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    Nguyn Tc: HENRY STEEL OLCOTT

    Ngi Dch: H. T. THCH TR CHN

    THE BUDDHISTCATECHISM

    PHT GIOVN P

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    2

    CONTENTS

    1. Certificate To The First Edition .....................................10

    2. The Light Of The Buddha ......................................... 11

    3. The Dharma Or Doctrine. ............................................. 35

    4. The Sangha ............................... 76

    5. The Rise And Spread Of Buddhism ............................. 83

    6. Buddhism And Science ................................................ 94

    7. Appendix ..................................................................... 107

    8. Fundamental Buddhistic Beliefs ................................. 108

    MC LC

    1. Li Gii Thiu ................. 3

    2. Vi Li Ca Ngi Dch .................. 53. SLc tiu S Tc Gi H. S. Olcott................... 7

    4. Giy Chng Nhn Ln Xut Bn u Tin ................ 10

    5. i Sng Ca c Pht ............................................. 11

    6. Gio Php Hay Dharma ...............................................35

    7. Tng Gi (Sangha) ...................................................... 76

    8. S Pht Trin V Bnh Tng Ca Pht Gio ........... 839. Pht Gio V Khoa Hc .............................................. 94

    10. Ph Lc ...................................................................... 107

    11. Nhng iu Tin Tng Cn Bn Ca Pht Gio ...... 108

    12. Th Mc .....................................................................112

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    trong sng gn , hy vng c gi s cm thy tinh thnphn khi, tm thc khai thng khi c dch phm gi tr ny.

    Ni y, ti xin chn thnh tn thn cng c ca dch

    gi v thnh tm khn nguyn cng mi ngi chn chnh pht B tm noi theo gng c Pht, hng kh nngmnh cho s nghi p hong php li sanh, ng hu mnh vngi c an lnh li lc trn bc ng tin n gic nggii thot.

    Hoa K, Vu Lan inh Mo 1987

    THCH C NIM

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    C nhng trng hp, v mun c r ngha, nn chng ti phi thm vo sau cu vn dch vi cht trong hai dungoc. Hu ht cc danh t Pht gio v trit l, nhn hoca danh ting Pali v Sanskrit (Phn), chng ti u dch ra

    Vit ng, v c ghi km sau c nhng ting Pali, Sanskrit gip qu c gi tin b tra cu.

    Ring bn Ph Lc (Appendix) phn sau cun sch ny,chng ti ch dch Mi bn (14) iu Tin Tng Cn Bnca Pht Gio trn m thi; cn on di lit k danh

    tnh ca qu Ch Tng, Pht ti din nhng phi on ccnuc n tham di hi Pht gio t chc ti Adyar, Madras(n ) vo thng 01 nm 1891, (trang 92, 93, v 94), chngti khng dch v nhn thy khng my cn thit.

    Tin y, chng ti xin chn thnh cm n Thng TaThch c Nim, Gim c Pht Hc Vin Quc T ht

    lng khch l, gp nhiu kin b ch, v nht l gip chng ti phng tin n hnh dch phm ny.

    Sau cng, chng ti knh mong qu ch tn, thin c;php hu n nhn cng cc bc cao minh thc gi s vui lngb chnh cho nhng sai lm, thiu st, nu c; nh, sau

    ny cun sch sc hon chnh, y hn trong k tibn.

    Hoa K, ma Vu Lan 2531 (1987)

    THCH TR CHN

    HENRY STEEL OLCOTT

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    gio ca i Tha (Bc tng) Nht Bn, i Hn (Korea),Trung Hoa, Ty tng v.vvi Tiu Tha (Nam tng) n ,Tch Lan, Min in, Thi Lan v Lo quc (Laos)v.v... bngcch dn chng, nu ln nhng gio l cn bn tng ng

    gia cc tng phi Pht gio ni trn.

    Nm 1886, ng thnh lp ti th trn Adyar, tiu bangTamil Nadu (min Nam n) mt th vin ln, ni hin lugi nhiu kinh sch gi tr v Pht gio v cc tn gio khctrong c khong 17,584 tc phm chp bng tay trn l

    bi. Ngy nay, a s hc gin v Ty Phng thngn y su tp nhng ti liu rt him v cc tn gio lntrn th gii. i t Olcott mt ti Adyar (n ) ngy 17-02-1907, li cc tc phm:

    1. The Buddhist Catechism (Pht Gio Vn p), xutbn u tin nm 1881;

    2. Old Diary Leaves (Nhng trang nht k c) gm 6tp (1928-1935).

    THCH TR CHN

    TI LIU THAM KHO

    1. Buddhism in Ceylon, Its Past and Present by H. R.Perera, Kandy, Sri Lanka, 1960.

    2. The Buddhist Revival in the 19th Century by OlcottGunasekera in DIAMOND JUBILEE 2462-2522 (AllCeylon Buddhist Congress), Colombo, Sri Lanka.

    3. The Betrayal Of Buddhism: An abridged Version ofthe Report of the Buddhist Committee of Inquiry2499/1956, Colombo, Sri Lanka.

    4. Anagara Dharmapala His Life and Personality byAndrew Scott in THE MAHA BODHI, Vol.75, Nos.10-11 (1967), Calcutta, India.

    5. Colonel H. Steel Olcott An American loved byAsians by Dr. Buddhadassa P. Kirthisinghe in THEMAHA BODHI, Vaisakha Number, Vol. 83, Nos. 4-5(1975), Calcutta, India.

    6. The Medieval History of Buddhism in Sri Lanka by N.A. Jayawickrama in BUDDHA MARGA, VesakAnnual, Colombo, Sri Lanka, 1980.

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    CERTIFICATETO THE FIRST EDITION

    VIDYODAYA COLLEGE,Colombo, 7th July, 1881.

    I Hereby certify that I have carefully examined the Sinhaleseversion of the Catechism prepared by Colonel H. S. Olcott,and that the same is in agreement with the Canon of the

    Southern Buddhist Church. I recommend the work to teachersin Buddhist schools, and to all others who may wish to impartinformation to beginners about the essential features of ourreligion.

    H. SUMANGALA,

    High Priest of Sripada and Galle,and Principal of the Vidyodaya Pirivena.-------------------

    VIDYODAYA COLLEGE,April 7, 1897

    I have gone over the thirty third (English) edition of the

    Catechism, with the help of interpreters, and confirm myrecommendation for its use in Buddhist schools.

    H. SUMANGALA

    GIY CHNG NHNLN XUT BN U TIN

    i Hc Vidyodaya,Colombo, ngy 07-07-1881

    Ti chng nhn rng, ti duyt xt k lng bn dch tingTch Lan (Sinhalese) cun sch Pht Gio Vn p do i tH.S Olcott bin son, v n ph hp vi kinh in ca gio l

    Pht gio Nam Tng. Ti xin gii thiu tc phm n nhnggio s ti cc trng Pht gio, v vi tt c c gi nomun ph bin gio l n hng ngi mi bt u, nhngc im cn bn v tn gio ca chng ta.

    H.SUMANGALA

    Vin Trng i Hc Vidyodaya, Pirivena.

    -----------------i Hc Vidyodaya,Ngy 07-04-1897

    Ti duyt xt n bn ting Anh ln th 33 ca cun sch

    Pht Gio Vn p, vi s gip ca cc nh phin dch, vxc nhn s gii thiu cho vic dng n ti cc trng Phtgio.

    H. SUMANGALA

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    PART I

    THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA

    1. Question :Of what religion (1) are you ?Answer : The Buddhist.

    2. Q. What is Buddhism ?A. It is a body of teachings given out by the great

    personage known as the Buddha.

    3.Q.Is Buddhism the best name for this teaching ?

    A. No, that is only a western term: the best name for it isBuddha Dharma.

    ----------------------------------

    (1) The word religion is most inappropriate to apply to Buddhism,which is not a religion, but a moral philosophy, as I have shown lateron. But by common usage the word has been applied to all groups of people who profess a special moral doctrine, and is so employed bystatisticians.

    The Sinhalese Buddhists have never yet had any conception of whatEuropeans imply in the etymological construction of the Latin root ofthis term. In their creed there is no such thing as a binding in theChristian sense a submission to or merging of self in a Divine Being.

    PHN I

    I SNG CA C PHT

    1.Hi :Bn theo tn gio (1) no ?p : Pht gio.

    2.Hi :Pht gio l g ?p : l gio l thuyt ging bi nhn vt vi, gi

    l c Pht.

    3.Hi :Phi chng Pht gio l danh xngng nhtchcho gio l ny ?

    p : Khng. l t ng ca Ty Phong, danh tthch hp nht l Pht php (Buddha Dharma).

    ---------------------------

    (1) Tn gio l mt danh t khng thch hp nht p dng ch choPht gio, v Pht gio khng phi l tn gio, m l mt trit hc lunl, nh ti s trnh by sau. Nhng theo cch dng thng thng, danht ny (tn gio) nhm p dng cho tt c nhng nhm ngi t nhncho n l mt hc thuyt lun l c bit v c dng nh th bicc chuyn vin thng k.

    Ngi Pht t Tch Lan cha bao gi c quan nim v iu nhngi Chu u ng dng trong cch cu to t nguyn theo ngungc La Tinh ca danh t ny. Theo tn ngng ca h (Tch Lan), khngc iu nh mt s ghp li trong ci ngha ca Cc Gio -S phc tng hay ha hp t ng vo vi ng Thng .

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    Agama is their vernacular word to express their relation to Buddhismand the BUDDHA. It is pure Sanskrit, and means approach, orcoming; and as Buddha is enlightenment, the compound word bywhich they indicate Buddhism Buddhgama would be properlyrendered as an approach or coming to enlightenment, or possibly as a

    following of the Doctrine of SAKYAMUNI.

    The missionaries, findingAgama ready to their hand, adopted it as theequivalent for religion; and Christianity is written by themChristiangama, whereas it should be Christianibandhana, forbandhana is the etymological equivalent for religion. The nameVibhajja vadt one who analyses is another name given to aBuddhist, andAdbayurdtis a third. With this explanation, I continue toemploy under protest the familiar word when speaking of Buddhisticphilosophy, for the convenience of the ordinary reader.

    gama l ting bn x ca ngi Tch Lan dng din t s tngquan gia Pht Gio v c Pht. N l mt danh t ting Phn(Sanskirt) thun ty, c ngha l li gn hay s n cn Buddha(Pht) l Gic ng, nn danh t ghp ny nhm ch cho Pht Gio Buddhgama c dng tht s din t ci tng S li gn hay

    t ti s Gic ng hoc c ngha l i theo Gio l ca c PhtThch Ca Mu Ni (Sakyamuni).

    Cc nh truyn gio tm thy c sn ch gama chp nhn dngn nhng ngha vi tn gio; v o Cc c ngi TchLan vit l Christiangama, trong khi n ng ra vit lChristianibandhana, v bandhana, theo t nguyn ng ngha vi tngio. T ngVibhajja Vada, hay ngi nghin cu l mt danh tkhc dng ch cho Pht t, vAdhayuradi l mt danh t th ba. Vis gii thch ny, ti tip tc min cng dng danh t quen thuc khini v trit l Pht gio cho s tin dng ca hng c gi bnh dn.

