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Apr 06, 2018

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    BOSNIA

    Bosnia is a countryin Southern Europe,on the Balkan

    Peninsula. Borderedby Croatia to thenorth, west and

    south, Serbia to theeast, andMontenegro to thesoutheast, Bosniaand Herzegovina is

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    g

    v The country is hometo three ethnic

    groups, or so-calledconstituent peoples,a term unique forBosnia-Herzegovina.Bosniaks are thelargest group of thethree, with Serbs

    second and Croatsthird. Regardless ofethnicity, a citizen

    of Bosnia and

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    Ottoman Rule

    v The Ottoman conquest of Bosnia marked a newera in the country's history and introduceddrastic changes in the political and culturallandscape. The three centuries of Ottoman rule

    also had a drastic impact on Bosnia's populationmake-up, which changed several times as aresult of the empire's conquests, frequent warswith European powers, forced and economic

    migrations, and epidemics. A native Slavic-speaking Muslim community emerged andeventually became the largest of the ethno-religious groups due to the restriction imposedby the Ottoman Empire, and conversions-for-

    gain.

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    Ottoman Architecture

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    World War 2

    v Once the kingdom of Yugoslavia wasconquered by Nazi forces in WorldWar II, all of Bosnia was ceded to the

    Independent State of Croatia. TheCroat leaders embarked on acampaign of extermination of Serbs,

    Jews, Roma, communists and largenumbers of Josip Broz Tito's Partisansby setting up a number of deathcamps.

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    Destroyed Bridge ^^

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    Bosnian War

    v

    On 18 November 1990 the first multi-party parliamentary elections were held(with a 2nd round on 25 November),which resulted in a national assemblydominated by three ethnically basedparties, which had formed a loosecoalition to oust the communists from

    power. Croatia and Slovenia's subsequentdeclarations of independence and thewarfare that ensued placed Bosnia and

    Herzegovina and its three constituenteo les in an awkward osition. A

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    Bosnian Parliament,Sarajevo

    v The Croats andtheir leader Tuman

    also aimed atsecuring parts ofBosnia and

    Herzegovina asCroatian. Thepolicies of theRepublic of Croatia

    and its leaderFranjo Tumantowards Bosnia and

    Herzegovina were

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    vMen and women were separated, with many of the men detained inthe camps. The women were kept in various detention centres wherethey had to live in intolerably unhygienic conditions, where they weremistreated in many ways including being raped repeatedly. Serb

    soldiers or policemen would come to these detention centres, selectone or more women, take them out and rape them.

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    Genocide & Crimes Against Humanity

    v

    The termBosnianGenocide refersto either thegenocidecommitted byBosnian Serb

    forces inSrebrenica in1995 or the

    ethnic cleansingcam ai n that

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    v The ethniccleansing

    campaign thattook placethroughout areascontrolled by the

    Bosnian SerbArmy targetedBosnian Muslims

    and BosnianCroats. Theethnic cleansingcampaignincluded

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    v In the 1990s,several authorities,along with a

    considerablenumber of legalscholars, asserted

    that ethniccleansing ascarried out byelements of theBosnian Serb army

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    The Boucher

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    Even when you are hungry, even whenyou are very hungry, you still know thepriorities, to save your own life. At thatmoment, the Serbian Army shelled thetown . . . in fact, for a couple of months atleast [the Serbs shelled the town]. Everysingle day, there were also air raids,continuously, with these MIGs [fighterplanes] from Serbia. I mean, you saw themcoming from Serbia . . . and artillery, tanks[and] so [on]. It was, in fact, almostimpossible to walk out in the streets. Evenwhen you knew where to find some smallamount of food, you would think twice orthree times before you decided to leavethe house because the house was the onlysafe place, you know, to protect you fromthe bombs and shells.

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    Naser Ori (born March 3,1967) is a former Bosniakmilitary officer whocommanded the Army ofthe Republic of Bosnia andHerzegovina forces in theSrebrenica enclave inEastern Bosnia surroundedby Serb forces, during the1992-1995 war in Bosniaand Herzegovina.

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    El- Mujahidin. Fight against the Serb genocide

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    Geography

    v The country is

    mostlymountainous.Major mountainsinclude Kozara,Grme, Vlai,vrsnica, Prenj,Romanija,

    Jahorina,

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    Demography

    v Bosnia andHerzgovina ishome to three

    ethnic"constituentpeoples":

    Bosniaks,Serbs andCroats.

    Tensionsbetween the

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    Architecture

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    Major CitiesSarajevo

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    Major CitiesBanja Luka

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    Major CitiesTuzla

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