1. Frdric Baudron CIMMYT Ethiopia [email protected] Why & How Should Conservation Invest in Agriculture?
3. Agriculture under pressure Rising number of undernourished people National food security and political stability Additional 3 billion people by 2050 Increasing wealth Growing number of undernourished people (FAO, 2009) Food price and violent protests (Lagi et al., 2011)
4. (FAO, 2010) Challenge Mainly for Developing Countries
5. Fate of the Last Biodiversity-rich Areas?
6. Is Agriculture a High Priority for Conservation? TNC: 723.7 M USD WCS: 199.3 M US$ WWF: 186.8 M US$ CI: 138.8 M US$ Budget of the 4 largest conservation organizations > 1.2 billion US$/year < 5% invested in agriculture Support of the wilderness approach (i.e. protected areas)
7. Only 12% of all terrestrial land is protected Growing underfunding of protected areas Species range shift due to climate change Earth is dominated by humans Why Conserve Biodiversity outside of Protected Areas? (from Balmford et al., 2001)
8. (from Willis et al., 2004) Wild Areas?
10. Biotic removal s & additions Altered habitat Altered biogeochemical & hydrological cycles Altered disturbance regime Negative Consequences of Agriculture on Biodiversity Food Fuel FiberFood Change in biodiversity Altered ecosystem processes INCREASED HUMAN BENEFITS AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES
11. Wildlife-friendly farming Integration Reduction in use of agro-chemicals & retention of patches of natural vegetation Land Sparing Separation Concentration of production in areas as small as possible by maximizing yield Minimizing the Impact of Agriculture on Biodiversity?
12. What Approach does Conservation Favour? Conservation Cotton Initiative Coffee And Farmer Equity
13. Above specified treshold No specification No specification Retention of patches of natural vegetation Efficient use Minimum or prohibited use Controlled Yield Pesticides & herbicides On-farm biodiversity Land clearance What Approach does Conservation Favour?
14. Species-specific response agriculturaly naive species in developping countries Requires large areas Low yield Production of organic inputs Possibility of displacement Land reserves exhausted by 2050 Limits of Wildlife-Friendly Farming 0 2 4 6 Annualadditionalland(Mha) Minimum Maximum (from Lambin and Meyfroidt, 2011)
15. Elastic demand for food crops Shift to other crops Economic attractants Far-reaching impacts of agro- chemicals Poor access to the required knowledge and capital Limits of Land Sparing
16. Philosophy Threat Intensification vs. expansion Species of interest Landscape Topography, productivity, spatial grain Socio-economic factors Land pressure, endowment, technological options, markets, policies What Criteria to Take into Consideration ?
17. DensityRelativetoIntactNaturalHabitat Yield 1 0 Species better suited to Wildlife-Friendly Farming Species better suited to Land Sparing Yield-Density Function (from Green et al., 2005)
18. What are Conservations Flagship Species? 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% WCS WWF CI TNC Proportionofterrestrialflagship species Large- and medium-sized vertebrates Others 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% WCS WWF CI TNC Proportionofterrestrialflagship species Top predators and megaherbivores Others 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% WCS WWF CI TNC Proportionofterrestrialflagship species Tropical and sub-tropical Others
19. Sensitivity of Mega-fauna to Human Impact (Surrovell et al., 2005) (Steadman et al., 2005) 0 20 40 60 80 Africa Australia Europe North AmericaSouth America Genericextinction (%) 0 20 40 60 80 100 0.01 - 5 5 - 100 100 - 1000 > 1000 Genericextinction (%) Body mass range (kg)
20. Resource use efficiency Biomass tradeoffs Habitat connectivity Soft matrix, corridors, etc Improving the economics Taking into account ecosystem services Supporting policies General Principles (from Barnosky, 2008) (from Fischer et al., 2008)
21. Conservation organizations and agriculture: Low investment Biais towards wildlife-friendy farming Pragmatism and flexibility We need to better understand: The tradeoffs between production and other ecosystem services (Kareiva et al., 2007) the necessary mix and levels of capitals (natural, social, etc) required for resilient socio- ecological systems (Abel et al., 2006) Conclusion