Motivated to Motivate
Presented by Brian KuiperPRTI 2010
Why this topic??Results of a MA class that opened my eyesOccasional lounge or IEP discussionsMotivation is an often misinterpreted problem in student learningMy fear that external rewards are over-used in education
What really is motivation?Student motivation naturally has to do with students desire to participate in the learning process. But it also concerns the reasons or goals that underlie their involvement or noninvolvement in academic activities. Linda Lumsden, Student Motivation to Learn
What really is motivation?Comes from withinFrom the inside outYou know what you want. Go after itSurround yourself with positive peopleBe your best
Importance of motivationWe know that if we match two people of identical ability and give them the identical opportunity and conditions to achieve, the motivated person will surpass the unmotivated person in performance and outcome.Raymond Wlodkowski, How Motivation Affects Instruction
Importance of motivationMotivated people are more likely to do things they think will help them learn.Motivation mediates learning and is a consequence of learning as well.People work longer and with more intensity when motivated.Raymond Wlodkowski, How Motivation Affects Instruction
Unmotivated preschoolers????Infants and young children are curious, explorers, and self motivated in many casesWhat happens to some students when they enter the school setting?What is wrong with US that we have a problem with motivation?
Lack of Motivation comes from:Misperception by teacher the lookDisinterest in subject matterFear of failureSatisfaction with past successesOther needs not being met (Sleep, hunger)Misunderstanding of assignmentLack of challengeRewards are not universally effectiveAND MANY more reasons
Historical Views of MotivationBehavior Reinforcement TheoryBehaviors can be maintained or increased in frequency if reinforced in some tangible way.Ideas promoted by Skinner and Thorndike in the 1940s 1960sOperant conditioning
Historical Views of MotivationCognitive motivation 1960sBeliefs and expectations motivateBelieve that hard work will be rewarded because it has been in the past.How students FEEL about the learning experience determines how they approach the next one.
Historical Views of MotivationExpectancy x Value theory late 1960sEffort and persistence increase when a task has some value attached to it.Students need to see that pride is more valuable than shame ORSee value in learning by recognizing where others have ended up who have gone before them.
Historical Views of MotivationNeeds Theories of the 1960sMaslow and others suggested that basic needs had to be met before students could be motivated to learn.Sleep, food, drink, safety, love, etc.Had some trouble with college students or others students who had all-night study periods prior to exams or big deadlines
Historical Views of MotivationIntrinsic motivation theoryhumans are inherently motivated to develop their intellectual and other competenciesmeasure motivation by observing peoples voluntary activities (Stipek, p11).Rewarded by outcomes and interest and enjoyment.Can be manipulated by increasing feelings of control, autonomy, or self-worth.
Historical Views of MotivationGoal theoryStudents have different goals than teachers they will try to meet their goalsTask of the teacher is to make childs goals and teachers goals the same.People engage in behaviors for different reasons so the important thing is to recognize effort, persistence, and observable behaviors.
Historical Views of MotivationIn summary Notice most of these theories seek to change observable behaviors through carrots and candiesDANGER of Rewards not accessible to all studentsMOST are looking for a short term fixNONE address the nature of the heart like we must as Christian teachersNOT the point of this presentation to do so exclusively but to investigate teaching strategies that will help motivate.
Typical student approachCan I succeed at this task?Do I want to do this task?Why am I doing this task?
All questions that are asked maybe not in that order but consciously or unconsciously asked by most students.
Why does SCHOOL stifle motivation?This assumes SCHOOL stifles motivation.School attendance is mandatorySchool curriculum is pre-chosenClass size is 25 or moreSocial dynamics of the classroom (Fear of Failure)Work is graded and performance evaluated
You teach children, not science or math.
Solutions to the Problem?