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    4.Q. Would you call a person a Buddhist who had merelybeen born of Buddhist parents ?

    A. Certainly not. A Buddhist is one who not onlyprofesses belief in the Buddha as the noblest of Teachers, in

    the Doctrine preached by Him, and in the Brotherhood ofArhats, but practises His precepts in daily life.

    5. Q.What is a male lay Buddhist called ?A. An Upsaka.

    6.Q. What a female ?A. An Upsika.

    7.Q.When was this doctrine first preached ?

    A.There is some disagreement as to the actual date, but

    according to the Sinhalese Scriptures it was in the year 2513of the (present) Kali-Yuga.

    8. Q. Give the important dates in the last birth of theFounder ?

    A. He was born under the constellation Vis on aTuesday in May, in the year 2478 (K.Y); he retired to the

    jungle in the year 2506; became Buddha in 2513; and passingout of the round of rebirths, entered Paranirvna in the year2558, aged eighty years. Each of these events happened on aday of full moon, so all are conjointly celebrated in the greatfestival of the full moon of the monthWesak (Vaisakha)corresponding to the month of May.

    4.Hi :Mt ngi bn gi l Pht t , phi chng ch vcha m sinh h ra l Pht t?

    p : Khng phi vy. Pht t l ngi khng nhng chtin tng vo c Pht nh bc Thy cao c nht, tin vo

    gio l do Ngi thuyt ging v gio on ca cc ThnhTng (Arhats), m cn phi hnh tr gii lut ca c Phttrong i sng hng ngy na.

    5. Hi :Nam Pht tti gia gi l g ?p :u B Tc (Upsaka).

    6. Hi : Cn nPht t?p :u B Di (Upsik).

    7.Hi :Gio php ny c thuyt ging ln u tin volc no ?

    p : C s bt ng kin v nin i chnh xc,

    nhng theo kinh in Tch Lan vo nm 2513 ca nm KaliYuga hin nay.

    8. Hi :Hy cho bit cc nin i trng yu trong sgingsinh ca v Gio ch ?

    p :c Pht ging trn di chm sao Visa, vo ngy

    th ba, thng 5 nm 2478 (Kali Yuga); Ngi vo rng tu nm2506; thnh Pht nm 2513; v thot vng lun hi nhp NitBn (Paranirvana) nm 2558 vo lc 80 tui. Mi bin c nyxy ra vo ngy trng trn, cho nn tt c u kt hp chnh i l vo ngy trng trn ca thng Wesak (Vaisakha)vo khong thng 05 dng lch.

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    9. Q. Was the Buddha God ?A. No, Buddha Dharma teaches no divine incarnation.

    10. Q. Was he a man ?A. Yes, but the wisest, noblest and most holy being, whohad developed himself in the course of countless births far

    beyond all other beings, the previous BUDDHAS aloneexcepted.

    11.Q.Were there other Buddhas before him ?

    A. Yes, as will be explained later on.

    12.Q. Was Buddha his name ?A. No, It is the name of a condition or state of mind, of

    the mind after it has reached the culmination of development.

    13.Q. What is its meaning ?A. Enlightened, or he who has the all-perfect wisdom.

    The Pali phrase is Sabbannu, the One of BoundlessKnowledge. In Sanskrit it is Sarvajna.

    14. Q. What was the Buddhas real name then ?A. SIDDHARTHA was his royal name, andGAUTAMA, or GOTAMA, his family name. He was Princeof Kapilavastu and belonged to the illustrious family of theOkkaka, of the Solar race.

    9.Hi :c Pht c phi l Thngkhng?p : Khng. Pht gio dy rng khng c s ha thn

    ca thn linh ?

    10.Hi :Phi chngc Pht l mt con ngi?p : Vng! Nhng l mt ngi gic ng, cao siu vthnh thin nht, t mnh tu tp trong v lng kip vthn cc chng sanh khc, ngoi tr ch Pht trong qu kh.

    11.Hi :Trcc Pht (Thch Ca) c nhiu v Pht khc

    khng ?p : C, iu sc gii thch sau.

    12. Hi :Ting Pht c phi l tn ca Ngi khng ?p : Khng. l danh t ch cho mt trnh

    hoc trng thi ca tm thc, ci tm sau khi n t ti spht trin cng tt.

    13.Hi :Trng thi gi l g ?p : Gic ng (thnh Pht) hay ngi c tr tu hon

    ton. Ting Pali gi l Sabbannu, ng c tr tu v cng tn.Phn ng gi l Sarvajna.

    14.Hi :Tn tht cac Pht l g?p : SIDDHARTHA (Tt t a) l tn hong tcca Ngi, v h ca Ngi l GAUTAMA hoc GOTAMA(Cm). c Pht l hong t ca kinh thnh Ca T La V(Kapilavastu) thuc gia nh danh ting Okkaka ca th tcThi Dng (Solar).

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    15.Q.Who were his father and mother ?A. King Suddhodana and Queen Maya, called Mah

    May.

    16. Q.What people did this King reign over ?A. The Skyas; and Aryan tribe of Kshattriyas.

    17.Q. Where was Kapilavastu ?A. In India, one hundred miles North East of the City of

    Benares, and about forty miles from the Himalaya mountains.

    It is situated in the Nepal Terai. The city is now in ruins.

    18.Q. On what river ?A. The Rohini, now called the Rohana.

    19. Q. Tell me again when Prince Siddhartha was born ?

    A. Six hundred and twenty-three years before theChristian era.

    20. Q.Is the exact spot known ?

    A. It is now identified beyond question. Anarchaeologist in the service of the Government of India hasdiscovered in the jungle of the Nepal Terai a stone pillarerected by the mighty Buddhist sovereign, Asoka, to mark thevery spot. The place was known in those times as the LumbiniGarden.

    15.Hi :Thn ph v thn mu ca Ngi l ai?p : Vua Tnh Phn (Suddhodana) v hong hu Ma

    Gia (Maya) gi l i Ma Gia (Maha Maya).

    16.Hi :Nh vua tr v chng tc no ?p : B tc Thch Ca (Sakya) v ging dn A-ry-a(Aryan) thuc giai cp St Li (Kshattriyas).

    17.Hi :Kinh thnh Ca T La V (Kapilavastu) u ?p : Ti n , cch xa thnh ph Ba La Ni

    (Benares) 100 dm v hng ng bc, v ni Hy M Lp

    Sn (Himalaya) khong 40 dm. N nm trong vng NepalTerai. Kinh thnh ny ngy nay khng cn na.

    18. Hi : Cnh con sng no ?p : Sng R-hi-ni (Rohini), nay gi l R-ha-na

    (Rohana).

    19.Hi :Xin cho ti bit Thi TTtta ging sinhnm no ?

    p : Nm 623 trc Ty Lch.

    20.Hi :a im chnh xc u ?

    p : Ni ny ngy nay c r rng tm thy.Nhn vin kho c ca chnh phn khm ph trongkhu rng vng Nepal Terai, mt tr do nh vua Pht tvi A Dc (Asoka) cho dng nn ngay chnh ti a im. Ngy xa, ch ny c bit l vn Lm T Ni(Lumbini).

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    study. He had the best teachers, but they could teach himnothing that he did not seem to comprehend immediately.

    26. Q.Did he become Buddha in his splendid palaces ?

    A. No. He left all and went alone into the jungle.

    27. Q. Why did he do this ?A. To discover the cause of our sufferings and the way

    to escape from them.

    28.Q. Was it not selfishness that made him do this ?

    A. No, It was boundless love for all beings that madehim devote himself to their good.

    29.Q.But how did he acquire this boundless love?

    A. Throughout numberless births and aeons of years hehad been cultivating this love, with the unfalteringdetermination to become a Buddha.

    30. Q. What did he this time relinquish ?A. His beautiful palaces, his riches, luxuries and pleasures, his soft beds, fine dresses, rich food, and hiskingdom; he even left his beloved wife and only son, Rahula.

    khoa hc, m hu ht khng cn phi hc. Thi t c nhnggio s ti gii nht, h bt ciu g h dy, thi tu t ranhanh chng hiu bit.

    26.Hi :Phi chng thi t thnh Phttrong cc lui trng l ?p : Khng. Thi t t b tt c v mt mnh vo

    tu trong rng.

    27.Hi :Ti sao thi t lm nhvy ?p : Ngi tm ra ngun gc ca mi khau v

    con ng gii thot khi nhng khau y.

    28. Hi :Thi t hnh ng nhth, phi chng v lngch k ?

    p : Khng; v lng t bi bao la i vi tt c chngsanh khin Ngi hin thn cho phc li ca h.

    29.Hi :Nhng lm sao Ngi c c lng tbi rngln ny ?

    p : Vi s quyt tm mun thnh Pht, tri qua nhiui nhiu kip, thi t tu tp hnh t bi .

    30.Hi : Vo lc y thi t tb nhng g ?p : Nhng lu i trng l, s ph qu xa hoa, thvui, ch nm m m, y phc p , thc n ngon v sn hx tc; Ngi t b ngay c ngi vhin v a con c nht,La Hu La (Rahula).

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    A. Yes, he seems to have felt for all beings so strong apity and love as that.

    40.Q.And how did he expect to learn the cause of sorrow

    in the jungle ?A. By removing far away from all that could prevent histhinking deeply of the causes of sorrow and the nature ofman.

    41.Q.How did he escape from the palace ?A. One night, when all were asleep, he arose, took a last

    look at his sleeping wife and infant son; called Channa,mounted his favourite white horse Kanthaka, and rode to the palace gate. TheDevas had thrown a deep sleep upon theKings guard who watched the gate, so that they could nothear the noise of the horses hoofs.

    42. Q.But the gate was locked, was it not ?

    A. Yes; but the Devas caused it to open without theslightest noise, and he rode away into the darkness.

    43. Q.Whither did he go ?A. To the river Anoma, a long way from, Kapilavastu.

    44.Q. What did he then do ?A. He sprang from his horse, cut of his beautiful hair

    with his sword, put on the yellow dress of an ascetic, andgiving his ornaments and horse to Channa, ordered him totake them back to his father the King.

    p : Vng; Hnh nh thi t cm thy qu t bithng xt tt c chng sanh.

    40. Hi : trong rng, lm sao thi t hy vng tm hiu

    c nguyn nhn ca khau ?p : Bng cch trnh xa tt c nhng iu c th ngncn Ngi suy nghim su xa v mi ngun gc ca khauv bn th ca con ngi.

    41.Hi :Bng cch no thi t vt thot hong cung ?p : Vo mt m, khi mi ngi say ng, thi t thc

    gic, nhn ln cui ngi v hin v a con thang ng;Ngi cng Xa Nc, ci nga trng Kin Trc thn yu, v ira ca cung in. Ch Thin (Deva) lm cho nhng tnlnh gc cng thnh ca vua cha ng say, h khng thnghe ting ng ca v nga.

