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A Survey of Steganography and Steganalysis II/A Survey of...A Survey of Steganography and Steganalysis Technique in Image ... the

Apr 18, 2018




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  • Volume 2, No. 4, April 2011

    Journal of Global Research in Computer Science


    Available Online at

    JGRCS 2010, All Rights Reserved 1

    A Survey of Steganography and Steganalysis Technique in Image, Text, Audio and

    Video as Cover Carrier

    Souvik Bhattacharyya*1

    , Indradip Banerjee2 and Gautam Sanyal


    *1 Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University Institute of Technology The University of Burdwan, Burdwan, India.

    [email protected] 2 Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University Institute of Technology

    The University of Burdwan, Burdwan, India.

    [email protected]

    3 Department of Computer Science and Engineering, National Institute of Technology

    Durgapur, India.

    [email protected] 3

    Abstract: The staggering growth in communication technology and usage of public domain channels (i.e. Internet) has greatly facilitated transfer of data.

    However, such open communication channels have greater vulnerability to security threats causing unauthorized information access. Traditionally, encryption is

    used to realize the communication security. However, important information is not protected once decoded. Steganography is the art and science of communicating

    in a way which hides the existence of the communication. Important information is firstly hidden in a host data, such as digital image, text, video or audio,

    etc, and then transmitted secretly to the receiver. Steganalysis is another important topic in information hiding which is the art of detecting the presence of

    steganography. This paper provides a critical review of steganography as well as to analyze the characteristics of various cover media namely image, text, a u dio

    and video in respects of the fundamental concepts, the progress of steganographic methods and the development of the corresponding steganalysis schemes.

    Keywords: Cover Image, Steganography,Image


    Steganography is the art and science of hiding

    information by embedding messages within other,

    seemingly harmless messages. Steganography means

    covered writing in Greek. As the goal of steganography

    is to hide the presence of a message and to create a

    covert channel, it can be seen as the complement of

    cryptography, whose goal is to hide the content of a

    message. Another form of information hiding is digital

    watermarking, which is the process that embeds data

    called a watermark, tag or label into a multimedia object

    such that watermark can be detected or extracted later to

    make an assertion about the object. The object may be an

    image, audio, video or text only. A famous illustration

    of steganography is Simmons Prisoners Problem

    [1].An assumption can be made based on this model

    is that if both the sender and receiver share some

    common secret information then the corresponding

    steganography protocol is known as then the secret key

    steganography where as pure steganography means

    that there is none prior information shared by sender and

    receiver. If the public key of the receiver is known

    to the sender, the steganographic protocol is called

    public key steganography [4], [7] and [8].For a more

    thorough knowledge of steganography methodology the

    reader may see [9], [24].Some Steganographic model with

    high security features has been presented in [28-33].

    Almost all digital file formats can be used for

    steganography, but the image and audio files are more

    suitable because of their high degree of redundancy [24].

    Fig. 1 below shows the different categories of

    steganography techniques.

    Fig. 1. Types of Steganography

    Among them image steganography is the most popular

    of the lot. In this method the secret message is embedded

    into an image as noise to it, which is nearly impossible to

    differentiate by human eyes [10, 14, 16]. In video

    steganography, same method may be used to embed a

    message [17, 23]. Audio steganography embeds the

    message into a cover audio file as noise at a frequency out

    of human hearing range [18]. One major category, perhaps

    the most difficult kind of steganography is text

    steganography or linguistic steganography [3]. The text

    steganography is a method of using written natural

    language to conceal a secret message as defined by

    Chapman et al. [15]. A block diagram of a generic

    steganographic system is given in Fig. 2.

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