Solutions to the Problem?Motivation issues like all behavioral issues are matters of the heart.keep thy heartfor out of it are the issues of life (Prov. 4:23)train up a childthe whole bodyever learning and (by the grace of God) able to come to the truthstudy to show thyself approvedteach them diligently to thy childrenCannot just address the behavior must try to assess the reasons for the behavior.Read Tedd Tripp (Shepherding a Childs Heart, Instructing a Childs Heart)Go to Alex Kalsbeeks sectional!
Solutions to the Problem? (1)Motivation to learn theoryMost recent of the theoriesSome of the ideas of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation come out in this theory but it stands apart from theseStudents who are motivated to learn will find academic activities meaningful and worthwhile and try to get the intended learning benefits from them. (Brophy, p249)Not an affective response to the activity (intrinsic) and not because of a reward (extrinsic) but because of a cognitive process of trying to make sense of the activity.
Solutions to the Problem? (1)Motivation to learn theoryLearningInformation processingSense makingAcquiring knowledgeAdvancing skillsMaster the material
Solutions to the Problem? (1)Motivation to learn theoryHOW to do this?Interest inventoriesExit cardsConnections ChoicesEngage them in learningChallengesCreative evaluations
Solutions to the Problem? (2)TARGET evaluation (Ames, 1990)Task meaningful and challenging?Authority shared with students choices?Recognition appropriate private and public recognition of achievements?Groupings non-social and promote cooperation?Evaluations multiple criteria and methods?Time used well and enough for creativity to blossom?
Solutions to the Problem? (3)Differentiated InstructionDifferentiation is a classroom practice that looks eyeball to eyeball with the reality that kids differ, and the most effective teachers do whatever it takes to hook the whole range of kids on learning Tomlinson, C.A. (1999). The differentiated classroom: Responding to the needs of all learners.
Solutions to the Problem? (3)Why use DI?Brain research showsStudents learn best when the material is a little too hard for them (but achievable).Tasks too hard brain downshifts and protects.Tasks too easy brain goes to sleep.Student personalities or culture affect learning.Motivation increases when learning is meaningful.
Solutions to the Problem? (3)An example: TieringCan be used for assignments, centers, products, etc.Different levels of difficulty based on readinessOne works with facts, one analyzes data, one builds a product, one makes a chart or song or
Solutions to the Problem? (3)An Example: 3-5-8 MenusDesign 3 activities to teach or reinforce a particular ideaStudents must choose 2 of the activities for a total point value >7Works for individual math assignments or English assignments or social studies projectswith point values left to the discretion of the teacher
Solutions to the Problem? (4)We cannot compete with video games, WII, and the Internet. SO DONT TRY!!!We can however use technology as an effective teaching toolThis will help enhance interest and motivation
Yes, butwhat about rewards?One of the most subtle but powerful ways of helping students take ownership over their own work lies in how we treat students success. In the old model, when students did what they were supposed to do, we rewarded them. Rewards, we were taught, helped motivate students to do the right thing. The problem with this approach is that it puts the onus on the teacher, not the studentSoon students are doing what they are supposed to do anywaybecause they will get a reward. Rather than rewarding students for doing their job, we should help them celebrate a job well doneCelebrating their success leaves the onus where it should be, with the student.Robyn R. Jackson, Never Work Harder Than Your Students, p. 186
Yes, butwhat about rewards?When someone makes you do something, your goal is to get the other person to leave you alone. External control may lead to compliance, but it never inspires you to do your best. Bob Sullo, Activating the Desire to Learn, p. 1
Yes, butwhat about rewards?Research shows that:Rewards cause students to put minimal effort into achieving maximum rewardTend to cause students to seek less challenging activitiesProcess less deeplyShould be used with caution because they decrease intrinsic motivation.Some students will demand a reward in order to comply.Linda Lumsden, Student Motivation to Learn
May I use rewards??Random unpredictable useConsider how you word the conditionsIf you do your work, you may have extra recessWe have enough time to finish our work and get out for recess a little early.Dont both accomplish the same purpose while making the reward seem like a plan of the teacher rather than a reward?Dont devalue learning by over valuing the external reward!
THEY WILL GET THERE!!!!! Works cited available upon request!