    42. Hi :Nhng cc cng thnh u ng cht ht phikhng ?

    p : Vng; nhng cc Thin Thn m ca khngmt ting ng nh, v thi t phng nga lao vo m ti.

    43.Hi :Thi ti u ?p :n bsng A-n-ma (Anoma), rt xa thnh Ca

    T La V.

    44.Hi :Ri thi t lm g ?p : Ngi xung nga, dng li kim ct mtc p,

    khoc ln mnh chic y vng ca nh tu kh hnh, trao trang sc v nga Kin Trc cho Xa Nc, bo ng ta mang vcho ph hong.

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    45.Q. What then ?A. He went afoot towards Rjagraha, the capital city of

    King Bimbisra, of Magadha.

    46.Q. Who visited him there ?A. The King with his whole Court (1).

    46a Q. Thence whither did he go?A. To Uruvela, near the present Mahbodhi Temple at

    Buddha Gay.

    47. Q. Why did he go there ?A. In the forests were hermits -- very wise men, whose

    pupil he afterwards became, in the hope of finding theknowledge of which he was in search.

    48.Q. Of what religion were they ?A. The Hindu religion: they were Brahmanas(2).

    -------------------------(1) For an admirable account of this interview consult Dr. Paul Carus

    Gospel of Buddha, page 20, et seq.

    (2) The term Hindu, once a contemptuous term, used by theMusalmans to designate the people of Sindh. whom they conquered, isnow used in an ecclesiastical sense.

    45. Hi :Ri thi ti u ?p : Ngi i b n thnh Vng X (Rajagraha),

    kinh ca vua Tn B Sa La (Bimbisara), x Ma Kit (Magadha).

    46. Hi :Ti y, ai n thm thi t?p : Vua cha v c triu nh. (1).

    46a.Hi : Sau , thi ti u ?p :n u Lu Tn Loa (Uruvela), gn cha i

    Gic (Maha Bodhi) hin nay, B o Trng (Buddha

    Gaya).

    47.Hi :Ti sao Thi tn ?p : V trong rng ny c nhiu nh tu kh hnh, rt

    o c m thi t v sau tr thnh t ca h, vi hyvng tm ra chn l m Ngi ang tm cu.

    48.Hi :Cc o sny theo tn gio no?p : Theo n gio (Hindu): h l cc v B La

    Mn Brahmanas.(2)

    --------------------------(1) Tng thut v cuc thm ving ny, xin xem sch Gospel of

    Buddha (Chn l ca c Pht) ca Dr. Paul Carus, trang 20.

    (2) Danh t Hindu mt t ng t v s khinh mit, ngi Hi gio(Musalmans) dng ch dn tc Sindh m h chinh phc; ngy nayn c dng trong ci ngha ch cho thy tu (n gio).

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    49.Q. What did they teach ?A. That by severe penances and torture of the body a

    man may acquire perfect wisdom.

    50. Q.Did the Prince find this to be so ?A. No, he learned their systems and practised all theirpenances, but he could not thus discover the cause of humansorrow and the way to absolute emancipation.

    51.Q. What did he then do ?

    A. He went away into the forest near Uruvela, and spentsix years in deep meditation, undergoing the severestdiscipline in mortifying his body.

    52. Q. Was he alone ?A. No, five Brhman companions attended him.

    53.Q. What were their names ?A. Kondanna, Bhaddiya, Vappa, Mahanama, and Assaji.

    54. Q. What plan of discipline did he adopt to open hismind to know the whole truth ?A. He sat and meditated, concentrating his mind upon,

    the higher problems of life, and shutting out from his sightand hearing all that was likely to interrupt his inwardreflections.

    49.Hi :H dy nhng g ?p : T hnh h, dy v mnh lit thn xc con

    ngi c tht n s gic ng hon ton.

    50.Hi :Phi chng thi t tm thy ng nhth?p : Khng; thi t tm hc phng php v thchnh theo nhng cch tu p xc ca h, nhng Ngi vnkhng tm ra c ngun gc khau ca kip ngi v conng dn n s gii thot hon ton.

    51.Hi :Ri thi t lm g ?p : Ngi i vo rng gn u Lu Tn Loa (Uruvela),

    tu thin nh trong 6 nm, thc hnh php mn p xc khhnh nht.

    52.Hi : Chc mt mnh thi t?p : Khng; c nm ngi bn B La Mn cng tu vi

    Ngi.53.Hi : Cc v tn g ?

    p: Kiu Trn Nh (Kondanna), Bc (Bhaddiya),Thp Lc Ca Dip (Vappa), Ma Ha Nam (Mahnma), v cB (Assaji).

    54. Hi : Thi t p dng phng php tu hnh nonhm khai mtm mnh thu trit ton b chn l ?p : Ngi ta thin, nh tm suy tng n nhng

    vn cao siu ca cuc sng, v khp kn nhn cn v nhcn, nhng iu c th lm gin on s qun st ni tmmnh.

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    (1) (1)

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    68. Q. What made him alter this view (1) ?A. He saw that it was his duty to teach what he had

    learnt as clearly and simply as possible, and trust to the truthimpressing itself upon the popular mind in proportion to each

    ones individual Karma. It was the only way of salvation, andevery being had an equal right to have it pointed out to him.So he determined to begin with his five late companions, whohad abandoned him when he broke his fast.

    69. Q. Where did he find them ?

    A. In the deer park at Isipatana, near Benares.

    70.Q. Can the spot be now identified ?A. Yes, a partly ruined stupa, or dagoba, is still

    standing on that very spot.

    71.Q.Did those five companions readily listen to him ?

    A. At first, no; but so great was the spiritual beauty ofhis appearance, so sweet and convincing his teaching, thatthey soon turned and gave him the closest attention.

    -------------------------(1) The ancient story is that the God Brahma himself implored him

    not to withhold the glorious truth.

    68.Hi :iu g khin c Pht thay i tng ny ? (1)

    p : c Pht ngh rng Ngi c trch nhim thuytging cng r rng v d hiu cng tt, iu Ngi chngng, v tin tng chn l c th thm nhp tm tr i chng

    ty theo nghip lc ca mi c nhn. l con ng giithot duy nht, v c Pht thy rng mi ngi u c khnng t ti. V vy, Ngi quyt nh bt u gio ha chonm ngi bn c m trc kia h t gi c Pht khithy Ngi chm dt li tu kh hnh.

    69. Hi :c Pht gp nhng ngi ny u?

    p : Ti vn Lc Uyn Ch Thin a X(Isipatana), gn thnh ph Ba La Ni (Benares).

    70.Hi :Ngy nay a im ny c thtm thy khng ?p : Vng, mt phn di tch ca ngi thp (stupa) hin

    cn tn ti ngay ch.

    71.Hi : Nm ngi bn c c sn sng th gio vi cPht khng ?

    p : u tin, h khng chu nghe, nhng khi thyc Pht xut hin vi tng ho trang nghim, v li dyca Ngi hin ha v c sc thu ht n ni sau h quayli v ht sc ch n Ngi.

    --------------------------(1) Kinh sch Pht ghi chp rng ng Phm Thin thnh cu c

    Th Tn nn thuyt ging gio php vi diu cu chng sanh.

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    77 Q T ll h h hi f lif ? 77 Hi Xi h i bi h h h h

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    77. Q. Tell me what name he goes to this course of life ?

    A. The Noble Eightfold Path.

    78. Q.How is it called in the Pali language ?A. Ariyo atthangiko maggo.

    79. Q. Whither did the Buddha then go ?A.To Uruvela.

    80. Q. What happened there ?

    A.He converted a man named Kashyapa, renowned forhis learning and teacher of the Jatilas, a great sect of fireworshippers, all of whom became also his followers.

    81. Q. Who was his next great convert ?A. King Bimbisara, of Magadha.

    82. Q. Which two of the Buddhas most learned andbeloved disciples were converted at about this time ?

    A. Sriputra and Moggallna, formerly chief disciplesof Sanjaya, the ascetic.

    83. Q.For what did they become renowned ?A. Sriputra for his profound learning (Prajna),

    Moggallana for his exceptional spiritual powers (Iddhi).

    77.Hi :Xin cho ti bit thc hnh theo cuc sng,cPht gi l g ?

    p : Bt Chnh o.

    78.Hi : TngPali gi nhthno ?p : Ariyo Atthangiko Maggo.

    79. Hi : Sau ,c Phti u ?p : Ngi n u Lu Tn Loa (Uruvela).

    80. Hi :c Pht lm g y ?

    p : Ngi ha cho ng Ca Dip (Kashyapa), nhthng bc tr danh v l thy ca nhng tu s (Jatilas), mtgio phi ln ca cc tn th la, tt c nhng ngi nyu trthnh mn ca c Pht.

    81.Hi :Ktip, vi tcac Pht l ai?p : Vua Tn B Sa La (Bimbisara) ca vng quc

    Ma Kit (Magadha).

    82. Hi : Vo thi , hai v no l ttr tu v thn tnbc nht cac Pht ?

    p : Ngi X Li Pht (Sriputta) v Mc Kin Lin(Moggallna), trc kia h l mn chnh ca nh tu kh

    hnh Sanjaya.83. Hi :H ni ting vnhngiu g ?

    p:Ngi X Li Pht vi tr tu (Prajna) bc nht, vc Mc Kin Lin, c thn thng (Iddhi) nht.

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    84 Q A th d ki i l ? 84 Hi Nh th th h b kh ?

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    84.Q.Are these wonder - working powers miraculous ?A. No, but natural to all men and capable of being

    developed by a certain course of training.

    85. Q. Did the Buddha hear again from his family afterleaving them ?A. Oh yes, seven years later, while he was living at

    Rajagraha, his father King Suddhodana, sent a message torequest him to come and let him see him again before he died.

    86. Q. Did he go ?A.Yes, His father went with all his relations andministers to meet him and received him with great joy.

    87.Q.Did he consent to resume his old rank ?

    A. No. In all sweetness he explained to his father thatthe Prince Siddhartha had passed out of existence, as such,and was now changed into the condition of a Buddha, towhom all beings were his Dharma, would win the hearts of allmen to be his followers.

    88. Q.Did he see Yasodhara and his son Rahula?

    A. Yes. His wife, who had mourned for him withdeepest love, wept bitterly. She also sent Rahula to ask him togive him his inheritance, as the son of a prince.

    84.Hi:Nhng thn thng ny c g huyn b khng ?p : Khng, l iu t nhin i vi mi ngi, v

    ngi no chuyn tu tp, u c tht ti.

    85. Hi : Sau ngy xut gia,c Pht c nhn c tin tcg ca gia nh hong tc khng ?p : C, khong 7 nm sau, trong lc c Pht tr ti

    thnh Vng X, vua cha Tnh Phn (Suddhodana), gi sthn n triu thnh Ngi tr v thm ph hong, trc khinh vua bng h.

