2. Which is which (YOURE A WITCH!!! ) BEHAVIORISM is an attitude. BEHAVIORISM is a doctrine. CHOOSE WISELY! (All is fair in LOVE and WAR .) 3. Loosely speaking BEHAVIORISM is a philosophy ofpsychology based on the proposal,states that all things that organismsdo including acting, thinking, andfeeling, can should be regarded asbehaviors. 4. Strictly speaking Lets consider the following three sets of claims:1. Psychology is the science of behavior.2. The source of behavior is external, not internal.3. Mental terms can be replaced by behavioral terms. (Psychological disorders are best treated by alteringbehavior patterns or modifying the environment.) 5. Individuals behindBEHAVIORISM 6. Individuals behindBEHAVIORISM Ivan Pavlov 1849-1936 Pavlov wanted to see if external stimuli couldaffect the salivation process he rang a bell at the same time he gave theexperimental dogs food. After a while, the dogs -- which before onlysalivated when they saw and ate their food --would begin to salivate when the bell rang, evenif no food were present. Classical Conditioning A type of learning in which a neutral stimulus becomes conditioned by being associated with an unconditioned stimulus. 7. Classical Conditioning 8. Pavlov also had thefollowing conclusions: Stimulus Generalization Once the doghas learned to salivate at the sound of thebell, it will salivate at other similar sounds. Extinction If you stop pairing the bell withthe food, salivation will eventually cease inresponse to the bell. Spontaneous discovery Extinguishedresponses can recovered after an elapsedtime, but will soon extinguish again if thedog is not presented with food. 9. Discrimination The dog could learn todiscriminate between similar bells anddiscern which bell would result in thepresentation of food and which wouldnt. Higher-Order Conditioning Once thedog has been conditioned to associate thebell with food, another unconditionedstimulus, such as light may be flashed at thesame time that the bell is rung. Eventually,the dog will salivate at the flash of the lightwithout the sound of the bell. 10. Individuals behindBEHAVIORISM Edward Thorndike (1874 1949) One of the most influential non-pavlovianAmerican psychologists Theory consisted of research with animals Placed cats into a puzzle box so the cat would have to try to escape in order to get food. Concluded that cats obtained food only through trial and error. Theory was later modified by his most famousstudent, B.F. Skinner 11. Thorndikes theory ofConnectionism Learning has taken place when astrong connection or bond betweenstimulus and response is formed. 12. Laws 13. Law of ReadinessThe Law of Readiness means a person can learn whenphysically and mentally adjusted (ready) to receivestimuli. Individuals learn best when they are ready tolearn, and they will not learn much if they see no reasonfor learning. If trainees have a strong purpose, a clearobjective and a sound reason for learning, they usuallymake more progress than trainees who lack motivation.When trainees are ready to learn, they are more willing toparticipate in the learning process, and this simplifies theinstructors job. If outside responsibilities or worries weighheavily on trainees minds or if their personal problemsseem unsolvable, they may have little interest in learning. 14. Law of ExerciseThe Law of Exercise stresses the idea that repetition isbasic to the development of adequate responses; thingsmost often repeated are easiest remembered. The mindcan rarely recall new concepts or practices after a singleexposure, but every time it is practiced, learningcontinues and is enforced. The instructor must provideopportunities for trainees to practice or repeat the task.Repetition consists of many types of activities, includingrecall, review, restatement, manual drill and physicalapplication. Remember that practice makes permanent,not perfect unless the task is taught correctly. 15. Lawof EffectThis law involves the emotional reaction of the learner.Learning will always be much more effective when a feelingof satisfaction, pleasantness, or reward accompanies or is aresult of the learning process. Learning is strengthened whenit is accompanied by a pleasant or satisfying feeling and thatit is weakened when it is associated with an unpleasantexperience. An experience that produces feelings of defeat,frustration, anger or confusion in a trainee is unpleasant.Instructors should be cautious about using negativemotivation. Usually it is better to show trainees that a problemis not impossible, but is within their capability to understandand solve. 16. Principles 17. Learning requires both practice andrewards (laws of effect /exercise) A series of S-R connections can bechained together if they belong to thesame action sequence (law ofreadiness). Transfer of learning occurs because ofpreviously encountered situations. Intelligence is a function of the numberof connections learned. 18. Individuals behind BEHAVIORISMWho am I?(perhaps, the fusion of DODENGDAGA and MOJO JOJO hmmm :D) 19. History of Behaviorism John B. Watson (1878 1958) American Founding Fatherof Behaviorism Little Albert Application of ClassicalConditioning to inducelearned fear in baby Albert 20. Presuppositions of Behaviorism Man has no soul or mind Behavior is a product of conditioning We do not consciously act We are not responsible for our actions 21. History of Behaviorism B.F. Skinner (1904 1990) American student of Thorndike He created the principles of OperantConditioning, which include:1. Positive Reinforcement2. Negative Reinforcement3. Punishment4. Extinction 22. Operant Conditioning Positive reinforcement: Good job!Here, have some candy. Negative reinforcement: Good job! Nochores for you today. Punishment: Bad boy! No dessert foryou. 23. ExtinctionJose has been a bad boy. He shouts out answersin class instead of raising his hand like everyoneelse.The teacher tolerates this for 2-3 days but thendecides to ignore Jose whenever he does this.When Jose continues this behavior, the teachermakes a greater effort to ignore Jose.Soon, Jose stops the behavior. (Wolfgang, 2001) 24. Shaping of BehaviorBehavioral ChainingReinforcement SchedulesFixed Interval SchedulesVariable Interval SchedulesFixed Ratio SchedulesVariable Ratio Schedules 25. Implications of OperantConditioning Practice should take the form ofquestion answer frames whichexpose the student to the subject ingradual steps. Require that the learner makes aresponse for every frame and receivesimmediate feedback. 26. Try to arrange the difficulty of thequestions so the response is alwayscorrect and hence, a positivereinforcement. Ensure the good performance in thelesson is paired with secondaryreinforcers such as verbal praise,prizes and good grades.