. NPS, 2012; 12. Memory, 2012

  • Ecosystem Services Valuation

    Replacement Costs

    Phosphorus removal

    Avoided Costs

    Catskills Watershed

    Market Values

    Carbon sequestration

    An important tool for comparing project alternatives

  • Methodology

    Considerations and Value Transfer

  • Methods

    Value Transfer (Benefit Transfer)

    1. Identify landscapes

    2. Find respective areas (ac)

    3. Assign equivalent biomes (52)

    4. Multiply area by corresponding $ ac-1 yr -1

    From $95.89 for Pasture/Agriculture land to $17,541.95 for Seagrass

    5. Sum value flow of individual landscapes

  • KOE Watershed

    Areas Considered Everglades Headwaters

    Lake Okeechobee Littoral zone separate from open water


    Coastal ecosystems Tidal marsh, mangroves, FL Bay seagrass

    Peripheral ecosystems Areas expected to benefit from CERP/CEPP