    86.Hi : c Pht c trvkhng ?p : C. Vua cha cng vi thn tc v cc triu thnrt vui mng ra gp v nghnh n Ngi.

    87.Hi : c Pht c bng lng nhn li chc v c caNgi khng ?

    p : Khng, c Pht hin t gii thch cho phhong bit rng thi t Tt t a gii thot khi cucsng (th tc) v nh th, hin nay trthnh a v ca mtc Pht; m mi ngi u c th gn gi, thn thch vi

    Ngi. Thay v cai tr mt b tc hay quc gia, nh mt nhvua th gian, c Pht dng gio php (Dharma) cm hatm hn tt c mi ngi trthnh t ca Ngi.

    88.Hi :c Pht c gp nng Da Du La (Yasodhara)v con ca Ngi l La Hu La khng ?

    p : C. Vca Ngi ht sc nhthng, khc lcthm thit. Nng cng bo La Hu La thnh cu Ngi ban chomnh quyn tha k Ngi, nh con ca mt v quc vng.

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    110. Q. While this gradual development is going on 110.Hi :Trong khi tri qua nhng kip ti sinh, spht

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    throughout all these births, by what name do we call him ?

    A. Bodhisat, or Bodhisattva. Thus the PrinceSiddhartha Gautama was a Bodhisattva up to the momentwhen under the blessed Bodhi tree at Gaya, he becameBuddha.

    111. Q.Have we any account of his various rebirths as aBodhisattva ?

    A. In theJatakatthakatha, a book containing stories of

    the Bodhisattvas reincarnations there are several hundredtales of that kind.

    112.Q.What lesson do these stories teach ?A. That a man can carry, throughout a long series of

    reincarnations, one great good purpose which enables him toconquer bad tendencies and develop virtuous ones.

    113. Q. Can we fix the number of reincarnations throughwhich a Bodhisattva must pass before he can become a

    Buddha ?A. Of course not: that depends upon his natural

    character, the state of development to which he has arrivedwhen he forms the resolution to become a Buddha, and otherthings.

    114. Q. Have we a way of classifying Bodhisattvas? If so,explain it ?

    A. Bodhisattvas the future Buddhas are divided intothree classes.

    trin dn dn ny ang din tin, chng ta gi tn hnh gi lg ?

    p : Bodhisat hay Bodhisattva (B Tt). Nh vy,thi t Tt t a Cm (Siddhartha Gautama) l mt vB Tt cho n khi Ngi thnh Pht di cy B (Bodhi)thing ling Gaya.

    111. Hi : Chng ta c ti liu no ni v nhng ki p tisinh ca Ngi lm B Tt hay khng ?

    p : Trong tp Bn Sanh Kinh (Jtakat-thakath),

    cun sch ghi chp nhng truyn tin thn ca B Tt, ckhong vi trm mu chuyn v loi .

    112. Hi :Nhng mu chuyn ny dy bi hc g?p : Mt con ngi, tri qua v lng kip lun hi,

    c th mang hnh nguyn rng ln v t bi, gip hnh gi dittr nhng tng xu v pht trin cc vic lnh.

    113. Hi :Chng ta c thn nh s lng nhng kip tisinh m mt v B Tt cn phi tri qua trc khi B Tt trthnh Phtc khng ?

    p : Dnhin l khng. iu ty thuc c hnhca v B Tt, trnh tu chng m Ngi t ti khi B Tt

    pht nguyn trthnh Pht, v nhng iu khc.

    114. Hi : Chng ta c cch phn loi cc v B Ttc khng ? Nu c hy gii thch.

    p : B Tt - v Pht tng lai - c phn lm bahng.

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    124. Q.How can we escape the sufferings, which result fromti fi d d i d i t i ?

    124. Hi :Lm thno chng ta gii thotc nhng kh t d l i d kh bit th l th

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    unsatisfied desires and ignorant cravings?

    A. By complete conquest over, and destruction of, thiseager thirst for life and its pleasures, which causes sorrow.

    125. Q. How may we gain such a conquest ?

    A. By following the Noble Eight-fold Path, which theBuddha discovered and pointed out.

    126. Q. What do you mean by that word: what is this NobleEight fold Path ? (For the Pali name see Q. 78)

    A. The eight parts of this path are called angas. Theyare: 1. Right Belief (as to the law of Causation, or Karma). 2.Right Thought; 3. Right Speech; 4. Right Action; 5. RightMeans of Livelihood; 6. Right Exertion; 7 Right Remem-

    brance and Self-discipline; 8. Right Concentration ofThought. The man who keeps these angas in mind andfollows them will be free from sorrow and ultimately reachsalvation.

    127. Q.Can you give a better word for salvation?

    A. Yes, emancipation.

    128. Q.Emancipation, then from what ?A. Emancipation from the miseries of earthly existence

    and of rebirths, all of which are due to ignorance and impurelusts and cravings.

    au to nn do lng i dc khng bit tha mn, v lng thamm qung ?

    p : Bng cch ch ng v on dit hon ton smsay cung nhit cuc sng v nhng lc th ca n, gynn khau.

    125. Hi : Lm sao chng ta c tht ti s chinh phcnhth?

    p : Bng cch thc hnh theo Bt Chnh o mc Pht chng ng v ch by (cho chng ta).

    126. Hi : bn mun ni g v danh t? Bt Chnho c ngha thno? (tngPali xin xem cu hi 78).

    p : Tm phn ca con ng ny gi l angas.Chng gm c: 1. Chnh kin (nh l lut Nhn Qu hayKarma); 2. Chnh t duy; 3. Chnh ng; 4. Chnh nghip; 5.Chnh mng; 6. Chnh tinh tn; 7. Chnh nim; 8. Chnh

    nh. Ngi no ghi nh v thc hnh theo Bt Chnh ony s khng cn khau v cui cng t ti s gii thot.

    127. Hi : Bn c th cho mt t ng chnh xc hn chsalvation (scu ri) hay khng ?

    p : Vng, emancipation (s gii thot).

    128. Hi :Vy gii thot khi iu g ?p : Gii thot khi s kh au ca cuc sng th

    gian v vng sanh t lun hi, m tt cu do v minh, lngtham v dc vng bt chnh.

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    129.Q.And when this salvation or emancipation is attained,h t d h ?

    129. Hi :V khi scu ri hay gii thot ny c thnht th h t t ti h ii ?

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    what do we reach ?A. Nirvana.

    130. Q. What is Nirvana ?A. A condition of total cessation of changes, of perfect

    rest, of the absence of desire and illusion and sorrow, of thetotal obliteration of everything that goes to make up the

    physical man. Before reaching Nirvana man is constantlybeing reborn; when he reaches Nirvana he is born no more.

    131. Q. Where can be found a learned discussion of theword Nirvana and a list of the other names by which the old

    Pali writers attempt to define it ?A. In the famous Dictionary of the Pali Language, by

    the late Mr. R. C. Chiders, is a complete list (1).

    132. Q. But some people imagine that Nirvana is some sortof heavenly place, a Paradise. Does Buddhism teach that?

    A. No. When Kutadanta asked the Buddha Where is Nirvana, he replied that it was Wherever the precepts areobeyed.

    ------------------------(1) Mr. Childers take a highly pessimistic view of the Nirvanic state,regarding it as annihilation. Later students disagree with him.

    tu th chng ta st ti cnh gii g ?p : Nit Bn (Nirvana).

    130. Hi :Nit Bn l g ?p : Trng thi ca s chm dt hon ton mi si

    thay (v thng), trng thi ca s an tnh tuyt i, ca skhng cn dc vng la di, v khau; cng nh s dit trhon ton mi th to thnh c th con ngi. Trc khichng c Nit Bn, con ngi trin min b ti sanh; nhngkhi t ti Nit Bn, con ngi khng cn lun hi sanh t

    na.

    131. Hi :u chng ta c thtm thy stho lun uynbc vdanh tNit Bn v mt bn k nhiu tngkhc mcc nh cu hc gi Pali cgng gii thch n ?

    p : Trong cun Tin ngn ngPali danh tingca hc gi qu c, ng R.C.Childers, c mt bn gii thch

    y (1).

    132. Hi :Nhng mt vi ngi tng tng Nit Bn nhmt cnh gii ci Tri hay Thin ng. Pht gio c dynhthkhng?

    p : Khng. Khi t Ku-ta-an-ta (Kuta-danta)

    thnh vn c Pht Nit Bn u, Ngi tr li rng nino gii lut c hnh tr.

    -----------------------------(1) ng Childers c kin ht sc bi quan v cnh gii Nit Bn, xem nh l s hy dit. V sau, cc sinh vin u bt ng kin vi ng.

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    160. Q. But which is said to be the greatest of allmeritorious actions ?

    A Th Dh d d l th t th it f

    160. Hi : Song vic lm no c xem l nhiu phc cnht trong tt c mi hnh ng ?

    Ki h Ph (Dh d ) d

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    A. The Dhammapada declares that the merit ofdisseminating the Dharma, the Law of Righteousness, isgreater than that of any other good work.

    161. Q. What books contain all the most excellent wisdom ofthe Buddhas teachings ?

    A. The three collections of books called Tripitakas orThree Baskets.

    162. Q. What are the names of the three Pitakas, or groupsof books ?A. The Vinaya Pitaka, the Sutta Pitaka and the

    Abhidhamma Pitaka.

    163. Q. What do they respectively contain ?A. The first contains all that pertains to morality and

    the rules of discipline for the government of the Sangha, orOrder; the second contains instructive discourses on ethicsapplicable to all; the third explains the psychologicalteachings of the Buddha including the twenty-fourtranscendental laws explanatory of the workings of Nature.

    164. Q. Do Buddhists believe these books to be inspired or

    revealed by a Divine Being ?A.No, but they revere them as containing all the parts

    of that most Excellent Law, by the knowing of which manmay break through the trammels of Samsara.

    p : Kinh Php c (Dhammapada) dy rng, cngc truyn b chnh php (Dharma) l ti thng hn bt cthin nghip no khc.

    161. Hi :Nhng kinh in no cha ng tr tu th thngnht ca gio lc Pht ?

    p : Ba b kinh gi l Tri-pi-ta-ca (Tripitakas) hayTam Tng Kinh (Three Baskets).

    162. Hi :Ba Tng Kinhin (Pitakas) c tn gi l g ?p : Lut Tng (Vinaya Pitaka), Kinh Tng (Sutta

    Pitaka), v Lun Tng (Abhidhamma Pitaka).

    163. Hi :Chng gm c nhng g ?p : Lut Tng bao gm nhng li dy o c v

    gii lut ca on th Tng Gi (Sangha); Kinh Tng chang nhng bi kinh thuyt ging o c hc cho mingi; v Lun Tng gii thch v gio php Tm L Hc cac Pht bao gm 24 php vi diu trnh by v mi s hotng ca Vn Vt.

