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    The early and widely used lunatic asylums, the treatment of patients/inmates was brutal and

    focuses mainly on containment and restraint. Psychiatric hospitals have evolved as successive waves of

    reforms were introduced. However, psychiatric care in the Philippines especially in terms of facility was as

    if frozen in time, based on the research methodology conducted on the previous chapter of the research.

    Modern psychiatric facilities starting to introduce evidence-based treatments that emphasize on curing

    with the use of combination of psychiatric drugs and psychotherapy.

    Authors and professionals criticize the outdated design of the facilities. Psychiatrist Thomas

    Szasz insisted that Mental Institution and Prison or any detention facilities are identical to each other,

    medication and nursing staff acts as if a judge and jailers. A book entitled Madness and Civilization was

    an instrument used to criticize psychiatric facilities, the author was the French historian Michel Foucault.

    The three mental disabilities that will be focused by this study are Mood Disorder, Substance

    Abuse Disorder and Schizophrenia.


    A psychological disorder distinguished by the elevation or lowering of a person's temper, such as

    depression or bipolar disorder.


    1. Depressive Disorder

    2. Bipolar Disorder


    1. Thoughts and attempt of suicide

    2. Loss of interest in activities that were pleasurable in the past

  • 3. Unyielding anxiety, sadness or feeling of emptiness

    4. Feelings of worthlessness, helplessness or guilt

    5. Prolonged periods of elation

    6. Restlessness

    7. Irritability

    8. Feelings of grandiosity

    9. Impulsive, risky or hedonistic behavior


    1. Medication

    2. Psychotherapy

    3. Family Therapy

    4. Elimination of environmental stressors


    People with addiction to certain illegal drugs can experience one or more symptoms of a mental health

    problem. Sometimes leading to alcohol or drug use are caused by mental health problem, misuse of this

    substances for some people diagnosed with mental disability as a form of self-medication.


    1. Lowering of attention in school

    2. Frequently getting into trouble

    3. Using substances in physically hazardous situations

    4. Engaging in secretive or suspicious behavior

    5. Changes in appetite or sleep patterns

    6. Unexplained change in personality

    7. Sudden mood swings

    8. Periods of unusual hyperactivity

  • 9. Lacking of motivation

    10. Appearing fearful anxious or paranoid


    1. Bloodshot eyes and abnormally sized pupils

    2. Sudden weight loss or gain weight

    3. Deterioration of physical appearance

    4. Unusual smell on breath body or clothing

    5. Tremors, Slurred speech, or impaired condition


    1. Sudden change in friends, hobbies and hangouts

    2. Legal problems related to substance use

    3. Unexplained need for money or financial problems

    4. Using substances even though it causes problems in relationship


    1. Rehabilitation

    2. Medication

    3. Support Groups

    4. Talk Therapy


    Is a mental disorder often characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to recognize what is real.


    1. Hallucinations

    2. Delusions

    3. Disorganized thinking and speech

    4. Social withdrawal

    5. Sloppiness of dress and hygiene

  • 6. Loss of motivation

    7. Loss of judgement

    8. Lack of responsiveness

    9. Impairment in social cognition

    10. Social isolation

    11. Difficulties in long-term memories

    12. Agitation


    1. Medication

    2. Psychosocial

    3. Family therapy

    4. Assertive Community treatment

    5. Skills training


    Maximizing the quality of medication not in a medicinal way but on the aspect of facilities

    used by the patients, nurse, professionals and others involved. Research studies conclude that

    environment can affect the healing process of patients.

    The study will focus on the innovation of minimization of seclusion and restraints in mental

    facilities, without compromising the security of other people using the same facilities. This is to maximize

    the quality of healthcare getting by the patients with mental disabilities.

    The study will also focus on the use of the concept of Maslows hierarchy of needs. This will be

    used in the planning process of the facilities in the proposed complex. This concept will be used as a

    motivational method which will help to hasten the recovery of the patients. The concept is to include the

  • curiosity of the persons to improve his/herself in order until he/she reaches the peak or the self-



    These are the most basic requirements of a human body. If these are not meant, the body will not

    function properly and will be broken. These are the most important and will become the foundation of a

    human body.


    After the most important needs or the physical needs, the second group would be the safety needs, a

    mind where he/she will feel safe, comfortable and free. A satisfying surrounding.

