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 Identify the key leaders at the Constitutional Convention  Summarize the key issues and their resolution at the Constitutional Convention  Compare

Jan 19, 2016

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Session 2: Building a New Nation

Unit 3: The Constitution1Unit 3 ObjectivesIdentify the key leaders at the Constitutional Convention

Summarize the key issues and their resolution at the Constitutional ConventionCompare the Virginia and New Jersey PlansExplain the Great CompromiseDefine the 3/5th CompromiseDescribe the form of government established by the ConstitutionDescribe the debate over ratification of the Constitution, and the views of the opposing sides.Explain the purpose of the Bill of Rights, and identify the documents that informed it.

2Constitutional ConventionThe Founding Fathers made two attempts to establish a workable government based on republican principles

The failure of the Articles of Confederation led to a new Constitutional Convention

During the fall of 1787 Congressman met in Philadelphia to address the issues of the Articles of Confederation. They created a new form of government.

The Constitutional Convention, 1787Key leaders at the Convention:George Washington: President (chairman) of the ConventionQuiet but very respected; Kept tempers cool

James Madison: The Father of the ConstitutionAuthor of the Virginia Plan (three branches of govt)Kept detailed notes! Brilliant!Would later write the Bill of Rights

Constitutional CompromisesThey had to balance a lot of competing interests.

Constitutional Compromises: Balancing Power Between Large and Small StatesVirginia Plan:2 houses of Congress (bicameral):House of Representatives SenateRepresentation determined by population size in both houses

More people more reps!Big states liked this!The Great CompromiseHow should states be represented in the govt?Also called Connecticut Compromise2 houses of Congress (bicameral): House of Representatives and a SenateSenate: House of Reps Equal representation in Senate - Representation based on pop Each State gets two Senators- More people more reps! Elected by the state legislature/assembly- Reps elected by the people

New Jersey Plan:1 house of Congress (unicameral):House of Representatives only

Representation determined by state: equal representation (like the AoC)

One state one vote!Small states liked this!5Constitutional Convention Conflicts and CompromisesNorthern States:Slaves should NOT be counted for representation, but SHOULD be counted for taxation.This position was best for the non-slavery states (mostly northern and smaller).Southern States:Slaves SHOULD be counted for representation, but they should NOT be counted for taxation.This position was best for the slave-holding states (mostly southern with large #s of slaves).

Three-Fifths (3/5th) CompromiseHow should population be counted for representation and taxation?

Count some of the slaves. For every 5 slaves, 3 would be counted for population and taxation. Constitutional Compromises: Balancing Sectional (Regional) Interests of the States6Basic Principles of the ConstitutionFederal law is the supreme law of the land, as long as it follows the Constitution. States have a lot of power to govern themselves, but they cant go against a Federal law.

Popular Sovereignty (Rule by the people)Power comes from the peoples consent

Limited GovernmentLimited the powers of the Government to those powers in the Constitution

Basic Principles of the ConstitutionSeparation of PowersThree co-equal branches of governmentLegislative: Congress (makes the law)Senate and House of RepresentativesExecutive: President (enforces the law)Judicial: Supreme Court (interprets the law)

Checks and BalancesEach branch has some control over the othersNo branch can get too powerful

Basic Principles of the ConstitutionJudicial ReviewThe courts (judicial branch) can declare laws unconstitutionalThis was added a few years later; not in the Constitution!

FederalismPower is shared between levels of government: the national government and the states

FederalismNational GovtState Govts11

Check for UnderstandingWhat was the location of the Constitutional Convention?Who presided over the convention as chairmanwhy was he chosen?What were the main issues discussed at the convention?What did Great Compromise do?What are the basic principles of the Constitution?

The Ratification DebateRatification = Official approvalRead the handout Ratifying the Constitution and answer the questions on the separate page.

RatificationBefore the Constitution could be put into practice, it must be ratified, or officially approved by the states.

Each state set up a convention to approve or reject the ConstitutionNine states had to accept the Constitution for it to be ratifiedDebate over Constitution -- (Federalists and Anti-federalists) What were their arguments?

Federalists: FOR RatificationStrong central government was good for solving national issues: Order and national security Economic development Commerce between states

Did NOT need a Bill of Rights, b/c the Constitution already protected citizens.

Separation of powers, checks & balances, and federalism protected states and citizens from a govt that was too powerful

Major Federalists:George Washington**Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, John Jay** (wrote Federalist Papers to support ratification)Anti-Federalists: AGAINST RatificationFeared that a strong central government would take away rights of citizens and states, and would favor the rich and powerful

WANTED a Bill of Rights to protect individuals from power of govt. Refused to ratify w/o it (NY & VA)

Major Anti-Federalists: Patrick Henry, George Mason

* James Madison eventually agreed with them, and wrote the Bill of Rights!

The Bill of RightsAfter the Federalists promise to add a Bill of Rights, states begin to ratify the Constitution (Delaware is 1st)Bill of Rights is written by James Madison (a Federalist)Heavily influenced by two Virginia documents:The Virginia Declaration of Rights (1776) by George MasonThe Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom (1786) by Thomas Jefferson

ActivityReview The VA Declaration of Rights and the VA Statute of Religious FreedomThe Bill of RightsHow did these two documents influence the Bill of Rights and other founding principles of the United States?

Unit 3 ReviewCrash Course!Liberty Kids

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