    164. Hi : Ngi Pht tc tin rng nhng kinh tng ny

    do ng Thngtruyn t v khm ph ra khng ?p : Khng; nhng h tn knh kinh tng bao hm

    nhng phn gio php cao siu nht m ngi no thu tritcc kinh in ny s thot khi vng sanh t lun hi(Samsara).

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    A. A causation operating on the moral, as well as onthe physical and other planes. Buddhists say there is nomiracle in human affairs: what a man sows that he must and

    p : Lut nhn qu chi phi cc kha cnh tinh thn,vt cht v nhng lnh vc khc. Pht gio dy rng khng cg huyn nhim trong sinh hot ca ki p ngi: Con ngi

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    miracle in human affairs: what a man sows that he must andwill reap.

    173. Q. What other good words have been used to expressthe essence of Buddhism ?

    A. Self-culture and universal love.

    174. Q. What doctrine ennobles Buddhism, and gives it itsexalted place among the worlds religions ?

    A. That ofMitta orMaitreya compassionate kindness.The importance of this doctrine is moreover emphasised inthe giving of the nameMaitri (the Compassionate One), tothe coming Buddha.

    175. Q. Were all these points of Doctrine that you haveexplained meditated upon by the Buddha near the Bo tree ?

    A. Yes, these and many more that may be read in theBuddhist Scriptures. The entire system of Buddhism came tohis mind during the Great Enlightenment.

    176. Q.How long did the Buddha remain near the Bo tree ?

    A. Forty-nine days.

    177.Q.What do we call the firsts discourse preached by the Buddha that which he addressed to his five formercompanions ?

    g huyn nhim trong sinh hot ca ki p ngi: Con ngiphi chu v gt hi kt qu m h gieo.

    173.Hi :Nhng tngno dng thch hp nhtdin ttinh hoa ca Pht gio ?

    p : S t mnh tu tp v lng thng bao la.

    174. Hi :Hc thuyt no gip Pht gio tr thnh caosiu v chim a vu thi vi cc tn gio trn thgii ?

    p : Gio l T Bi (Metta hay Maitreya). S trngyu ca gio l ny, hn na, c cao qua vic dng danhhiu T Th (Maitri) ch cho c Pht Tng Lai (DiLc).

    175. Hi :Tt c nhng gio l m bn gii thch ny, phichngc Pht suy tngn lc Ngi (ta thin) ci

    B?p : Vng, nhng iu ny v nhiu na c thcthy trong cc kinh in Pht gio. Ton b h thng Phtgio hin ra trong tm thc ca c Pht vo lc Ngichng o Gic Ng.

    176. Hi :c Pht ngi thin nh gn ci Btrong

    thi gian bao lu ?p : Bn mi chn ngy.

    177. Hi : Chng ta gi tn bi php u tin c Phtthuyt ging cho nm ngi bn c ca Ngi trc kia l g?

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    206. Q.In what discourse ?A. The Anguttara Nikya, Chapter iv, 55.

    206.Hi :Trong bi kinh no ?p: Tng Nht A Hm (Anguttara Nikya), Chng

    IV, 55.

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    207. Q. What does it teach as to the duty of parents to

    children ?A. They should restrain them from vice; train them in

    virtue; have them taught arts and sciences; provide them withsuitable wives and husbands, and give them their inheritance.

    208. Q.What is the duty of children ?A. To support their parents when old or needy;

    perform family duties incumbent on them; guard their property; make themselves worthy to be their heirs, andwhen they are gone, honour their memory.

    209. Q. What of pupils to the teacher ?A. To show him respect; minister to him; obey him;supply his wants; attend to his instruction.

    210. Q.What of husband to wife ?A. To cherish her; treat her with respect and kindness;

    be faithful to her; cause her to be honoured by other; provide

    her with suitable ornaments and clothes.

    211. Q. What of the wife to her husband ?A. To show affection to him; order her household

    aright; be hospitable to guests, be chaste; be thrifty; showskill and diligence in all things.

    207.Hi:Pht gio dy thno vbn phn ca cha mi

    vi con ci ?p: Cha m nn khuyn con ci chlm iu c; nn

    lm cc vic lnh; dy d cho chng v cc mn ngh thutv khoa hc; gip chng dng vg chng v chia cho chngti sn ca mnh.

    208.Hi :Bn phn ca con ci nhthno?p : Con ci cn gip khi cha m gi yu v tng

    thiu; lm trn bn phn gia nh i vi cha m; bo v tisn ca cha m; hy t ra xng ng l nhng k tha kca cha m, v khi cha m qua i, con ci nn knh thtng nh.

    209.Hi : ti vi Thy nhthno ?p : Nn knh trng, chm sc, vng li thy; cungcp nhu cu cho thy v nhn nghe li ch gio ca thy.

    210. Hi :Chngi vi vnhthno ?p : Nn thng yu i x t t, knh trng v

    chung thy vi v; gip v c tn vinh bi ngi khc,

    biu tng v trang sc v y phc.

    211.Hi :Bn phn vi vi chng nhthno ?p : By t lng thng chng, sp t nh ca ngn

    np, nim nvi khch kha (bn chng), khng t hnh, nncn kim, kho lo v sing nng trong mi vic.

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    218.Q. What advice does the Buddha give us as to mansduty to the poor ?

    A. He says that a mans net income should be dividedinto four parts of which one should be devoted to

    218.Hi :c Pht khuyn chng ta thno vbn phnca con ngi i vi k ngho ?

    p : Ngi dy rng tin li tc ca mt ngi nnchia lm bn phn, trong nn dnh mt phn cho cc mc

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    into four parts, of which one should be devoted tophilanthropic objects.

    219.Q. What five occupations are said to be low and base ?

    A. Selling liquor, selling animals for slaughter, sellingpoison, selling murderous weapons, and dealing in slaves.

    220. Q. Who are said to be incapable of progress inspirituality ?

    A. The killers of father, mother, and holy Arhats;Bhikkhus who sow discord in the Sangha; those who attemptto injure the person of a Buddha; those who hold extremelynihilistic views as to the future existence; and those who areextremely sensual.

    221. Q. Does Buddhism specify places or conditions oftorment into which a bad mans Karma draws him on leavingthis life ?

    A. Yes. They are; Sanjiva; Klasutra; Sanghta;Raurava; Mah-Raurava Tpa; Pratpa; Avichi.

    222. Q.Is the torment eternal ?A. Certainly not. Its duration depends on a mans

    Karma.

    chia lm bn phn, trong nn dnh mt phn cho cc mctiu t thin.

    219. Hi :Nm nghnghip gc Pht cho l thp km vhn h ?

    p : Nhng ngh nh bn ru, tht th vt, bnthuc c, kh gii git ngi, v bun bn k n l.

    220.Hi :Hng ngi no (c Pht dy) khng th tinb trong stu tp.

    p : Nhng k git cha, git m, git A La Hn vcc T Kheo ph ha hip Tng (Sangha); nhng k lm thnPht chy mu; tuyt i chpthuyt H V, khng tin c isau, v nhng ngi qu tham m dc lc

    221.Hi :Pht gio c chby r nhng cnh gii hay tnhtrng thng khm trong mt ngi to c nghip sba vo, sau khi h tgi ci i ny hay khng ?

    p : C. Nhng cnh gii l: ng Hot a Ngc(Sanjiva); Hc Thng a Ngc (Klasutra); Chng Hip a

    Ngc (Sanghta); Khiu Hon a Ngc (Rauvara); i

    Khiu i Ngc (Maha Raurava); Vim Nhit a Ngc(Tpa); i Nhit a Ngc (Pratpa); v V Gin a Ngc(Avichi).

    222.Hi :Phi chng ni thng khsvnh vin tn ti ?p : Chc khng phi vy. Thi gian ty thuc

    nghip bo ca mi ngi.

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    223. Q.Does Buddhism declare that nonbelievers in Buddhawill of necessity be damned for their unbelief ?

    A. No; by good deeds they may enjoy a limited term of

    223. Hi :Pht gio c thuyt ging rng nhng ngikhng tin c Pht sba y v sbt tn ca h haykhng ?

    p : Khng; nh thin nghip h c th th hng

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    ; y g y y j yhappiness before being drawn into rebirth by their

    unexhausted tanha. To escape rebirth, one must tread theNoble Eight-fold Path.

    224. Q. What is the spiritual status of woman amongBuddhist ?

    A. According to our religion they are on a footing ofperfect equality with men. Woman, says the Buddha, in theChullavedalla Sutta, may attain the highest path of holinessthat is open to man Arhatship.

    225. Q. What does a modern critic say about the effect ofBuddhism on woman ?

    A. That It has done more for the happiness andenfranchisement of woman than any other creed (Sir LepelGriffin).

    226. Q. What did the Buddha teach about caste ?A. That one does not become of any caste, whether

    Pariah, the lowest, or Brahmana the highest, by birth, but bydeeds. By deeds, said He, One becomes an outcast, bydeeds one becomes a Brahmana (See Vasala Sutta).

    227.Q. Tell me a story to illustrate this ?

    p g; g p gphc bo trong mt thi gian hn nh trc khi b ti sinh

    do lng i dc (tanh) v tn ca h. Mun thot khi lunhi, hnh gi phi thc hnh theo Bt Chnh o.

    224.Hi :a v tinh thn ca ngii trong Pht gio nhthno ?

    p: Theo Pht gio, h chim mt a v hon tonbnh ng vi nam gii. Trong kinh Chun-la-v-an-la(Chullavedalla), c Pht dy rng: Ph n c th chngc qu v Thnh cao nht c dnh cho nam gii - A LaHn.

    225. Hi :Nh ph bnh hin i by t thno vnhhng ca Pht gio i vi ph n?

    p : ng Lepel Griffin bo rng: Pht gio mang lihnh phc v s gii phng cho n gii hn bt c tn giono khc.

    226.Hi :c Pht dy nhthno vgiai cp?p : c Pht dy rng khng phi do s sanh

    trng, con ngi tr thnh hng cng inh thp nht Pariah(Harijan) hay giai cp cao qu nht B la mn (Brahmana),m l bi hnh ng. Do hnh ng, Ngi dy ngi nyl cng inh; do hnh ng, ngi kia l B la mn (xemKinh Vasala).

    227. Hi :Hy k cho ti mt cu chuyn chng minhiu ny.

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    252.Q. Is it easily grasped ?A. It is most difficult; in fact, the full meaning and

    extent of it is beyond the capacity of such as are not perfectlydeveloped.

    252. Hi :Gio php ny c ddng hiu bit khng ?p: l gio l kh hiu nht; tht vy, ngha rt

    ro v thm huyn ca n vt ngoi tr nng(con ngi) nni kh c th thu trit hon ton.

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    253. Q. What said the great commentator Buddha Ghoshaabout it ?A. That even he was as helpless in this vast ocean of

    thought as one who is drifting on the ocean of waters.