    This will include:

    1. Personal security

    2. Financial security

    3. Health and well-being

    4. Safety against accidents/illness


    The third stage of human needs is Love and Belogings which involves emotions and feelings. If this is not

    met, it can impact the individuals relationships in general, such as: Friendship, Intimacy and Family.


    After getting the acceptance of other people its for the acceptance of your true self. Self-respect is vital

    for every individual. Imbalance of this level may result to individuals continuous seeking for fame or

    glory. Which is not the answer the feeling of what they lack, this can cause individuals depression

    because the feeling of failure.


    Self-actualization or the final stage, this is the stage where you feel contented on all aspects of your life.

    You are in a good state of mind and physical.

    These principles will be a big help on the healing process of the patients. Applying a much

    appropriate planning and design principles using these concepts and theory, will a big leap on the

    modernization of the design standards of Psychiatric Institutions, not just in the Nation but in the whole

    world. First, the minimization of seclusion and restraints, this will change the image of being a detention

    facility, isolation rooms will not be seen any more as a punishment room, instead it will be seen as a

    room for self-reflection. The facility will also promote self-dignity and self-reliance if this concept is

    applied. The use of Maslows Hierarchy will boost the motivation of patients to heal faster. This will serve

    as a challenge in order to get the self-actualization or being dismissed from the institution.


    One of the planning principle used on this project is to design building based on the mental

    disability of the user.

    Architectural Solution:

    Severe case of schizophrenia

    1. Carpet Flooring

    2. Carpeted Walls

    3. High-ceiling

  • 4. Neutral Colors

    5. High, Unreachable windows

    6. Open as much as possible

    7. Small openings in doors for food and nurses monitoring

    Mild case of schizophrenia/severe case of mood and substance abuse disorder

    1. Family visiting area

    2. Social Area

    3. Group Therapy Area

    4. Outdoor Environment View

    5. Natural Light Exposure

    6. Light Materials

    7. Classrooms for Education

    8. Recreational facility

    Mild case of mood and substance abuse disorder

    1. Privacy

    2. Family visiting Area

    3. Social Area

    4. Group Therapy Area

    5. Outdoor Environment

    6. Natural Light exposure

    7. Light Materials

    8. Classrooms for education

    9. Recreational Facility

    The application of minimizing seclusion and restraints without compromising the security of

    others is on the designs of all facilities used by the patients and their staff. Feeling of restraints and

    seclusion is not just basically on the wards or isolation rooms, the patients can feel the inability to move

  • freely everywhere if its not design/plan properly. This is why design techniques all throughout the

    building will be applied.

    Innovative design approach to maximize the quality of healthcare the patients are getting in details:

    1. Therapeutic Environment

    The environmental surroundings can affect greatly on the mind of a psychiatric patients. A report

    from The New York Psychiatric Institute stated that a large drop in number of patients needed to

    be secluded when they occupied a new facility that has this kind of environment. Using this type

    of design and consideration well promote individual dignity and self-reliance.

    Therapeutic Environments must have this attributes:

    - The usage of non-institutional materials which is lively, and a little bit of colors and textures. But

    still keeping in mind the colors that might agitate the psyche of the patients.

    - Natural lighting in all rooms.

    - Outdoor views for every rooms, leading to outdoor environment.

    - Providing a direct and easy access to secured outdoor areas.

    - Sound insulations in private rooms which discussions are held like conference room, therapy

    room etc.

    - Rooms must be free from any unwanted noises.

    - Giving patient own visual rights, controlling the views patients would see.

    - Giving the control of his own decision on his private room as much as possible.

    - Planning minimal walking distances, short and easily accessible planning.

    - Signage for the patient knowledge of whereabouts, promoting self-reliance.

    2. Aesthetics

    A major factor on the institution public image and is a significant marketing tool. It will also

    psychologically change the view of the public on metal institutions which is a detention facility.

    Considerations includes:

  • - Use modern type of lighting systems, accessibility of natural lighting, indigenous materials.

    - Soothing/calming colors and artwork.

    - Awareness to details, color, scale and proportions.

    - Wide and bright open public spaces.

    - Comfortable nursing units and offices.

    - Compatibility of the exterior faade to the surrounding environment.

    3. Security and Safety

    The possibility of suicide of patients is one of the main concerns of the facility. It must not create

    openings for this type of accidents.

    Security and Safety designs without resorting to confinement:

    - Utilities devices to be tamper-proof.

    - No clothes hook on shower rooms, and use of breakaway shower-rods and bars.

    - Security of entrance and exits of staffs.

    - Unbreakable glass for windows in bedrooms.

    - Soft materials for walls like fiber-reinforced gypsum board.

    - Elimination of all possibilities of self-injury in special features seclusion rooms,hardwares like door

    knobs wil be eliminated.

    - Solid material specified ceiling.

    4. Green

    The institution is serving for the healthiness and well-being of an invidual. The institution must

    not only help individuals but also extends it potential on helping the well-being of the


    This can change the image of mental facilities.

    The use of Maslows hierarchy in the project will be on the site planning process. The proposal

    will be a Mental Rehabilitation Complex composed of different buildings. Every building will have a

  • different approach on the design; the design of each building will reflect the 4 stages of needs in

    Maslows Hierarchy of needs. And patients will start from the fundamental needs up to obtain the goal of

    self-actualization or dismissal to the outside world.

    For better understanding of the application:

    The building will be design appropriate for their needs. For example physiological needs building will

    focus on the fundamental needs of a patients, more on the survival needs and will be limited to that.

    Mental Rehabilitation Complex






  • Physiological needs will not have special facilities only available for example safety needs building like

    entertainment are and the likes.

    This method will motivate patients to recover faster in order to go to another building. Based on research

    a patient driven by motivation is more likely to recover faster than other patients. This will also help

    professionals taking care of them and giving medication because they can specialize on the different

    stages of criticality of mental stability of the patients.

  • Therapeutic application

    The gardens will be placed all around the the property especially adjacent to patient room. Garden will be overlooking on

    all the patient rooms, to expose the patient on the natural environment. There wil be also visiting area on gardens to

    maximmize the use of gardens.

  • Severe Schizophrenia room architectural solution detail

  • Mild case of Mood and Substance Abuse Disorder architectural Solution detail



  • Detailed revisions of site development plan

    -Decrease of parking slots, parking slots beside the opd and administration building will be replaced by outdoor recreation.

  • Detailed revisions of site development plan

    -Decrease of parking slots on the rear side of educational and recreational building

  • Detailed revisions of site development plan -Replacing of parking slots near the two nursing buildings into garden. Patient rooms will be overlooking to gardens.

  • Old plan of Educational and Recreational Building


  • Revised plan of Educational and Recreational Building

  • Detailed revisions of Educational and Recreational Building - Placing of Nursing Station in canteen

  • Detailed revisions of Educational and Recreational Building - Placing of CCTV Room inside the building

  • Detailed revisions of Educational and Recreational Building - Natural Ventilation of C.R in Sterilization department

  • Detailed revisions of Educational and Recreational Building - Natural Ventilation of C.R in Canteen

  • Detailed revisions of Educational and Recreational Building - Entrance doors must be open inward and outward

  • Detailed revisions of Educational and Recreational Building - Classrooms are placed at the 2nd floor to widen the canteen to have a one level dining area

  • Detailed revisions of Educational and Recreational Building - The canteen was enlarged to have a one level dining area

  • Detailed revisions of Educational and Recreational Building - Natural ventilation of C.R. in locker rooms and staff sleeping quarters

  • Detailed revisions of Educational and Recreational Building - Fire exit in washing room

  • Old plan of Educational and Recreational Building 2nd floor

  • Revised plan of Educational and Recreational Building 2nd floor

  • Detailed Revisions in Educational and Recreational Building 2nd floor plan -Dining area in the second floor is replaced by classsrooms

  • Detailed Revisions in Educational and Recreational Building 2nd floor plan -Audio Visual room Light transition room and technician room

  • Old plan of OPD and Administration Building ( NO REVISIONS )

  • Old plan of Nursing Building 1

  • Revised plan of Nursing Building 1

  • Detailed Revisions of Nursing Building 1 -Placing of cctv room

    -Natural Lighting in Group Therapy room and Social room, decreased of seats in group therapy room

  • Old plan of Nursing Building 2

  • Revised plan of Nursing Building 2

  • Detailed revisions of Nursing Building 2 -Group therapy room natural lighting and good view, decrease seating

  • Detailed revisions of Nursing Building 2 -Social room natural lighting, placing of CCTV Room

  • Old Plan of Nursing Building 3

  • Revised Plan of Nursing Building 3

  • Detailed revisions of Nursing Building 3 -Placing of CCTV Room

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