    254. Q. Then why should the Buddha say, in theParinibbna Sutta, that he has no such thing as the closed

    first of a teacher, who keeps something back. If his wholeteaching was open to every ones comprehension why should

    so great and learned a man as Buddha Ghosha declare it sohard to understand ?

    A. The Buddha evidently meant that he taughteverything freely; but equally certain is it that the real basis ofthe Dharma can only be understood by him who has perfectedhis powers of comprehension. It is, therefore,incomprehensible to common, unenlightened persons.

    255.Q.How does the teaching of the Buddha support thisview ?

    A. The Buddha looked into the heart of each person,

    and preached to suit the individual temperament and spiritualdevelopment of the hearer.

    253. Hi :Nh i lun sPht Minh (Buddha Ghosha) byt thno vgio php cac Pht?p : Ngi cm thy bvgia i dng ca nn t

    tng (cao siu) ny nh ngi ang tri git trn bin c.

    254.Hi : Nhng ti sao c Pht li dy trong kinh BtNit Bn (Parinibbana Sutta) rng Ngi khng lm iu y,

    nhv thy nm cht bn tay giu mt vt g. Nu ton b gio l ca c Pht c khai m cho tri kin ca mingi, ti sao nh lun s ti c v thng bc nh Ngi

    Pht Minh li bo rng rt kh thu hiu Pht gio ?p :c Pht r rng mun ni rng Ngi ch dy

    ht mi iu, nhng nn tng tht s ca Pht Php chc chnl chc Pht l ng c y kh nng tr tu mi c ththu trit. Cho nn Pht Gio vi nhng ngi thng chagic ng, h khng th hiu bit c.

    255.Hi : Gio l c Pht tn ng kin ny nh thno ?

    p : c Pht quan st tm nim mi ngi

    thuyt php cho thch hp vi cn cca tng c nhn v spht trin tinh thn ca ngi nghe php.

    75

    PART III

    THE SANGHA

    PHN III

    TNG GI (SANGHA)

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    256. Q.How do Buddhist Bhikkhus differ from the priests ofother religions ?A. In other religions the priests claim to be intercessors

    between men and God, to help to obtain pardon of sins; theBuddhist Bhikkhus do not acknowledge or expect anythingfrom a divine power.

    257. Q. But why then was it worth while to create thisOrder, or Brotherhood, or Society, apart from the whole bodyof the people, if they were not to do what other religiousorders do ?

    A. The object in view was to cause the most virtuous,intelligent, unselfish and spiritually-minded persons to

    withdraw from the social surroundings where their sensualand other selfish desires were naturally strengthened, devotetheir lives to the acquisition of the highest wisdom, and fitthemselves to teach and guide others out of the pleasant pathleading towards misery, into the harder path that leads to truehappiness and final liberation.

    258. Q.Besides the Eight, what two additional observancesare obligatory upon the Bhikkhus ?

    A. I observe the precept to abstain from dancing,singing and unbecoming shows.

    I observe the precept to abstain from receiving gold

    or silver.

    256.Hi :T kheo (Bhikkhus) Pht gio khc vi tu scctn gio khc im no ?p: Tu s ca nhng tn gio khc c xem nh

    nhn vt trung gian gia tn v Thng , hu gipchuc ti cho con ngi; cn cc tu sPht gio khng thanhn hoc mong i bt ciu g ni Thn quyn.

    257. Hi :Nh vy ti sao li cn phi thnh lp Tngon, Gio hi hay Hi on tch ri khi qun chng, nuchTng khng thc hin iu m gio hi cc tn gio khclm ?

    p : Mc ch thy r nhm o to nhng bc thyc , tr tu, v tha v c o tm nht, xa la cuc sng th

    gian, ni m tm dc vng v ch k ca ch Tng c phtsanh mnh m; hu dnh ht cuc i ca h cho vic tuhc, nhm t ti tr tu cao siu nht; cng nh dn thn vocng tc dy d, hng dn mi ngi khc thot khi cucsng dc lc mang li khau; hu i theo con ng khckh tu hnh dn n hnh phc chn tht v gii thot cuicng.

    258. Hi :Ngoi tm gii, thy T Kheo phi gi thm haigii na l nhng gii g ?

    p : Ti nguyn gi gi khng ma ht v i xemma ht.

    Ti nguyn gi gii khng nhn ct vng bc.

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    The whole Dasa, or Bhikkhu Sila or Ten Precepts, are binding on all Bhikkhus and Samaneras, or novices, butoptional with lay devotees.

    TheAtthanga Sila are for those who aspire to higher stagesbeyond the heavenly regions(1), aspirants after Nirvana.

    Tt c Th p Gii (Dasa Sila) hay mi gii ny, cc TKheo v Sa Di (Samaneras) bt buc phi gi, nhng khngp dng i vi hng c sti gia.

    Bt Quan Trai gii (Atthanga Sila) dnh cho nhng Phtt mong c sanh ln cc cnh gii cao hn ci ch Thin

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    y y g p

    259. Q. Are there separate Rules and Precepts for theguidance and discipline of the Order ?

    A. Yes: there are 250, but all come under the following

    four heads:Principal Disciplinary Rules (Patimokkha Samvara

    Sila)Observances for the repression of the senses (Indriya

    Samvara Sila).Regulations for justly procuring and using food, diet.

    robes, etc., (Paccaya Sannissita Sila).Directions for leading an unblemished life (Ajivapari

    Suddha Sila).

    260. Q.Enumerate some crimes and offences that Bhikkhusare particularly prohibited from committing?

    A. Real Bhikkhus abstain from:

    --------------------------(1)The Upsaka and Upsika observes these on the Buddhist Uposatha(Sabbath) days (in Skr. Upavasa). They are the 8th, 14th and 15th days ofeach half lunar month.

    g g

    (Tri)(1)

    v nhng ngi c mong chng c Nit Bn(Nirvana).

    259. Hi :Phi chng c nhng php tc v gii u ringbit dnh cho shng dn v k lut ca on thTng gi(Order) ?

    p : ng vy; c 250 gii, nhng tt c u bao

    gm trong 4 phn chnh di y:Nhng gii lut trng yu.

    Nhng gii lut nhm ch ng cc cn (Indriyas).

    Cc gii lut ni v s th lnh v dng thc n, sking cn ung, y phc v.v

    Cc gii lut nhm hng dn n cuc sng thanhtnh.

    260.Hi :Hy kmt vi trng ti v gii iu m cc TKheo c bit b ngn cm khngc vi phm.

    p : Ch T Kheo chn chnh khng c phm cc

    gii:

    ---------------------(1)u B Tc (Upsaka) v u B Di (Upsika) th tr cc gii ny vonhng ngy trai k (n chay) ca Pht gio (Uposatha). l cc ngymng 8, 14, v Rm (15) ca mi na thng m lch.

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    275.Q.And when can that development be reached ?A. When one, by the practice of Jnna, comes to its

    fourth stage of unfolding.

    276. Q.Are we to believe that in the final stage of Jnna,

    275. Hi :Lc no c tht ti trnh y ?p : Khi hnh gi nhp thin nh, c t thin.

    276. Hi :Phi chng chng ta tin rng vo giai on cui

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    and in the condition called Samdhi, the mind is a blank andthought is arrested ?

    A. Quite the contrary. It is then that onesconsciousness is most intensely active, and ones power togain knowledge correspondingly vast.

    277. Q.Try to give me a simile ?A. In the ordinary waking state ones view of

    knowledge is as limited as the sight of a man who walks on aroad between high hills; in the higher consciousness ofJnnaand Samdhi it is like the sight of the eagle poised in theupper sky and overlooking a whole country.

    278.Q.What do our books say about the Buddhas use ofthis faculty?

    A. They tell us that it was his custom, every morning,to glance over the world and, by his divine (clairvoyant) sight,

    see where there were persons ready to receive the truth. Hewould then contrive, if possible, that it should reach them.When persons visited him he would look into their minds,read their secret motives, and then preach to them accordingto their needs.

    cng ca Tr tu (Jnna), v trong trng thi gi l nh(Samadhi), tm (chng ta) trng rng v tng b gili.

    p : Hon ton tri hn. Vo lc tm thc cahnh gi hot ng mnh nht v nng lc ca hnh gitti s gic ng cng kt qu nhiu hn.

    277.Hi :Hy cho ti mt v d.p : Trong tnh trng tnh thc thng thng, hunhn ca hnh gi b gii hn nh s thy bit ca mt ngiang i trn con ng gia nhng ngn i cao; nhng khitm thc t ti trnh cao hn ca Tr Tu (Jnna) vThin nh (Samadhi); hu lc, nh s thy ca chim i

    bng bay llng trn bu tri xanh, v nhn xung thy khpton vng.

    278.Hi :Kinh in ca chng ta ni thno vvic dnghu lc ny cac Pht ?

    p : Trong kinh chp rng thng l, vo mi buisng, c Pht dng thin nhn, qun st th gian xem u c

    ngi sn sng gic ng chn l; c Pht lin sp t, nuc th, Ngi n thm h. Vi nhng ngi ti yt kin cPht, Ngi qun st tm nim, thu r cn c, v ha chocc thin tn ny, ty theo phc duyn ca h.

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    PART IV

    THE RISE AND SPREAD OF BUDDHISM

    PHN IV

    SPHT TRIN V BNH TRNG CAPHT GIO

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    279. Q. As regards the number of its followers, how doesBuddhism at this date compare with the other chief religions?

    A. The followers of the Buddha Dharma outnumberthose of every other religion.

    280. Q. What is the estimated number ?A. About five hundred millions (5,000 lakhs or 500

    crores): this is five-thirteenths, or not quite half, of theestimated population of the globe.

    281. Q. Have many great battles been fought and many

    countries conquered; has much human blood been split tospread the Buddha Dharma ?A. History does not record one of those cruelties and

    crimes as having been committed to propagate our religion.So far as we know, it has not caused the spilling of a drop of

    blood. (See foot-note ante-Professor Kolbs testimony.)

    282.Q. What, them, is the secret of its wonderful spread ?

    A. It can be nothing else than its intrinsic excellence: itsself-evident basis of truth, its sublime moral teaching, and itssufficiency for all human needs.

    279. Hi: Xt vtng stn , so snh vi cc tn gio lnkhc, Pht gio ngy nay nhthno ?

    p : S ngi theo Pht gio ng hn tn ca cctn gio khc.

    280. Hi :Phng chngc bao nhiu ?p : Khong 500 triu (5.000 lakhs hoc 500 crores

    ca n ): 5 phn 13 hay cha bng na tng dn s tonth gii.

    281. Hi : C nhng cuc i chin nh nhau, cc quc

    gia b xm lng, v nhiu mu o chy v s truyn bPht gio hay khng ?p : Khng thy lch s ghi chp mt hnh ng tn

    bo v ti c no xy ra v s truyn b Pht gio. n nay,nh ti c bit, Pht gio cha lm mt git mu no(xem ch thch trc - bng chng ca gio s Kolb).

    282.Hi :Vy th, b quyt vspht trin mu nhim caPht gio l u ?

    p : C th khng g khc hn l do bn cht vthng ca gio php c Pht: nn tng chn l hin nhinca n, li dy o c cao siu v s phong ph ca Phtgio i vi mi nhu cu ca nhn loi.

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    289. Q. To whom, more than to any other person, is theworld indebted for the permanent establishment of Buddhasreligion?

    A. To the Emperor Ashoka, surnamed the Great,sometimes Piyadsi, sometimes Dharmshoka. He was the

    289.Hi :Trong snghip kin lp lu di cho Pht Php,i vi ai, hn bt cnhn vt no khc m thgii mangn ?

    p :i vi vua A Dc (Ashoka), hiu i Vng,cng gi l Thin Kin Vng (Piyadsi) hay Php A Dc

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    son of Bindusara, King of Magadha, and grandson ofChandragupta, who drove the Greeks out of India.

    290. Q.When did he reign ?A. In the third century B.C., about two centuries after

    the Buddhas time. Historians disagree as to his exact date,but not very greatly.

    291.Q.What made him great ?A. He was the most powerful monarch in Indian

    history, as warrior and as statesman; but his noblestcharacteristics were his love of truth and justice, tolerance ofreligious differences, equity of government, kindness to thesick, to the poor, and to animal. His name is revered fromSiberia to Ceylon.

    292. Q.Was he born a Buddhist ?A. No, he was converted in the tenth year after his

    anointment as King, by Nigrodha Samanera, an Arhat.

    (Dharmshoka). A Dc l con ca Tn u Sa La(Bindusra), vua x Ma Kit (Magadha), v chu ni caChin La Cp a(Chandragupta), v vua nh uiqun Hy Lp ra khi n .

    290. Hi :A Dc Vng ln ngi nm no ?p : Vo th k th ba trc Ty Lch, khong hai th

    k sau thi i ca c Pht. Cc s gia bt ng kin,nhng khng qu nhiu, xem nh l ngy chnh xc tc vca c vua.

    291. Hi :iu g lm vua A Dc trnn vi ?p : Nh vua l mt quc vng hng mnh nht

    trong lch sn , nh mt chin sv chnh khch; songnhng c tnh cao thng nht ca c vua l lng yu stht v cng bnh, khoan dung vi mi khc bit tn gio,khng thin vi vi nhn vin chnh quyn; chm sc cc

    bnh nhn, nhng ngi ngho kh v th vt. Danh ting canh vua c tn vinh t Xi-b-ri-a (Siberia) n Tch Lan(Ceylon).

    292. Hi :Phi chng vua A Dc bm sinh l mt Pht t?p : Khng. c vua quy y theo Pht gio vi i

    c Ni Cu Lut (Nigrodha), mt v A La Hn (Arhat) vonm th mi, sau khi nh vua lm lng quang.

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    and the Sarattha Dipani Two Pali books to have been sentto the five divisions of China.

    307. Q.Whence and when did it reach Korea ?

    A F Chi i h A D 372

    Dipani ghi chp c nm v Tng c vua A Dc phisang nm vng t ca Trung Hoa.

    307. Hi :Pht gio du nhpi Hn (Korea) tu v khino ?

    T T H 372 T L h

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    A. From China, in the year A.D.372.308.Q.Whence and when did it reach Japan ?

    A. From Korea, in A.D. 552.

    309. Q. Whence and when did it reach Cochin, China

    Formosa, Java, Mongolia, Yorkand, Balk, Bokhara,Afghanistan and other Central Asian countries ?

    A. Apparently in the fourth and fifth centuries A.D.

    310. Q.From Ceylon, whither and when did it spread ?

    A. To Burma, in A.D. 450, and thence gradually intoArakan, Kamboja and Pegu. In the seventh century (A.D.638)it spread to Siam, where it is now, as it has been always sincethen, the State religion.

    311.Q.From Kashmir, where else did it spread besides toChina ?A. To Nepal and Tibet.

    312. Q. Why is it that Buddhism, which was once the prevailing religion throughout India, now almost extinctthere?

    p : T Trung Hoa, vo nm 372 Ty Lch.308. Hi : Tu v lc no Pht gio du nh p Nht

    Bn ?p : Ti Hn, vo nm 552 sau Ty Lch.

    309. Hi : o Pht c truyn vo Cochin China,

    Formosa (i Loan), Java (Nam Dng), Mongolia (Mngc ), Yorkand, Balk, Bokhara, Afghanistan (A Ph Hn) vcc quc gia min Trung Chu, tu v lc no?

    p : Vo khong th k th 4 v th 5 sau Ty Lch.

    310. Hi : TTch Lan Pht gio c truyn ti u vvo lc no ?

    p :n Min in (Burma) vo nm 450 Ty Lchv sau , ti Arakan (cao nguyn Min), Kamboja (A PhHn) v Pegu (Min in). Vo th k th 7 (nm 638 Tylch), Pht gio truyn vo Thi Lan (Siam), ni m t nnay, Pht gio lun lun l quc gio.

    311.Hi :TKashmir (n ), ngoi Trung Hoa ra, Phtgio truyn n u ?p : Vo Nepal v Ty Tng (Tibet).

    312.Hi :Ti sao Pht gio mt thi l tn gio thnhhnh khpn, ngy nay gn nhsuy i ti ?

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    324. Q. What is believed to be the explanation of this ?

    A. Their appeals to the natural instinct of justice, andtheir evident reasonableness.

    324. Hi :H tin tngiu g khi gio l Nghip Bo vLun Hi c gii thch?

    p : H tin vo nguyn tc t nhin ca s cng bngv chn l r rng ca cc gio thuyt .

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    to see things as they exist around us and try to make thembetter, not to waste time in intellectual speculations.

    333. Q. What do Buddhists say is the reason for the

    occasional birth of very good and wise children of badd h f b d f d ?

    ta l nn nhn thc r cnh sng (kh au) ang hin huxung quanh chng ta v c gng (tu tp) ci thin cho cuci c ton ho hn, ch khng nn mt th gi vonhng l lun siu hnh.

    333.Hi :Pht tgii p thno vtrng hp cha m c

    c, sinh ra con ci hin lnh, thng minh; v thun lngl h h ?

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    occasional bi th of ve y good and wise child en of badparents, and that of very bad ones of good parents ?

    A. It is because of the respective Karmas of childrenand parents; each may have deserved that such unusualrelationships should be formed in the present birth.

    334. Q. Is anything said about the body of the Buddhagiving out a bright light ?

    A. Yes, there was a divine radiance sent forth fromwithin by the power of his holiness.

    335.Q. What is it called in Pali ?A. Buddharansi, the Buddha rays.

    336. Q.How many colours could be seen in it ?

    A. Six, linked in pairs.

    337. Q.Their names ?A. Nila, Pita, Lohita, Avadata, Mangestd, Prabhasvra.

    338. Q.Did other persons emit such shining light ?

    A. Yes, all Arhats did and, in fact, the light shinesstronger and brighter in proportion to the spiritualdevelopment of the person.

    c, sinh a con ci hi n lnh, thng minh; v thu n l ngli gp phi cnh con ci xu xa ?

    p : Chnh v do Nghip Bo (Karmas) ca ring conci v cha m, mi ngi c th xng ng nhn chu s linhc bit nh th, nn phi gp nhau trong i ny.

    334. Hi :Phi chng Pht t tin rng thn th ca cPht phng ho quang ?

    p :ng vy, t bn trong kim thn c Pht cnh sng huyn diu c phng ra bi thn lc thnh thinca Ngi.

    335. Hi :Danh tPali gi l g ?p : Ho quang ca c Pht (Buddharansi).

    336. Hi :Trong ho quang, ngi ta c ththy bao nhiumu ?

    p : Su mu, tng cp ni lin nhau.

    337. Hi :Hy ktn cc mu .p : Xanh (Nila), vng (Pita), (Lohita), trng

    (Avadata), da cam, v mu tng hp ca nm mu va k.338. Hi :Nhng ngi khc c th phng ra nh ho

    quang nhthc khng ?p :c, tt c cc v A La Hn u c ho quang

    v thc vy, ngi c nh lc cng cao th nh ho quangca h pht ra cng mnh, cng sng.

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    339.Q.Where do we see these colours represented ?A. In all vihras where there are painted images of the

    Buddha. They are also seen in the stripes of the BuddhistFlag, first made in Ceylon but now widely adoptedthroughout Buddhist countries.

    339. Hi :Cc mu tng trng ny chng ta thy u ?p : Nhng tng Pht t sn mu tn tr th cc

    cha. Nhng mu ho quang ny, chng cng c thy nicc sc cPht gio dng ln u tin ti Tch Lan, v hinnay c rng ri chp nhn khp nhng quc gia Phtgio.

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    340. Q.In which discourse does the Buddha himself speak ofthis shining about him ?

    A. In the Mah-Parinibbana Sutto, Ananda hisfavourite disciple, noticing the great splendour which camefrom his Masters body, the Buddha said that on two

    occasions this extraordinary shining occurs, (a) just after aTathgata gains the supreme insight, and (b) on the nightwhen he passes finally away.

    341. Q. Where do we read of this great brightness beingemitted from the body of another Buddha?

    A. In the story of Sumedha and Dipankara Buddha,found in the Nidanakath of theJtaka book, or story of thereincarnations of the Bodhasattva Siddhartha Gautama.

    342. Q.How is it described ?A. As a halo of a fathoms depth.

    343. Q.What do the Hindus call it ?

    340. Hi :Trong bi kinh no c Pht ni n nh hoquang ny ca Ngi?

    p : Trong kinh i Bt Nit Bn (MahparinibbnaSutt), Ngi A Nan, t thn tn ca c Pht, nhn thynh sng rc r pht sinh t kim thn ca c Bn S; v

    c Pht dy rng c hai trng hp m nh ho quang nyxut hin, l: a) ngay khi c Nh Lai (Tathagata) vachng o v thng; v b) trong m cui cng Ngi nhp

    Nit Bn.

    341. Hi : Chng ta c thy u nh ho quang nyc chiu ra tkim thn ca mt v Pht khc ?

    p : Trong cu chuyn vc B Tt Sumedha, vPht Nhin ng (Dipankara), ghi chp t p Nhn DuynTruyn (Nidnakatha) trong kinh Bn Sanh (Jataka), haychuyn tin thn ca c B Tt Tt t a C m(Bodhisattva Siddhartha Gautama).

    342. Hi :Ho quang ny c din t nhthno ?p : Nh vng nh sng c chiu su ca mt fathom

    (n vo b su ca nc khong 6 feet).

    343.Hi :Tn n gio (Hindus) gi nh sng lg?

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    349.Q.What historical incident supports the modern theoryof hypnotic suggestion ?

    A. That of Chullapanthaka, as told in the PaliCommentary on theDhammapada, etc.

    350. Q.Give me the facts.

    349. Hi :Skin lch sno tn ng l thuyt hin iv kin thi min ?

    p : Cu chuyn v T Kheo Chullapanthaka ghi chptrong tp ch gii ting Pali v kinh Php C (Dhammapada)v.v

    350.Hi :Hy cho ti bng chng c th.

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    A. He was a bhikkhu who became an Arhat. On thatvery day the Buddha sent a messenger to call him. When theman reach the Vihra, he saw three hundred bhikkhus in onegroup, each exactly like the others in every respect. On hisasking which was Chullapanthaka, every one of the three

    hundred figures replied: I am Chullapanthaka.

    351. Q.What did the messenger do ?A. In his confusion he returned and reported to the

    Buddha.

    352. Q.What did the Buddha then tell him?A. To return to the vihra and, if the same thing

    happened, to catch by the arm thefirstfigure who said he wasChullapanthaka and lead him to him. The Buddha knew thatnew Arhat would make this display of his acquired power toimpress illusionary pictures of himself upon the messenger.

    353.Q.What is this power of illusion called in Pali ?A. Manomaya Iddhi.

    p : l mt T Kheo chng qu A La Hn.Ngy n, c Pht phi mt s gin thm T Kheo trn.Khi v ny va n cha (Vihra), ng ta thy mt nhm gm300 T Kheo, tt c u ging y ht nhau v mi phngdin. V s gi lin hi ai l T Kheo Chullapanthaka; mi

    ngi trong s 300 khun mt ging nhau u tr li: Ti lChullapanthaka.

    351.Hi :Ri v sgi lm sao ?p : Trong tnh trng mh nhm ln , ng ta nh

    trv bch li vi c Pht.

    352. Hi :c Pht dy v sgi nhthno?p :c Pht bo v ny tr li cha , v dn nu

    s vic xy ra ging nh trc th nm tay ngi no u tinni ng ta l Chullapanthaka, v hung dn ngi v cho

    Ngi. c Pht bit rng v tn A La Hn mun ph trngthn lc chng c ca mnh bng cch gy n tng nhnghnh nh o gic v ng ta trc v s gi.

    353. Hi :Nng lc to o gic ny danh tPali gi l g ?p : Manomaya Iddhi (Tm to thn thng).

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    never lost, and it is by this knowledge only that the absolutecondition of Nirvna is known by the Arhat. And thisknowledge can be got by following the noble life of theEightfold Path.

    370. Q.Had Buddha the Lokottara Iddhi ?

    A Yes in perfection

    (Lokottara) tr, khi c, cng khng bao gimt, v chcn c tr tuy, v A La Hn c tht ti cnh gii tuyti ca Nit Bn (Nirvana); v tr tu ny c th thnh tunhthc hnh theo cuc sng cao siu ca Bt Chnh o.

    370. Hi :c Pht c xut th thn thng (LokottaraIddhi) hay khng ?

    p : C mt cch ton ho

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    A. Yes, in perfection.

    371.Q.And his disciples also had it ?A. Yes, some but not all equally; the capacity for

    acquiring these occult powers varies with the individual.

    372.Q.Give examples ?A. Of all the disciples of the Buddha, Mogallana was

    possessed of the most extraordinary powers for making phenonmena, while Ananda could develop none during thetwenty-five years in which he was the personal and intimate

    disciple of the Buddha himself. Later he did, as the Buddhahad foretold he would.

    373. Q. Does a man acquire these powers suddenly orgradually ?

    ---------------------- passions (Klesa), in other words, an Arhat. The powers may be

    developed by a bad man and used for doing evil things, but their activityis but brief, the revellious passions again dominate the sorcerer, and hebecomes at last their victim.

    p : C, mt cch ton ho.

    371. Hi :Cc tca Ngi cng c thn thng ny ?p : C mt vi v, ch khng phi tt cu c;

    trnh t ti nhng thn thng ny khc bit ty theo mi

    c nhn.

    372. Hi :Hy cho v d.p : Trong tt c t ca c Pht, Ngi Mc Kin

    Lin (Moggallana) l v chng c thn thng bc nht, cth to nn nhiu php l, cn c A Nan (Ananda) li khngc c thn thng g c, mc d trong sut 25 nm lin,

    Ngi l t thn cn v tm phc ca c Pht. Sau ny, ynh li c Pht dy, ngi A Nan cng c c thnthng.

    373. Hi : Thnh lnh hay t t ngi ta t c nhngthn thng ny ?

    ----------------------khc l v A La Hn (Arhat). Ngi xu cng c th luyn c thn

    thng, v dng lm cc vic bt chnh, nhng chng ch hot ngc trong thi gian ngn ngi; lng dc vng bt tr li khng ch vthy php, v sau cng, ng ta tr thnh nn nhn ca cc php thnthng .

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    beings having relations with mankind ?

    A. They believe that there are such beings who inhabitworlds or spheres of their own. The Buddhist doctrine isthat, by interior self-development and conquest over his basermature, the Arhat becomes superior to even the mostformidable of the devas, and may subject and control thelower orders.

    chng sanh siu phm khng trng thy, c nhng lin h viloi ngi ?

    p : Pht t tin tng c hng ch Thin sng ccth gii hay khu vc ring ca h. Pht gio dy rng do s

    pht trin tu hnh ni tm v ch ngc c tnh ni hnhgi, v A La Hn trthnh siu vit hn c nhng thn linh cquyn php nht; cng nh c th chinh phc v ch ngc cc v thn thp hn.

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    lower orders.

    382.Q.How many kinds of devas are there?A. Three: Kmvachar (those who are still under the

    domination of the passions); Rpvchar (a higher class,

    which still retain an individual form): Arpvachar (thehighest in degree of purification, who are devoid of materialforms).

    383. Q.Should we fear any of them ?

    A. He who is pure and compassionate in heart and of acourageous mind need fear nothing: no man, god,brahmarakkhas, demon or deva, can injure him, but somehave power to torment the impure, as well as those who invitetheir approach.

    c cc v thn thp hn.

    382.Hi :C bao nhiu loi thn linh ?p : Ba hng: l thn linh ci Dc Gii hay

    Kmvcar (ch Thn ang cn di s ch ng ca dc

    vng); Sc gii hayRpvacar (loi Thn linh cao hn angcn duy tr hnh th vt cht); v V Sc Gii hayArpcavar (ch Thin t ti s thanh tnh cao nht khngcn mang hnh tng vt cht).

    383. Hi :Chng ta c nn sbt cThin Thn no trongba loi hay khng ?

    p : Ngi c tm thanh tnh, t bi v hng lc thkhng c ai, thn linh, ma qu hay Thin Thn no c th lmhi ky; nhng c vi loi thn linh c kh nng trng phthng ngi xu c cng nh nhng k gn gi thn cn vicc thn linh .

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    FUNDAMENTAL BUDDHISTIC BELIEFS

    I. Buddhists are taught to show the same tolerance,forbearance, and brotherly love to all men, without

    distinction; and an unswerving kindness towards the membersof the animal kingdom.

    NHNG IU TIN TNG CN BN CAPHT GIO

    I. Ngi Pht tc gio hun nn by tc tnh khoandung, nhn nhc v tnh thng huynh khng c s phn

    bit i vi tt c mi ngi, v lng t tm qung i i vicc phn t ca th gii loi vt.

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    II. The universe was evolved, not created; and itsfunctions according to law, not according to the caprice ofany God.

    III. The truths upon which Buddhism is founded arenatural. They have, we believe, been taught in successivekalpas, or world-periods, by certain illuminated beings calledBUDDHAS, the name BUDDHA meaning Enlightened.

    IV. The fourth Teacher in the present Kalpa was SakyaMuni, or Gautama Buddha, who was born in a Royal familyin India about 2,500 years ago. He is an historical personageand his name was Siddhartha Gautama.

    V. Sakya Muni taught that ignorance produces desire,

    unsatisfied desire is the cause of rebirth, and rebirth, the causeof sorrow. To get rid of sorrow therefore, it is necessary toescape rebirth; to escape rebirth, it necessary and toextinguish desire, and to extinguish, it is necessary to destroyignorance.

    II. V tr tin ha khng phi c sng to, v n hotng theo lut (thin nhin), khng do s quyt nh ca btcng Thng (God) no.

    III. Chn l m trn Pht Gio c xy dng, l tnhin. Chng ta tin rng gio php y c thuyt ging trongnhiu kip (Kalpas) lin tc, bi cc bc gic ng gi lch Pht; danh t Pht c ngha l gic ng.

    IV. V gio ch th t trong i Hin Ki p l Thch CaMu Ni (Sakya Muni) hay c Pht C m (GautamaBuddha), ngi sanh ra trong mt gia nh hong tc tin vo khong (hn) 2500 nm trc. Ngi l mt nhnvt lch s, v tn ca Ngi l Tt t Ma C m(Siddhartha Gautama).

    V. (c Pht) Thch Ca Mu Ni dy rng v minh pht

    sanh i dc, lng dc vng khng bit nhm chn l ngungc ca s lun hi; v lun hi, nguyn nhn gy ra phinno. Cho nn, mun khng cn phin no, cn phi gii thotlun hi, cn phi chm dt i dc; v mun chm dt i dc,cn phi dit tr v minh.

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    that no one should believe what is spoken by any sage,written in any book, or affirmed by tradition, unless it accordwith reason.

    Drafted as a common platform upon which all Buddhists canagree.

    H. S. Olcott, P.T.S

    cng dy rng mi ngi ng nn tin vo iu g do bt cthnh nhn no thuyt ging, ghi chp kinh sch, hay ctha nhn bi tp qun, tr khi iu ph hp vi l tr.

    Bn d tho c xem nh nn tng chung m tt c miTng Phi Pht Gio u c thng .

    H.S. Olcott

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    111

    THMC

    Cun sch Pht Gio Vn p (The Buddhist Catechism)

    son ra do s nghin cu ring (ca tc gi) ti Tch Lan(Ceylon), v c tham kho cc sch di y.

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    Vinaya Texs... Davids and Oldenberg.Buddhist Literature in China................. Beal.Catena of Buddhist Scriptures............... Beal.

    Buddhaghosas Parables....................... Rogers.Buddhist Birth Stories............................ Fausboll and Davids.Legend of Gautama................................ Bigandet.Chinese Buddhism.................................. Edkins.

    Kalpa Sutra and Nava Patva................. Stevenson.Buddha and Early Buddhism................. Lillie.Sutta Nipta........................................... Sir Coomaraswami.

    Ngananka............................................. Broyd.Kusa Jataka............................................ Steele.Buddhism................................................ Rhys-DavidsDhammapada......................................... Fausboll and Max

    Muller.Romantic History of Buddha.................. Beal.Udanavarga........................................... Rockhill.

    Twelve Japanese Buddhist Sects............ B, Nanjio.The Gospel of Buddha............................ Paul Carus.The Dharma........................................... Paul Carus.

    Ancient India.......................................... R. C. Dutt.The Sacred Books of the East ............ Max Mullers

    Edition.Encyclopadia Britannica.

    Hoa Sen

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